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Sheep.



Influence of
food on the
flavour of the
mutton.



Influence of
climate on
wooL



porting a great variety of climate. This is pro-
bably owing to their being able to adapt them-
selves by degrees to the circumstances in which
they are placed, rather than to any positive
indifference to the great diversities of climate
in which they are now found. The varieties
of sheep have, no doubt, arisen, in the first in-
stance, from peculiarities induced by differences
of soil, food, and climate. These having become
propagated by descent, now form our several
permanent varieties. Others have been created by
the arrangements of the different breeders who
have attended to this subject.

Every one acquainted with India knows the
great difference in flavour, of the ordinary grass-
fed and of the private grain-fed nmtton of that
country ; but it has been mentioned that the
grass-fed sheep of the Himalayas are equally
well -flavoured with those fed on grain in the
plains. Here the striking effects of different kinds
of food are very evident in the change produced
on a part which is less easily altered than the ex-
ternal covering, whether this be of hair or wool.

The effects of climate in altering the wool
may be seen in the differences of this covering
in the sheep of the plains, and in those of the Hi-
malayas, also between these and the sheep of Tibet.
The sheep of Southern India must evidently
have been introduced originally from the Moun-
tains, or from the countries to the north-west of
Hindoostan ; and yet the differences are as great



OF SHEEP IN INDIA. 163

as any where, between some of the hairy sheep c"fmSL^^
of Mysore, and the wool-bearing sheep of the "'°°'-
plains of north-western India. This can only
be ascribed to differences of pasture and of cli-
mate.

It is generally supposed that cold climates are
best suited to the production of fine wool ; but
in fact we find that fine wool countries, such as
Spain and Tibet, Australia, Van Diemen's Land,
and the Cape of Good Hope, rather have dry cli- Dry cUmate

. with warm

mates, with a warm summer and a cold winter, summer and
The culture in Germany is so peculiar, consisting preferable for
in great care and confinement of the sheep, that glie woou" *
it cannot be adduced as militating against, or as
favouring this view. Mr. Blacklock, in his ad-
mirable little '* Treatise on Sheep" has said, that
sheep, though capable of thriving in a great
variety of climates, seem to prefer such as are
temperate, and that "regular warmth is abso- wannthneces
lutely necessary for the production of a good ^*^*
animal and a fine fleece, and is only to be ob-
tained by attending to the drainage and clearing
of land, so as to dissipate moisture, and allow
currents of air to play freely across the country.
Hence one of the reasons why sheep thrive best
in a rather elevated situation." The Yolk, or thin The Yoik on
film which covers the other tunics of the skin, LTorsi'e^p
is most plentiful on fine-woolled sheep, those of of '•»« South,
the south possessing more than the sheep of the
north of Great Britain, while Merinos possess
most of all. So that there is apparently some

M 2



164



IMPROVEMENT OF THE BREED



Influence of
Climate on
production of
wool.



Principles to
be attended to
in improving
the breed of
Sheep.



Breeding in
and in.



connection between a fine fleece and a good
supply of this Yolk. The Australians are said to
produce it by penning their sheep in roofed build-
ings, and thus producing heat, make them
sweat before they are shorn. These considera-
tions respecting temperature, and the fact of the
existence already, of wool-bearing sheep in India,
prove the country to be well adapted for the in-
troduction into it of some improved breeds of
sheep, or for attempting to improve those already
diffused throughout the country.

In reference to the improvement of the breeds;
the experiment, we have seen, is already being
carried on. The principles to be adhered to, re-
quire to be settled, both for the prosecution of the
present experiments and the institution of the new
ones, which will, no doubt, be attempted. The
different methods for improving the breed of
animals have their advocates in India as well as
in England. " The one most in vogue is that of
choosing individuals of the same family, and
breeding in and m," but the objections to this
system are very great ; and" though " no evil has
ever so clearly shown itself as such, yet it is only
recently that people have opened the intellectual
eye to the dangers of a practice against which
the ablest pens were long and vainly blunted."
(Blacklock, p. 106.) Mr. Dickson also says, *'The
evil of breeding in and «w, or, in other words,
producing too great refinement of tone, is mani-
fested, in tlie first instance, by a tenderness of



OP SHEEP IN INDIA. 165

constitution ; the animals not being able to with- Breeding in

and in.

Stand the extremes of heat and cold, rain and
drought." These defects must necessarily attend
any attempt to keep pure whatever race is intro-
duced into India, with the additional disadvan-
tage of our not knowing whether the climate, soil,
and pasture are likely to be suitable either to the
new race or to their progeny.

