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NOTE:
* Refer to the note at the end of this ebook for an explanation, by Peter
Reynders, of usage regarding 17th Century Dutch Surnames.

* * * * *

THE PART BORNE BY THE DUTCH IN THE DISCOVERY OF AUSTRALIA 1606-1765.

BY

J. E. HEERES, LL. D.
PROFESSOR AT THE DUTCH COLONIAL INSTITUTE DELFT

* * *

PUBLISHED BY THE ROYAL DUTCH GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY
IN COMMEMORATION OF THE XXVth ANNIVERSARY OF ITS FOUNDATION

LONDON
LUZAC & CO, 46 GREAT RUSSELL STREET W. C.
1899

* * *

CONTENTS.

List of books, discussed or referred to in the work

List of Maps and Figures

Introduction

DOCUMENTS:
I. Dutch notions respecting the Southland in 1595
II. Notices of the south-coast of New Guinea in 1602
III. Voyage of the ship Duifken under command of Willem Jansz(oon) and
Jan Lodewijkszoon Rosingeyn to New Guinea. - Discovery of the
east-coast of the present Gulf of Carpentaria (1605-1606)
IV. Fresh expedition to New Guinea by the ship Duifken (1607)
V. Voyage of the ships Eendracht and Hoorn, commanded by Jacques Le
Maire and Willem Corneliszoon Schouten through the Pacific Ocean
and along the north-coast of New Guinea (1616)
VI. Project for the further discovery of the Southland - Nova
Guinea (1616)
VII. Voyage of de Eendracht under command of Dirk Hartogs(zoon).
Discovery of the West-coast of Australia in 1616: Dirk
Hartogs-island and -road, Land of the Eendracht or Eendrachtsland
(1616)
VIII. Voyage of the ship Zeewolf, from the Netherlands to India, under
the command of supercargo Pieter Dirkszoon and skipper Haevik
Claeszoon van Hillegom. - Further discovery of the West-coast of
Australia (1618)
IX. Voyage of the ship Mauritius from the Netherlands to India under
the command of supercargo Willem Jansz. or Janszoon and skipper
Lenaert Jacobsz(oon). Further discovery of the West-coast of
Australia. - Willems-rivier (1618)
X. Further discovery of the South-coast of New-Guinea by the ship
Het Wapen van Amsterdam? (1619?)
XI. Voyage of the ships Dordrecht and Amsterdam under commander
Frederik De Houtman, supercargo Jacob Dedel, and skipper Reyer
Janszoon van Buiksloot and Maarten Corneliszoon(?) from the
Netherlands to the East-Indies. - Further discovery of the
West-coast of Australia: Dedelsland and Houtman's Abrolhos (1619)
XII. Voyage of the ship Leeuwin from the Netherlands to Java. - Discovery
of the South-West coast of Australia. - Leeuwin's land (1622)
XIII. The Triall. (English discovery) - The ship Wapen van Hoorn touches
at the West-coast of Australia. - New projects for discovery made
by the supreme government at Batavia (1622)
XIV. Voyage of the ships Pera and Arnhem, under command of Jan
Carstenszoon or Carstensz., Dirk Meliszoon and Willem Joosten van
Colster or Van Coolsteerdt. - Further discovery of the South-West
coast of New Guinea. Discovery of the Gulf of Carpentaria (1623)
XV. Voyage of the ship Leiden, commanded by skipper Klaas Hermansz(oon)
from the Netherlands to Java. - Further discovery of the West-coast
of Australia (1623)
XVI. Discovery of the Tortelduif island (rock) (1624?)
XVII. Voyage of the ship Leijden, commanded by skipper Daniel Janssen
Cock, from the Netherlands to Java. Further discovery of the
West-coast of Australia (1626)
XVIII. Discovery of the South-West coast of Australia by the ship Het
Gulden Zeepaard, commanded by Pieter Nuijts, member of the Council
of India, and by skipper Francois Thijssen or Thijszoon (1627)
XIX. Voyage of the ships Galias, Utrecht and Texel, commanded by
