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Merchants, Manufacturers, and Spinners of Manchester, where
the saw-gins had been sent by the Court of Directors to be
submitted to a further trial. It is important to notice that a press



352 CULTIVATION OF COTTON

was at the same time exhibited by Mr. William Laird, of Li-
verpoolj in which 4001bs. of cotton was pressed in twelve
minutes by four men to the ordinary size of a Surat bale.

" To the Directors of the Honourable East-India Company.
''Honorable Sirs,

" In compliance with the request of the Chairman for my
report and opinion on the recent experiments made at Liverpool
with the American saw-gins, &c. upon East-India Cotton, I
beg respectfully to state, that I concur generally in the Report
made at Liverpool, and forwarded to London on Tuesday last,
which renders any lengthened one from me unnecessary. I
think the valuations therein given might fairly have been
stated yd. to ^d. per lb. higher, as the present relative value
with American Cotton; in which opinion I am confirmed by
several brokers who examined the samples more at leisure than
could well be done at the time the experiments were made, and
whose valuations were chiefly at 4|d. to 5^d. per lb. ; but in
drawing up the Report, it was deemed best to use great caution,
and adopt the first estimate. Had the experiments been tried
upon new cotton instead of old, I think the result would have
been still more satisfactory.

" I am decidedly of opinion, that the American saw-gins,
under the superintendence and management of American
planters, are calculated to accomplish the great object contem-
plated, the obtaining a large supply of a desirable and useful
quality of cotton, presuming the gins are to be used in the
districts or farms where the cotton is grown, and the cotton
there secured from the influence of weather by being packed
into bales ; judging from the appearances of East-India Cotton
there is much injury done by exposure, and bad management.
These remarks have more immediate reference to cotton from
Bombay, which is of longer staple, and consequently, in much
greater demand than cotton from Calcutta and Madras.
** I remain, Honorable Sirs,

" Your most obedient Servant,
(Signed) «'« Jas. R. Tetlet."

"72dJuly 1840."



IN INDIA. 353



" To Capl. Baj/les, H.E.I.Co, S., Adelphi Hotel.

" Liverpool, 22d Jul^y 1840.
" Dear Sir,

" Herewith we send you 3 hanks Twist spun from your own
Cotton, vis. : — One hank No. 12 Throstle Twist; one hank No.
16 Mule Twist; one hank No. 32 Mule Twist.

" Our object is to show you what quality of Twist your Cot-
ton produces on coarse as well as fine numbers ; No. 12 Throstle
Twist and No. 16 Mule Twist we consider to be very good,
and the No. 32 Mule Twist very fair yarn, considering the
quality of Cotton.

" The Cotton (yours ginned) when compared with Surats ot
an ordinary quality, is about |d to Id. per lb. better, owing
to its being much cleaner and free from seeds; it cards free, and
in general works well. The Cotton is obviously cut and nipt
in the ginning to a small extent, which would be a great im-
provement if obviated. We rate it equal to fair Orleans or prime
Surats. If such Cottons could be produced so cleaned, a very
great preference would be given it to ordinary East-India and
Surats, which is commonly full of sand, seeds, and shell : it
would also be preferred to low Americans for its very bright
colour.

" We value this ginned Cotton with 5d. Bowd's or Orleans,
and Id. per lb. better than 4d. Surats.

" We are. Sir, your very obedient Servants,

*' The North Shorb Mills Company.

" We consider this Cotton to lose less weight in spinning
than common East-India Surats."



2 A



354 CULTIVATION OF COTTON



*' According to the notice put up in the Exchange room on
Thursday, the experiments ordered by the Hon. East India
Company to be made on ginning East India Cotton, by means
of the American Saw Gin, were exhibited, on Saturday last,
at the manufactory of Messrs. Lilly and Sons, Stone-street,
Manchester, under the able superintendence of Capt. Bayles,
assisted by the American gentlemen who are about to proceed
with him to India. The result cannot be better shown than by
reference to the annexed letter written on the spot, and signed
by most of the first spinners and merchants in Manchester : —

" Lillys' Engineering Establishment,

"Manchester, 1st August, 1840.

*' The Merchants, Manufacturers, Spinners, and others in-
terested in the various branches of the Cotton Trade, having
been this day invited to witness experiments by Saw-Gins im-
ported from America, upon the cleaning and ginning of East
India Cotton, imported in the natural state of boll or pod, with
the view of ascertaining the practical application of the clean-
ing machinery of the United States, to cotton grown in the
East Indies, record with great pleasure their conviction, that
the experiments now made, clearly establish the fact, that this
machinery has been successfully applied for the purpose desired
and intended.