The next mode of breeding, that from different Breeding from

. -IT** ditfcrent &mi-

families of the same race, is that which Mr. lies of the same

race.

Blacklock says, ** is of all methods deservedly the
best, as the males, which are interchanged, have
always had shades of difference impressed upon
them, by various soils and treatment, so that the
defects of each family have a good chance to be
counteracted by the perfections of the other, the
bad points are gradually exhausted, and their
valuable properties as gradually heightened.'
But this in India is more impracticable than the
first, inasmuch as it pre-supposes the establish-
ment of several varieties of the same race in
different parts of the country. This has yet to be
done ; but when it has been effected, advantage
will, no doubt, be taken of it, by the different
breeders, in continuing to keep up, as well as to
add to, the improvement of their flocks.

Some amelioration miorht, no doubt, be effected improvement

'-' of some Indian

in the wool-bearing flocks of North- Western In- breeds without

. . ... ^'^ of foreign

dia by judicious treatment, nutritious diet, and Wood.
careful selection of the healthiest and most per-
fect specimens procurable in the country. Yet, as



166 IMPROVEMENT OF THE BREED

Improvement the progrcss ill this, though certain, would be

of some Indian i i i ^ ff ' A^^ ^ • j

Breeds with- slow, and pcrhaps not sumciently great in degree,
foreign^ siieep. ^^^ ^^e likely to attempt or to persevere in such
an undertaking. It may, however, be suggested
as an interesting subject for experiment to the
many intelligent gentlemen who are favourably
situated for the purpose on the north-western
frontier and in the Himalayas. It will be requi-
site, in the first instance, to consult some of the
treatises on the subject, that experimentalists
may be aware of the points requiring attention,
and thus benefit by the experience of those who
surmounted great difficulties, and obtained the
most signal success in this country. Mr. EUman,
of Glynde, it is well known, obtained his well-
earned fame from the zealous manner in which
he so materially improved the South-down sheep,
without any admixture of foreign blood.
?nTa?5ith' The only method, therefore, which remains
shee ^*''^^'^" for improving the breed of the wool-bearing
sheep of India is, that of " crossing two distinct
races, one of which possesses the properties it
is desirable to acquire and wants the defects
we wish to remove." But here the difficulties
are as great, and require as many points of
consideration, as any of the other modes of breed-
ing which we have noticed. Mr. Blacklock's ob-
servations on the subject are marked with the
good sense which pervades his Treatise, where
he says, *' that if you wish to have a particular
kind of sheep, you must first of all be in posses-



OF SHEEP IN INDIA. 167

sion of a pasture suitable for the new comers, considerations
You must consider the influence of the individual SoIi""»*
parents on the progeny, the size of the animals, ^ce wSuTmo-
their habits and dispositions, and their peculia- ^"'
rities in regard to the time of their maturity and
fattening properties. Having anticipated these
apparently trifling affairs, you must see that the
surface of your farm, its degree of exposure, and Aspect and
the quantity and quality of its productions, are form.
calculated for the profitable maintenance of the
animal in view," as " no animal can be made
to forego a long-used food, an ancient locality,
peculiarity of clime and season, and the instinc-
tive habits that have been long nurtured by these,
without both it and its progeny suffering from
the change." Having considered these prepa-
ratory measures, it is necessary to select well selection of

parents.

formed parents, not much disproportionate in size,
and such, that their progeny will be rather under
than above what the pasture is capable of sup-
porting. It is better, when some increase has
been attained, to bring the breed to the required Gradual im-

^ provement.

size or fineness by one or two crossings, than
attempt at first what we may ultimately wish for,
as Nature abhors sudden extremes, and does
every thing in the most gradual maimer. (Black-
lock, on Sheep.)

In crossing:, the full effect can only be produced several cross-

^ . "'Ss necessary.

by several years of constant exertion. It is
thought on the Continent, according to Mr.
Blacklock, that any race of ewes, however coarse



168



IMPROVEMENT OF THE BREED



Number of
crossings ne-
cessary to at-
tain full effect.



Changes pro-
duced on Ben-
gal Sheep in
Australia.



and long in the fleece, will, on the fourth cross
of the Merino ram, give progeny with short wool
equal to the Spanish. Dr. Parry, of Bath, how-
ever, considers that one cross more is necessary
to produce the desired purpose. " If we sup-
pose," he says, " the result of the admixture of
the blood of the Merino ram to be always in an
exact arithmetical proportion, and state the na-
tive blood in the ewe as 64, then the first cross
would give |^| of the Merinos, the second || the
third H, the fourth |-|, the fifth ||, and so on.
In other words, the first cross would leave thirty-
two parts in sixty-four, or half of the English
quality ; the second, sixteen parts, or one-fourth ;
the third, eight parts, or one-eighth ; the fourth,
four parts, or one-sixteenth ; the fifth, two parts,
or one-thirty-second ; the sixth, one, or one-sixty-
fourth, and so on." Communication to the Board
of Agriculture.