Governor-General Jan Pieterszoon Coen. - Further discovery of the
West-coast of Australia (1627)
XX. Voyage of the ship Het Wapen van Hoorn, commanded by supercargo
J. Van Roosenbergh. - Further discovery of the West-coast of
Australia (1627)
XXI. Discovery of the North-West coast of Australia by the ship Vianen
(Viane, Viana), commanded by Gerrit Frederikszoon De Witt. - De
Witt's land (1628)
XXII. Discovery of Jacob Remessens-, Remens-, or Rommer-river, south of
Willems-river (before 1629)
XXIII. Shipwreck of the ship Batavia under commander Francois Pelsaert
on Houtmans Abrolhos. Further discovery of the West-coast of
Australia (1629)
XXIV. Further surveyings of the West-coast of Australia by the ship
Amsterdam under commander Wollebrand Geleynszoon De Jongh and
skipper Pieter Dircksz, on her voyage from the Netherlands to
the East Indies (1635)
XXV. New discoveries on the North-coast of Australia, by the ships
Klein-Amsterdam and Wesel, commanded by (Gerrit Thomaszoon Pool
and) Pieter Pieterszoon (1636)
XXVI. Discovery of Tasmania (Van Diemensland), New Zealand (Statenland),
islands of the Tonga- and Fiji-groups, etc. by the ships Heemskerk
and de Zeehaen, under the command of Abel Janszoon Tasman, Frans
Jacobszoon Visscher, Yde Tjerkszoon Holman or Holleman and
Gerrit Jansz(oon) (1642-1643)
XXVII. Further discovery of the Gulf of Carpentaria, the North and
North-West coasts of Australia by the Ships Limmen, Zeemeeuw
and de Bracq, under the command of Tasman, Visscher, Dirk
Corneliszoon Haen and Jasper Janszoon Koos (1644)
XXVIII. Exploratory voyage to the West-coast of Australia round by the
south of Java, by the ship Leeuwerik, commanded by Jan Janszoon
Zeeuw (1648)
XXIX. Shipwreck of the Gulden or Vergulden Draak on the West-coast of
Australia, 1656. - Attempts to rescue the survivors, 1656-1658.
- Further surveyings of the West-coast by the ship de Wakende
Boei, commanded by Samuel Volckerts(zoon), and by the ship
Emeloord, commanded by Aucke Pieterszoon Jonck, (1658)
XXX. The ship Elburg, commanded by Jacob Pieterszoon Peereboom,
touches at the South-West coast of Australia and at cape Leeuwin,
on her voyage from the Netherlands to Batavia (1658)
XXXI. Further discovery of the North-West-coast of Australia by the
ship de Vliegende Zwaan, commanded by Jan Van der Wall, on her
voyage from Ternate to Batavia in February 1678
XXXII. Further discovery of the West-coast of Australia by the ship
Geelvink, under the skipper-commander of the expedition, Willem De
Vlamingh, the ship Nijptang, under Gerrit Collaert, and the ship
het Wezeltje, commanded by Cornelis De Vlamingh (1696-1697)
XXXIII. Further discovery of the North-coast of Australia by the ships
Vossenbosch, commanded by Maarten Van Delft, de Waijer under
Andries Rooseboom, of Hamburg, and Nieuw-Holland or Nova-Hollandia,
commanded by Pieter Hendrikszoon, of Hamburg (1705)
XXXIV. Exploratory voyage by order of the West-India Company "to the
unknown part of the world, situated in the South Sea to westward
of America", by the ships Arend and the African Galley, commanded
by Mr. Jacob Roggeveen, Jan Koster, Cornelis Bouman and Roelof
Roosendaal (1721-1722)
XXXV. The ship Zeewijk, commanded by Jan Steijns, lost on the
Tortelduif rock (1727)
XXXVI. Exploratory voyage of the ships Rijder and Buis, commanded by
lieutenant Jan Etienne Gonzal and first mate Lavienne Lodewijk
Van Asschens, to the Gulf of Carpentaria (1756)
INDICES. (Persons, Ships, Localities)

* * * * *

LIST OF MAPS AND FIGURES.