" The national importance of a supply of raw material, to
maintain the industry of Great Britain is admitted; and the
parties immediately interested in the Cotton Trade hail
with extreme satisfaction any attempts made to increase the
supply of raw cotton in particular, and the manufacturing
community of this town and neighbourhood beg thus to ex-
press their approbation of the conduct of the Directory of the
Hon. East India Company, and of Capt. Bayles and the gen-
tlemen associated with him, in the attempts they are making to
improve the cultivation, and to enlarge the supply of East
India Cotton, and it is hoped that every support will be given



IN INDIA.



355



by the Hon. Company here, and by Lord Auckland and the
authorities in India to accomplish this most desirable object.

J. B. SMITH, President of the Chamber of Commerce.
H. HOOLE, Vice President of the Chamber of Commerce.



HoRRicKs, Jacson & Co.
J. Macvicak.
Lambert, Hoole, Jack-
son, & Co.
R. CoBDEN & Company.
D. Price.
J. P. Westhead.
Wood & Westheads.
J. LiLLiE & Sons.
Waterhouse & Thompson.

S. RiGGS.

J. Massey & Son.
S. M. Moore & Son.
J. Kershaw.
Gardner & Bazley.
Langworthy, Bro. & Co.
T. Barton.
R. Roberts, Engineer.
J. Potter.

KeLI.Y & GiLMOOR.



J. Nicholson, for Thomas

Holdsworth,
W. HiGGiNs & Sons.
J. Shawcross.
T. Ogden & Sons.

N. GOUGH.
McCONNILS & Co.

J. PooLEY & Son.

C. GiMONY.

T. & R. Barnes.

G. Cheelham & Sons,

per J. Hill.
T. Kay & Son.
T. Bannerbian & Co.
M. Kennedy.

M. ASHTON.
G. SiDBOTTOM .

C. Smith.

T. Fernley, Jun.

T. Fernley & Son."



The original information on the Cotton culture of India is
contained in the following works : — The Reports on the
Proceedings of the East India Company, in regard to the pro-
duction of Cotton Wool, 1836. Transactions of the Agricul-
tural Society of India. Vol. II— VI. 1836—39. Dr. Lush on
the Cultivation and Preservation of Cotton in the districts un-
der the Bombay Presidency, 1837. Dr. Wight on the Cultiva-
tion of the Foreign Varieties of Cotton in the Madras Presi-
dency, 1837. Minute of the Govenor-general of India on
the Cultivation of Cotton in the East Indies, 1839.



z A i:



35G



Experimental
culture of sta-
ples of com-
Hierce,



in Madras Pre-
Bidenpy;



in Bengal Pre-
sidency;



in Bombay
Presidency.



Botanic Gar-
den established
near Poona.



Botanic Garden established at Dapooree
IN Western India.

In the preceeding notices of the experimental
cultures instituted for the improvement of the
great staples, not only of Indian commerce, but
of that of the world in general, we have seen
that with great extent of territory, there is also
great diversity of soil and of climate, within the
limits of British India. Hence there are great
capabilities of successfully cultivating the valued
productions of many different parts of the world.
The localities which have been chiefly dwelt upon
are in the Madras presidency; also in the Southern
and Northern parts, as well as in the Mountains
of the Bengal presidency; but some of the results
which have been obtained in Western India, have
also been noticed under the heads of Silli and
Cotton. But in the Bombay presidency, besides
the experiments on Silk and Wool which are in
course of being carried on, and the Cotton Farms
which have been at different times established,
there is also a Botanic garden where experiments
are instituted on the introduction of useful plants
into that side of India.

The house, garden, and grounds of Dapooree,
near Poona, were purchased in 1828, by Sir J. Mal-
colm* for the use of Government. This property



* Sir John Malcolm in proposing its establishment says, " I
am anxious for the promotion of liberal science, and I am much



BOTANIC GARDEN IN WESTERN INDIA. 357

contained 71 J acres of land, of which 1 IJ are not EstaWishment
arable, and 12J were occupied by the buildings, Garden at Da-
&c,, and 48 acres of good land, all under irriga- ^^^^'
tion, were left to be formed into a botanic garden.
Mr. Williamson was appointed its first super-
intendent, but died shortly afterwards. Dr. Lush Dapooree Bo-
succeeded him. The latter describes the climate ^""^ " ^"'
as being^ that of the Deccan. To its variability,
and the range of temperature and the moderate cumate;
monsoons, he ascribes the great extent of vegetable
productions of other countries, tropical and tem-
perate, which have succeeded at various times and
places in the Deccan, wherever the least attention
has been paid to horticultural pursuits. The depth SoU.
of soil is considerable, and a great portion of it,
the coarse black soil of the country. In the im-
mediate vicinity there are beds of limestone in
the trap rocks around, together with red chalk