Great changes may, no doubt, be produced in
the wool of the Indian Sheep, by crossing with
appropriate breeds. This is evident from what
has been effected in Australia* with Bengal sheep.



* New Holland had no sheep of its own, but a number were
procured from Bengal to provide the colonists with mutton and
wool, and to establish a permanent flock. They are described
as having " an accumulation of bad qualities." Yet such were
the primitive New Holland sheep, more, according to Mr. At-
kinson^ resembling goats than sheep, and from such animals
emanated all the improved flocks now in the colony. — Vide
Youatt's work on Sheep, their Breeds, Management, and
Diseases. London, 1837.



OF SHEEF IN INDIA. 169

which were first crossed with South-down and changes ef-

. • T. -■ . fected on Ben-

Leicester rams, and, subsequently, with Mennos gai sheep in

^ . iiii Australia,

from England and Germany. It is probable that
the sheep of Southern India were alone taken to
New Holland, and these, we know, are far in-
ferior to those in the Hurriana, Shekawatty, and
Jeypore districts ; where the country is naturally
favourable to flocks of sheep, and is therefore well
suited to breeding experiments.

The experiments already made in India seem Merino breed
to have decided, for the present at least, that the india.
Merino breed is the best fitted for introduction
into that country, though the South-down, and
some other English breeds, may eventually be
found eligible. The next subject for consideration
is the country from which they should be im- whence to be
ported into India; whether direct from Spain,
from England, or from Saxony, or whether from
the Cape of Good Hope or New Holland. Judg- Cape of Good

* . Hope and New

ing from the energetic zeal at present displayed, Holland, in the
it is probable that some will be introduced from
all these countries. But it is desirable, in the first
instance, to import a breed from the climates
most similar to that into which it is to be intro-
duced. The sheep of the Cape and of New
Holland being already much improved, and the
climate of both being more like that of Northern
India than is either that of England or of Ger-
many, it would appear preferable to import chiefly
from these two colonies, for introduction into the
Table-land or northern plains of India. But, as



170 IMPROVED HORSES AND CATTLE.

English breeds the pasturage of the Himalayas, as well as the

of Sheep pro-
bably suited to temperature and moisture, more nearly resemble

the Himalayas. , /.t-iii- ii /•!

those of J^ngland, it would appear, for the same
reason, that some of the English breeds would
be better suited to the mountains than the Me-
rinos, which require both a warmer and a drier
climate.
Improvement That great improvement in the breed of sheep

in Sheep as mi i ti i i-

probable as may be effected m India, will be readily believed

that which has ,, ^ii'ii' i

already been ef- by thosc who havc secH the highly improved
and Cattle at breed of Horses now produced at the Govern-
ment Sabiish- ment Studs, for mounting both her Majesty's and
'"^"^^* the Company's regiments of cavalry, as well as

the horse artillery in India. So also the Breed of.
Cattle produced in the Government Establish-
ment at Hissar,* in the Hurrianah district, for



* The Cattle employed at the Hurrianah Establishment con-
sist of the Nagore, Guzerat, Angole, Hurrianah, Sinde, and
Mysore breeds. The qualities of the Nagore breed are height,
substance, and speed ; of the Guzerat, height, greater sub-
stance, but of a duller disposition than the Nagore. The
Angole has height, and very great substance ; can endure
great fatigue upon coarse food, and lives to a great age. The
Hurrianah can endure great fatigue upon coarse food, but has
not the height or substance of the former breeds. The Sinde
has great substance, but is low and lazy. The Mysore is strong,
and active for its size, but is too low for ordnance purposes.