* No. 1 Gedeelte der (Part of the) _Orbis terrae compendiosa describtio_
* No. 2 Gedeelte der (Part of the) _Exacta & accurata delineatio cum
orarum maritimarum tum etjam locorum terrestrium, quae in regjonibus
China...una cum omnium vicinarum insularum descriptjone ut sunt
Sumatra, Java utraque_
* No. 3 Zuidoostelijk gedeelte der Kaart (South-eastern part of the Map)
_Indiae Orientalis Nova descriptio_
* No. 4 Caert van (Chart of) 't Land van d'Eendracht Ao 1627 door HESSEL
GERRITSZ
* No. 5 Uitslaande Kaart van het Zuidland door HESSEL GERRITSZ (Folding
chart of the Southland).
* No. 6 Kaart van het Zuidland van (Alap of the Southland by) JOANNES
KEPPLER en PHILIPPUS ECKEBRECHT, 1630
* No. 7 Kaart van den opperstuurman AREND MARTENSZ. DE LEEUW, der
Zuidwestkust van Nieuw Guinea en der Oostkust van de Golf van Carpentaria
(Chart, made by the upper steersman Arend Martensz. De Leeuw, of the
Southwest coast of New-Guinea and the East-coast of the Gulf of
Carpentaria)
* No. 8 Kaart van (Chart of) Eendrachtsland, 1658
* No. 9 Kaart van (Chart of) Eendrachtsland, 1658
* No. 10 Kaart van (Chart of) Eendrachtsland, 1658
* No. 11 Kaart van de Noordzijde van 't Zuidland (Chart of the North side
of the Southland), 1678
* No. 12 Opschrift op den schotel, door Willem De Vlamingh op het
Zuidland achtergelaten (Inscription on the dish, left by Willem De
Vlamingh at the Southland), 1697.
* No. 13 Kaart van het Zuidland, bezeild door Willem De Vlamingh, in
1696-1697 door ISAAC DE GRAAFF (Chart of the South-land, made and
surveyed by Willem De Vlamingh in 1696-1697)
* No. 14 Uitslaande kaart van den Maleischen Archipel, de Noord- en
West-kusten van Australië door ISAAC DE GRAAFF (Folding chart of the
Malay Archipelago, the North- and West-coast of Australia) 1690-1714
* No. 15 Kaart van (Chart of) Hollandia Nova, nader ontdekt anno 1705
door (more exactly discovered by) de Vossenbosch, de Waijer en de Nova
Hollandia
* No. 16-17 Kaarten betreffende de schipbreuk der Zeewijk (Charts,
concerning the shipwreck of the Zeewijk) 1727.
* No. 18 Typus orbis terrarum uit GERARDI MERCATORIS Atlas...De
Novo...emendatus...studio JUDOCI HONDIJ, 1632.
* No. 19 Wereldkaartje uit het Journaal van de Nassausche Vloot (Little
map of the world from the Journal of the Nassau fleet), 1626

* * * * *

LIST OF BOOKS DISCUSSED OR REFERRED TO IN THE WORK.