alive to the expediency and policy of every measure (however
trifling it may seem), that can, without imjustifiable expendi-
ture, benefit the country, and add to the peaceable occupation
and enjoyment of its inhabitants, of whose habits and charac-
ter I have sufficient knowledge to be convinced that not exam-
ple, but every stimulus we can apply, is necessary to rouse
them to exertion in the pursuit of objects which are obviously
for their own advantage ; and I believe the establishment I
have proposed, to be quite essential to accelerate their advance
in that branch of useful improvement to which it belongs."
Sir John relates, that one Mahratta chief, speaking of his suc-
cess in rearing potatoes, said with truth, ** a new vegetable is a
trifle to you Europeans, compared to what it is to us Brahmins."



358 BOTANIC GARDEN IN

Botanic Gar- and coarse river sand. The garden contained a
ree. number of useful and ornamental, and among

them a considerable number of timber trees,
TimbeTtrees. ^^^^ ^^^^^ trces cousisted of peaches, guavas,
loquats, mangoes, apples, quinces, and apricots;
besides the remains of a once celebrated vine-
yard. There were also specimens of the rose ja-
mon, alligator pear, Indian almond, with others
characteristic of the country. That is, we have
here, as in other parts of India, the fruit trees of
various parts of the world congregated together.
It was proposed to pay attention to these as well
Proposed sub- as to Horticultural subjects in general, as also
men't^at^m" to the culturc of pasturc and fodder Grasses ; the
P*^'*^' planting of the Mulberry for the Silk culture, to-

gether with the cultivation of Medicinal plants.
The results of the experiments which were made
on the culture of Cotton and the planting of Mul-
berries, we have already seen under the heads of
the former and of Silk.
Dr. Gibson ap- Dr. Gibsou haviug succeeded to the Superin-
iluendent"^'^' tendency of the Dapooree Garden, has zealously
prosecuted the objects contemplated in its institu-
Nurseries esta- tiou. Two or three Small nurseries, as at Hewra,
Neergoree, and Seonere, were established in
the district in furtherance of the same objects.
Such establishments are especially useful, as
speaking everywhere to the eyes of the natives,
and advantageous to the country, as useful plants
are distributed gratis to those who agree to
cultivate them. The importance of such intro-



WESTERN INDIA. 359

ductions will be clearly manifest, when it is con- Nurseries esu-

•^ blished.

sidered, as Dr. Gibson says, that the great com- observations
plaint of the cultivators, is tlie exceeding cheap- o»th"'-"^>"ty-
ness of all the present articles of cultivation, con-
sisting principally of grains, with which the
markets are usually overstocked. The necessity,
therefore, is proportionately great, of finding
other employment for a portion of the people,
and of introducing the culture of articles which
may meet with a ready sale for exportation.
Hence, we see one reason why Cotton is so ex-
tensively cultivated, and Opium so rapidly in-
creased in quantity throughout Central India.

All measures calculated to forward the increased important ob-
culture of useful objects received the utmost en- ture.
couragement from the unwearied and enlightened
zeal of the Revenue Commissioner, Mr. T. Wil-
liamson, who has particularly directed attention
to the cultivation of Foreign Cottons and he
Mauritius Sugar Cane, Mulberry planting, Coffee,
Tobacco, and Tea, (the last he mentions as suc-
ceeding at ]\uggur,) the Cochineal Insect, Culi-
nary Vegetables, and Fruit-trees. But we cannot
avoid remarking that many objects of culture
which have long been naturalized in other parts,
are only now being introduced into the west of
India.

Among the subjects to which Dr. Gibson, as planting of

, Mulberry and

well as others, have been paymg attention, is the culture of siiit.
planting of Mulberries and the Culture of Silk,
and it is gratifying to find that the specimens of



360



BOTANIC GARDEN IN



Potatoes.



Western India, silk which have been sent home are highly ap-
proved of.* Dr. G. has also been introducing the
culture of Arrow-root, Tapioca, and of Potatoes.
The last he planted in November, and dug up at
the end of February, and found them to be of
very good quality. He states that they thrive
best in the red soil, where the grain crops are
comparatively scanty and precarious, and that
they would yield a remuneration superior to that
afforded by the Rubbee crops, even at one-third
of their present price. From his example and
advice many of the natives were become as anxi-
ous, as they were before averse from potatoe cul-
tivation, and he had consequently supplied seed
to a number of cultivators.