The most successful crosses are from the Nagore, Guzerat,
and Angole tribes. The best draught cattle are from the Na-
gore ; Angole, Guzerat, Hurrianah ; and the Guzerat, Nagore,
Angole ; the latter promises to be the best cross we have made.
— Memoir by Capt. Parsons, Superintendent of the Hissar Es-
tablishment. Proceedings Agricultural Society of India, 1838,



WOOL TRADE IN INDIA. 171

the ordnance and carriage department of the foot Jj^^^ug
artillery, are vastly superior to the ordinary cattle ^^^^^^2^'"'™'
of the country, in consequence of the great pains biishments.
taken to improve them. The cattle known as the
Mysore breed, and noted for their great activity and
spirit, are also the produce of a breeding establish-
ment kept up by Gk)vernment, and called the
Amrit Mahal, of which the object is to supply
bullocks for the gun-carriage department and
commissariat. It is, therefore, far from proble-
matical that sheep may be improved in the very
districts where these fine cattle are produced, and
be as superior to the ordinary sheep of India as
the Government bullocks are to the ordinary bul-
locks of the country.

That a trade in wool may be established even Trade in wool

. might be esta-

in the Benral Presidency by the produce of the wished from

„ „, . , . , , , , N.W. India.

JN. Western provinces being brought down the
Jumna and Ganges rivers, is quite as probable as
that in Hides and Horns, which is now fully esta-
blished. These were pointed out, in 1806, by
Mr. Colebroke only as articles which might be
exported from Bengal. From the circular of
Messrs. Whyte, Holmes, and Co., of the latest
date, we learn, that of Hides there were exported
to Great Britain in the year ending 29th February
1840, 904,755; to France, 132,430; to North Ame-
rica, 492,383 pieces: and of Buffalo horns, to
the same date, to Great Britain 317,082; and to
France, 269,788 pieces; and of Deer horns to the
former 3,076 raaunds, and of Horn tips 4,518



172 WOOL TRADE IN INDIA.

Wool might be maunds. That wool might in the same way be-

exported from r ^-\ ^ • i i

Calcutta. come an export irom Calcutta, even without the
improvement of the breed of sheep, is evident,
from a portion of the Bombay exports being from

Procured from Marwar. The wool of the similar country more

vinces. to the north-wcst, and which would reach the

Jumna with less land carriage than does the Cot-
ton of Central India, would be found of at least
equal quality, and would probably yield a profit, as

Sheep abun- the fine shccp of the Shekawatty district sell for

dant and cheap. . i ^ i • 1 1 •

ten rupees a corge, or tor about a shiUmg a piece.
The exporters from Bombay expected to realize
5d. to Od. a pound for their wool, which, it is
stated, would give an ample return. Sheep wool
is already much employed for making the kumlees
Wool now ma- or native blankets. Some of these are even em-

nufactured into i j • i • i ^ i ^i /v

blankets, &c. ploycd in making rough coats by the officers m
by Natives. ]\orthern India, while the finest from Jyepore
sell for a high price among the natives. Blankets
also form a considerable article of trade between
the northern and southern provinces of India;
and we find blankets and rugs exported from
Calcutta to the extent of 27,517 pieces in the
years 18-29-30, and in 1837-38, 39,929 pieces,
chiefly to the Mauritius.*

• To show the importance of the Wool Trade, and the large
quantities which are annually imported, the Author extracts the
following, as containing the most recent information : — ** A re-
turn to an order of the House of Commons gives, as the total
quantity of sheep and lambs' wool imported in 1839 into the
United Kingdom, 57,395,944.1b». ; of which, 57,379,923lbs. are



173

Labours of Dr. Roxburgh's Successors.

From the connection of the several cultures
with one another, we have been led to trace their
history further than is consistent with a due at-
tention to priority of date. But having com-
menced with stating that Dr. Roxburgh had paid
attention to the culture of all the great staple
products of India, we have shown that his ex-
periments, whether on Pepper, Sugar, Indigo,
Cotton, Flax, Hemp, or Mulberry, or his obser-

foreign, and the remaining 16,0211bs. the produce of the Isle of
Man. The total quantity of foreign wool retained for Home
Consumption was 52,959,221 lbs., and the quantity re-exported
695,0491bs. The quantity of foreign sheep and lambs' wool re-
maining warehoused under bond on the 5th of January 1840
was 7,451j0161bs. Of the foreign countries, by far the
greatest quantity of wool was imported from Grermany, being
23,837,8051bs. The second and third, as to quantity, were
Russia and New South Wales, from the former of which,
7,966,9541bs., and from the latter, 6,621,29Ilbs. were im-
ported. The quantity of British sheep and lambs' wool ex-
ported during the same year was 4,603,799 lbs., and the quan-
tity of yam (including that of wool mixed with other mate-
rials) was 3,320,441 lbs. Of the wool, the largest quantity,
being 3,625,8961bs., was sent to Belgium. Of the yam, the
largest quantity, being l,770,5361bs., was sent to Germany,
The total value of British woollen manufactures exported in
1839, was £6,271,645. The value of the manufactures sent
to the United States was considerably the highest, being
dC2, 142,352. The value of those sent to Germany, the East-
Indies and China, and the North- American Colonies, was also
high, bemg respectively £816,604, £530,687, and £511,190.'*
—Times, May 14, 1840.