* Aa (PIETER VAN DER), Nauwkeurige Versameling der gedenkwaardigste Zee-
en Landreysen na Oost- en West-Indiën, Mitsgaders andere Gewesten
(Leiden, 1707).
* S. d. B. Historie der Sevarambes...Twede druk. t'Amsterdam, By Willem
de Coup (enz.). 1701. Het begin ende voortgangh der Vereenighde
Nederlantsche Geoctroyeerde Oost-Indische Compagnie (II). Gedruckt
in 1646.
* BURNEY, Chronological history of the voyages and discoveries in the
South Sea, Deel III (London, Luke Hansard, 1813).
* Bandragen tot de taal- land- en volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indië,
nieuwe volgreeks, I (1856).
* A F. CALVERT, The Discovery of Australia. (London, Liverpool, 1893).
* G. COLLINGRIDGE, The discovery of Australia. (Sydney, Hayes, 1895).
* Remarkable Maps of the XVth, XVIth & XVIIth centuries. II. III. The
geography of Australia. Edited by C. H. COOTE (Amsterdam, Frederik
Muller, 1895).
* L. C. D. VAN DIJK. Mededeelingen uit het Oost-Indisch Archief. No. 1.
Twee togten naar de Golf van Carpentaria. (Amsterdam, Scheltema, 1859).
* LOUIS DE FREYCINET, Voyage autour du monde, entrepris par ordre du
roi, executé sur les corvettes de S. M. l'Uranie et la Physicienne,
pendant les années 1817, 1818, 1819, 1820. - Historique. (Paris, Pillet
ainé, 1825).
* J. F. GERHARD. Het leven van Mr. N. Cz. Witsen. I (Utrecht, Leeflang,
1881).
* J. E. HEERES, Bouwstoffen voor de geschiedenis der Nederlanders in den
Maleischen Archipel, III. ('s Gravenhage, Nijhoff, 1895).
* J. E. HEERES. Dagh-Register gehouden int Casteel Batavia Anno
1624-1629.
Uitgegeven onder toezicht van...('s Gravenhage, Nijhoff, 1896).
* Abel Janszoon Tasman's journal of his discovery of Van Diemens land
and New Zealand in 1642...to which are added Life and Labours of Abel
Janszoon Tasman by J. E. HEFRES...(Amsterdam, Frederik Muller, 1898).
* Iovrnael vande Nassausche Uloot...Onder 't beleyd vanden Admirael
JAQUES L'HEREMITE, ende Vice-Admirael Geen Huygen Schapenham, 1623-1626.
T'Amstelredam, By Hessel Gerritsz ende Jacob Pietersz Wachter. 't Jaer
1626.
* J. K. J. DE JONGE De opkomst van het Nederlandsch gezag in Oost-Indië,
1. ('s-Gravenhage, Amsterdam, MDCCCLXIV); IV. (MDCCCLXIX.)
* P. A. LEUPE. De reizen der Nederlanders naar het Zuidland of
Nieuw-Holland, in de 17c en 18c eeuw. (Amsterdam, Hulst van Keulen, 1868).
* LINSCHOTEN (JAN, HUYGEN VAN). Itinerario, Voyage ofte Schipvaert naer
Oost ofte Portugaels Indiën...'t Amstelredam by Cornelis Claesz. op 't
VVater, in 't Schriff-boeck, by de Oude Brugghe. Anno CICICXCVI.
* R. H. MAJOR. Early voyages to Terra Australis, now called Australia
(London, Hackluyt Society, MDCCCLIX).
* GERARDI MERCATORIS atlas sive Cosmographicae Meditationes de Fabrica
mundi et fabricati figura. De novo multis in locis emendatus novisque
tabulis auctus Studio IUDOCI HONDIJ. Amsterodami. Sumptibus Johannis
Cloppenburgij. Anno 1632.
* A. E. NORDENSKIÖLD. Facsimile-Atlas to the early history of
cartography. (Stockholm, MDCCCLXXXIX).
* A. E. NORDENSKIÖLD. Periplus. - Translated from the Swedish original by
F. A. Bather. (Stockholm, MDCCCLXXXXVII).
* PURCHAS his Pilgrimes Contayning a History of the World in Sea
voyages, and lande-Travells by Englishmen and others (HACKLUYTUS
POSTHUMUS).
* A. RAINAUD. Le Continent Austral. (Paris, Colin, 1893).
* Dagverhaal der ontdekkings-reis van Mr. JACOB ROGGEVEEN...in de jaren
1721 en 1722. Uitgegeven door het Zeeuwsch Genootschap der
Wetenschappen. - Te Middelburg, bij de gebroeders Abrahams. 1838.
* TIELE (P. A.) Mémoire bibliographique sur les journaux des navigateurs
Néerlandais. (Amsterdam, Frederik Muller, 1867).
* TIELE (P. A.), Nederlandsche bibliographic van land- en volkenkunde.
(Amsterdam, Frederik Muller, 1884).
* N. CZ. WITSEN. Noord- en Oost Tartarije. (1692, enz.)
* C. WYTFLIET. Descriptionis Ptolemaicae augmentum. (1597).

* * * * *

INTRODUCTION.

{Page i}

I.

OCCASION AND OBJECT OF THE PRESENT WORK.