Dr. Gibson conceives that many of the hill lo-
calities are eminently fitted for the naturalization
of the products of the south of Europe, as the
Olive, &c ; others for the culture of Coffee, and
some for many of the useful plants and trees of
the New World. He was endeavouring to direct
attention to the culture of Linseed, and also to



Adopted by
Natives.



Olive, Coflfee,
&c.



• But it is mortifying to learn, at the same time, as the Au-
thor did, in one of the most extensive silk mills in Manchester,
that Bengal silk had fallen off very much in quality in the last
few years. By the latest accounts, we learn that " the Calcutta
exports of silk are now three thousand maunds less than last
year, and are not likely soon to increase. One lot of superior
European Filature Cossimbazar has been sold at 15s. 8d. per
factory maund ; but it was the finest we have ever seen." — Cir-
cular of Messrs. MMiyte and Holmes. Calcutta, 6th June 1840,



WESTERN INDIA. 361

that of Safflower, Lucern, Guinea Grass, &c.,
which were known in some, but not so common
in all the districts as they might easily be made.
The Grape Vine, Dr. G. mentions, as common The Grape

'^ . Vine.

in the easern parts of the Deccan, where it af-
forded a cheap and delicious article of food, sold
in some bazars, and yet that it was uncultivated
in many places well suited to it. Into Candeish
it had been introduced by the Collector of Reve-
nue, and was quite naturalized, though it had
at one time been said that the air of this district
was unfavourable to it.

The Mauritius Sugar Cane had been intro- Mauritius su-
gar Cane.
duced into Bombay by the zeal and energy of

Mr. Brownrigg, and had been extensively distri-
buted by Mr. Williamson. Dr. Gibson was also
employed in cultivating, extensively distributing,
and in endeavouring to induce the natives to
take an interest in the culture. He had made
an agreement with one cultivator, to whom he
supplied the ground, and half the seed, on con-
dition of his furnishing labour, and the water for
irrigation, and that they were to divide the pro-
duce equally. He had succeeded in making su-
gar after the West-Indian method, and the speci-
mens of sugar which he has sent to this country
are excellent in quality.

He had also turned his attention to the subject Medicines and

/. 1 • • 1 1 • i_ other Drugs.

of medicinal and other drugs, and mentions that
those from the Deccan and Candeish were col-
lected in the Chandore range. The forests which



362 BOTANIC GARDEN IN

Western India. He close Under the ghauts in Candeish and the
Timber. ^ Deccau, he is of opinion, require being attended
to, as on these forests the Deccan is completely
dependent for timber. He fears, as destruction,
of Teak timber especially, vastly exceeds produc-
tion, that in a few years considerable deficiency
will be experienced.
Dr. Bums on At the Same time that these experiments were

experiments at . i -rx /~i'i • i ta rv

Kairaincui- camed ou by Dr. Gibson m the Deccan, Dr.

ture _^ . . T^ • • >i

rJurns was paymg attention at Kaira, in the
of Medicines, northern parts of Guzerat, to the culture of Sen-
na, Scammony, and of Colocynth, the last being
indigenous in that part of India ; to the planting
Mulberry, and of the Mulberry and the culture of Silk, where
he had succeeded in producing some of the last of
very good quality, as well as the Cotton men-
tioned at p. 339, as being considered equal to New
Orleans, from seed obtained from plants which
had been planted for more than fifteen years.
Botany of The Botauy of the Bombay presidency is less

dia!* ^"' ' known than that of the other parts of India ;
and, therefore, the comparisons which we are
able to make with its vegetation and that of
other countries, is less definite. Colonel Sykes,
however, brought home a collection of plants, of
which the Author has engaged to give an ac-
count, and which, as it is the first and only one
which has been brought to this country from that
side of India, will be proportionately valuable when
its contents have been» compared with the Her-
baria in the metropolis, in ascertaining the pecu-



WESTERN INDIA. 363

liarities of the Flora of the West of India. This, BotanyofWe«-

tern India.

the more so, as Col. Sykes has already published
the results of his observations on the Geology,
Meteorology, and Zoology of the tract of coun-
try where his plants were collected. We have at
present sufficient data for stating, that the botany
of the Bombay side of India resembles that which
characterizes that of the Peninsula in general,
and such as is generally found in the plains
and jungles of India.*



The Productive Resources of the
Madras Presidency.