174 WORKS PUBLISHED BY

Dr.Roxburgh's vatioDS Oil the Droduction in India of Potash,

Expenments. , '^

Barilla, Caoutchouc, or of Wood Oil, were con-
ducted on the soundest principles, and antici-
pated much of what has been subsequently done.
Dr. Buchanan Dr. Roxburgh, having proceeded to England

Hamilton sue- „ ,, /.i-i ii tii

ceeds Dr. lor the benefit of his health, died there in the year
1814.* He was succeeded in his office of Superin-
tendent of the Botanic Garden at Calcutta by
Dr. Francis Buchanan, of the Bengal Medical
Establishment, who afterwards assumed the name
of Hamilton. He was as distinguished for
laborious research as for the variety of his attain-
ments, and the zeal with which he endeavoured
to develop the resources of the various parts of
India which he visited, as displayed in his Jour-
ney to Nepal; his Surveys of Mysore, and of the
South-eastern Provinces of the Bengal Presi-
dency, in his account of the Fishes of the

♦ Dr. Roxburgh's ' Coromandel Plants,' and his • Hortus Ben-
galensis', have been already mentioned, pp. 51 and 69. Besides
these he published several papers in the Transactions of the
Asiatic Society in Calcutta; and in those oftheLinnean Society
and of the Society of Arts in London. The work, ' Flora Indica,'
which would probably have had the most extensive influence,
unfortunately remained unpublished for a great many years.
An edition of this work was commenced by Dr. Carey, with Des-
criptions of the more recently discovered Plants, by Dr. N.
Wallich, and published at Serampore, the first volume in 1820,
and the second in 1824. Dr. Wallich having had, subsequently
to this, to visit the North-western provinces, and then Ava,
Pegu, and Tcnasserim ; after which he returned to Europe, in



DR. BUCHANAN HAMILTON. 175

Gansres, and in his Commentaries on the Works ^/- Buchanan

^ ^ Hamilton's

of Rheede and of Rumphius.* works.



consequence of continued attacks of fever ; delay took place in
the completion of the work. The sons of Dr. Roxburgh,
therefore, published an edition of the Flora Indica, as left by their
father, which was printed at Serampore, in 3 vols. 8vo. 1832.

I am informed by Mr. Brown, that it was intended to have
published an edition of the Flora Indica in this country, in con-
sequence of Mr. Colebrookeand himself, with two other gentle-
men, having been requested by Dr. Roxburgh, in his will, to
look over his manuscripts, and determine what was fit for pub-
lication. Dr. Fleming, who was then in England, having offered
to provide what money was necessary, it was determined to
publish the Flora Indica; but the appearance of the first volume
by Drs. Carey and Wallich from Serarapore, caused the idea to
be abandoned.

• Works of Dr. Buchanan Hamilton : —

1. A Journey from Madras through the countries of Mysore,
Canara, and ]Malabar, performed under the Orders of the Most
Noble the Marquis WeUesley, Governor-General of India. Lon-
don, 1807.

2. A Journey in Nepal, 1 vol. 4to.

3. A Statistical Survey of the Districts of Behar, Shahabad,
Bhagulpoor, Goruckpoor, Dinagepoor, Puraniya, Rungpoor,
and Assam, under the Orders of the Supreme Government, and
lately published by M. Martin, Esq., in 3 vols, thick 8vo. Lon-
don, 1838.

4. An Account of the Fishes found in the River Ganges and
its Branches, with a volume of Plates. In royal 4to. Edinburgh,
1822.

5. Commentaries on the Herbarium Amboinense of Rum-
phius, published in the Transactions of the Wemerian Society of
Edinburgh;

6. Commentaries on the Hortus Malabaricus of Rheede, pub-
lished in the Transactions of the Linnean Society of London.



176 INVESTIGATIONS AND

Dr. Waiiich As Dr. B. Hamilton did not remain in India

appointed Su-
perintendent long after this, Dr. Wallich was, in 1815, ap-

of the Calcutta . . . .

Botanic Gar- Domted to succced him, and still continues the

den. ,. . . .

distmguished superintendent of the Calcutta
Botanic Garden. As we have shown that the
resources of a country depend so much upon the
vegetable kingdom, and as great extension of
territory had taken place, it was desirable that



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