In writing my biography of Tasman, forming part of Messrs. Frederik
Muller and Co.'s edition of the Journal of Tasman's celebrated voyage of
discovery of 1642-1643, I was time and again struck by the fact that the
part borne by the Netherlanders in the discovery of the continent of
Australia is very insufficiently known to the Dutch themselves, and
altogether misunderstood or even ignored abroad. Not only those who with
hypercritical eyes scrutinise, and with more or less scepticism as to its
value, analyse whatever evidence on this point is submitted to them, but
those others also who feel a profound and sympathetic interest in the
historical study of the remarkable voyages which the Netherlanders
undertook to the South-land, are almost invariably quite insufficiently
informed concerning them. This fact is constantly brought home to the
student who consults the more recent works published on the subject, and
who fondly hopes to get light from such authors as CALVERT, COLLINGRIDGE,
NORDENSKIOLD, RAINAUD and others. Such at least has time after time been
my own case. Is it wonderful, therefore, that, while I was engaged in
writing Tasman's life, the idea occurred to me of republishing the
documents relating to this subject, preserved in the State Archives at
the Hague - the repository of the archives of the famous General Dutch
Chartered East-India Company extending over two centuries (1602-1800) - and
in various other places? I was naturally led to lay before Messrs.
Frederik Muller and Co. the question, whether they would eventually
undertake such a publication, and I need hardly add that these
gentlemen, to whom the historical study of Dutch discovery has repeatedly
been so largely indebted, evinced great interest in the plan I submitted
to them.[*]

[* See my Life of Tasman, p. 103, note 10.]

Meanwhile the Managing Board of the Royal Geographical Society of the
Nether lands had resolved to publish a memorial volume on the occasion of
the Society's twenty-fifth anniversary. Among the plans discussed by the
Board was the idea of having the documents just referred to published at
the expense of the Society. The name of jubilee publication could with
complete justice be bestowed on a work having for its object once more to
throw the most decided and fullest possible light on achievements of our
forefathers in the 17th and 18th century, in a form that would appeal to
foreigners no less than to native readers. An act of homage to our
ancestors, therefore, a modest one certainly, but one inspired by the
same feeling which in 1892 led Italy and the Iberian Peninsula to
celebrate the memory of the discoverer of America, and in 1898 prompted
the Portuguese to do homage to the navigator who first showed the world
the sea-route to India.

{Page ii}

How imperfect and fragmentary even in our days is the information
generally available concerning the part borne by the Netherlanders in the
discovery of the fifth part of the world, may especially be seen from the
works of foreigners. This, I think, must in the first place, though not,
indeed, exclusively, be accounted for by the rarity of a working
acquaintance with the Dutch tongue among foreign students. On this
account the publication of the documents referred to would very
imperfectly attain the object in view, unless accompanied by a careful
translation of these pieces of evidence into one of the leading languages
of Europe; and it stands to reason that in the case of the discovery of
Australia the English language would naturally suggest itself as the most
fitting medium of information[*]. So much to account for the bilingual
character of the jubilee publication now offered to the reader.

[* The English translation is the work of Mr. C. Stoffel, of Nijmegen.]

Closely connected with this consideration is another circumstance which
has influenced the mode of treatment followed in the preparation of this
work. The defective acquaintance with the Dutch language of those who
have made the history of the discovery of Australia the object of serious
study, or even, in the case of some of them, their total ignorance of it,
certainly appears to me one, nay even the most momentous of the causes of
the incomplete knowledge of the subject we are discussing; but it cannot
possibly be considered the only cause, if we remember that part of the
documentary evidence proving the share of the Netherlanders in the
discovery of Australia has already been given to the world through the
medium of a leading European tongue.

In 1859 R. H. MAJOR brought out his well-known book _Early Voyages to
Terra Australis, now called Australia_, containing translations of some
of the archival pieces and of other documents pertaining to the subject.
And though, from P. A. LEUPE'S work, entitled _De Reizen der Nederlanders
naar het Juidland of Nzeuw-Holland in de 17e en 18e eeuw_, published in
1868, and from a book by L. C. D. Van Dijk, brought out in the same year
in which MAJOR'S work appeared, and entitled _Twee togten naar de golf
van Carpentaria_; though, I say, from these two books it became evident
that MAJOR'S work was far from complete, still it cannot be denied that
he had given a great deal, and what he had given, had in the English
translation been made accessible also to those to whom Dutch was an
unknown tongue. This circumstance could not but make itself felt in my
treatment of the subject, since it was quite needless to print once more
in their entirety various documents discussed by MAJOR. There was the
less need for such republication in cases which would admit of the
results of Dutch exploratory voyages being exhibited in the simplest and
most effective way by the reproduction of charts made in the course of
such voyages themselves: these charts sometimes speak more clearly to the
reader than the circumstantial journals which usually, though not always,
are of interest for our purpose only by specifying the route followed,
the longitudes and latitudes taken, and the points touched at by the
voyagers. These considerations have in some cases led me only to mention
certain documents, without printing them in full, and the circumstance
that my Tasman publication has been brought out in English, will
sufficiently account for the absence from this work of the journal of
Tasman's famous expedition of 1642/3.[*]