In a former part of this work we have seen the
early attention which was paid in the Madras
Presidency to the improvement of the culture of
various staple products. These efforts were not
followed by the successful results which might
reasonably have been anticipated ; as we find the
Governor, Sir F. Adam, in an able minute, re- Minute of sir

,. ,. F.Adam.

marking m 1836 on " the extraordinary dispropor- Disj,roportion
tion which has been long felt to exist between the ^^iYgJilr**
state of the trade and ajjriculture of the provinces \»re, and capa-

^ • ^ bilities of the

under this Presidency, as compared with the Presidency.

*A very valuable catalogue of the plants of the West of India
has lately been prepared by Messrs. Graham and Nimmo, and
published by the Agricultural Society of Western India. Bom-
bay, 1839.



364 PRODUCTIVE RESOURCES OF THE

Madras Presi- extent and fertility of the soil, and its adaptation

dency.

for the successful cultivation of many of the most
ReportsofGo- valuable productions." "The able and voluminous

vemmentoffi- /» • i i i i t-» rc

cers on To- rcports fumishcd by the Revenue officers on the
ton experi- rcsults of the cxcrtious made by the Government
to introduce the cultivation of American Cotton
and Tobacco, and on the means best calculated
for improvement of the culture and preparation
of these and other articles, adapted to secure to
this country a due share in external commerce,
which have been elicited by the queries circulated
by order of Government, afford much information
which will be useful to Government and its officers,
in originating and carrying into effect the mea-
sures proper to be adopted in future attempts to
promote these important objects."
Value of accu- Sir F. Adam further observes, that it will be

rate infonna- •t-ii

tion. of great benefit to the public and to individuals

to be furnished with accurate information on the
circumstances in which the successful prosecu-
tion of the cultivation of articles for export and
for home consumption must depend. Also, on the
advantages and defects of the native processes,
and the modifications in the methods of cultiva-
tion and preparation which must be adopted to
secure a remunerating price in Europe or in India
for the country or exotic Cottons, Tobacco, Dye-
stuffs, and numerous other articles for which the
soil and climate of the Peninsula are peculiarly
adapted.

It also appears, that the little success that has



MADRAS PRESIDENCY. 365

hitherto attended the exertions of Government Little success.

. /. ^Jn consequence

and of individuals, has arisen from the want of of deficient in-

1 • (. ' 1111 formation.

the mtorraation necessary to enable tlie latter to
pursue the proper course of exertion, and the Go-
vernment to afford the requisite encouragement
to induce and enable the Farmers to cultivate
successfully new kinds of produce, or to improve
the quality of indigenous productions.

From the extent and varietv of the facts and varied and

' valuable facts

statements contained in these papers, and the contained in

- . . Government

paramount importance, that what is to direct the Reports,
measures of Government and the exertions of in-
dividuals, should be subjected to rigid investi-
gation, it was felt necessary that an individual
should be selected for the task of their examina-
tion and condensation, whose pursuits have ren-
dered him familiarly acquainted with the subject,
and who could ascertain and correct, by personal
observation and w^ell-directed inquiry, whatever
might appear either doubtful or erroneous.

To do justice to the subject and to the authors Dr. wight ap-

T-v ttr- 1 /• 1 mr 1 -m r pointed to con-

of these reports, JJr. Wight, of the Madras Me- dense informa-
dical Service, a gentleman of distinguished sci-
entific acquirements, and whose pursuits have
been directed to these subjects, " was appointed
to make a useful condensation of the whole of the
documents, and of the replies to such enquiries
as he may address to the several revenue officers,
who will be directed to afford every information
in their power." To this he was expected to add
the results of his own observations on the methods



366



PRODUCTIVE RESOURCES OF THE



Dr. Wight ap-
pointed to con-
dense Reports,
&c.



Queries pre-
pared by Dr.
Malcolmson.



Papers on va-
rious useful
products.



Cotton, Nuth
Grass, Mudar,
Senna, Gam-
boge.



On the plants
which yield the
Cassia of Cora-



of culture of the great staple products of the
country. His attention was in the first instance
more particularly directed to the subject of Cot-
ton, Tobacco, Coffee, Pasture Grasses, and Tim-
ber Trees, and the selection of sites best fitted
for the introduction of many valued products of
foreign countries.

A series of queries were promulgated by order
of Sir F.Adam throughout the Madras presidency,
which were prepared by Dr. J. G. Malcolmson,
now of Bombay, but at that time Secretary of
the Medical Board at Madras. Those queries re
fer particularly to the subjects of Cotton,Tobacco,
Senna, Turmeric, Grasses, and Soils. They evince
the author's comprehensiveness of view, as they
embrace every point calculated to elicit such infor-



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