[* I would have the present work considered as forming one whole with my
Tasman publication and with the fascicule of _Remarkable Maps_, prepared
by me, containing the Nolpe-Dozy chart of 1652-3 (Cf. my Life of Tasman,
pp. 75 f). Together they furnish all the most important pieces of
evidence discovered up to now, for the share which the Netherlanders have
had in the discovery of Australia.]

{Page iii}

The documents, here either republished or printed for the first time, are
all of them preserved in the State Archives at the Hague[*], unless
otherwise indicated. They have been arranged under the heads of the
consecutive expeditions, which in their turn figure in chronological
order. This seemed to me the best way to enable readers to obtain a clear
view of the results of the exploratory voyages made along the coasts of
Australia by the Netherlanders of the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries.

[* My best thanks are due to Jhr. Th. Van Riemsdijk, LL. D., Principal
Keeper, and to Dr. T. H. Colenbrander, Assistant-Keeper, of the State
Archives of the Hague.]

For this and this only, was the object I had in view in selecting the
materials for the present work: once more, as completely and convincingly
as I could, to set forth the part borne by the Netherlanders in the
discovery of the fifth part of the world. I have not been actuated by any
desire to belittle the achievements of other nations in this field of
human activity. The memorial volume here presented to the reader aims at
nothing beyond once more laying before fellow-countrymen and foreigners
the _documentary evidence_ of Dutch achievement in this field; perhaps I
may add the wish that it may induce other nations to follow the example
here given as regards hitherto unpublished documents of similar nature.
Still, it would be idle to deny that it was with a feeling of national
pride that in the course of this investigation I was once more
strengthened in the conviction that even at this day no one can justly
gainsay MAJOR'S assertion on p. LXXX of his book, that "the first
authenticated discovery of any part of the great Southland" was made in
1606 by a Dutch schip the Duifken. All that is asserted regarding a
so-called previous discovery of Australia has no foundation beyond mere
surmise and conjecture. Before the voyage of the ship Duifken all is an
absolute blank.

II.

CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE DUTCH DISCOVERIES ON THE MAINLAND COAST OF
AUSTRALIA.

If one would distribute over chronological periods the voyages of
discovery, both accidental and of set purpose, made by the Netherlanders
on the mainland coast of Australia, it might be desirable so to adjust
these periods, that each of them was closed by the appearance in this
field of discovery and exploration, of ships belonging to other European
nations.

The first period, extending from 1595 to 1606, would in that case open
with the years 1595-6, when JAN HUYGEN VAN LINSCHOTEN, in his highly
remarkable book entitled _Itinerario_, imparted to his countrymen what he
knew about the Far East; and it would conclude with the discovery of
Torres Strait by the Spaniards in 1606, a few months after Willem Jansz.
in the ship Duifken had discovered the east-coast of the Gulf of
Carpentaria, the latter discovery forming the main interest of this
period.

The second period may be made to extend from 1606 to 1622, i.e. from the
appearance of the Spaniards on the extreme north-coast of the fifth part
of the world, to the year in which the English ship Trial was dashed to
pieces on a rock to westward of the west-coast of Australia; the
discovery of this west-coast by the Dutch in and after 1616, and of the
south-western extremity of the continent in 1622, constituting the main
facts of the period.

{Page iv}

We next come to the palmiest period of Dutch activity in the discovery of
Australia (1622-1688), terminating with the first exploratory voyage of
importance undertaken by the English, when in 1688 William Dampier
touched at the north-west coast of Australia. This period embraces the
very famous, at all events remarkable, voyages of Jan Carstensz (1623),


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