vances from twenty to twenty four in-
ches, in the second movement he ad-
i vances not more than three or four
I inches. This occupies one bar of music,
the next two bars are danced in a pre-
cisely similar manner, the fourth bar
is devoted to the turn which is done by
beating time, in one long and four
short steps (right, left, right, left, right),
to the music. The fifth step should
bring the dancers into a position
to dance back in the same semi-
circle to their original positions. The
return is similarly danced, the left
foot being in front this time. At the
end of the fourth bar the man should
be in the position originally occupied by
his partner, she having reached the posi-
tion originally occupied by him. At
the end of the eighth bar both should
be again at their own positions. It is
best to practice this dance to a tune
like the " Rocky Road to Dublin," in
which the accents are clearly marked.
THE Figure, or, as they are sometimes
called, " Set " dances are very numerous
and are usually associated with tunes
which are " irregular " in structure, that
is, which do not consist of the usual two
parts of eight bars each. The dances
consist mostly of a certain number of
steps joined together by a "Figure" or
" Set." As a general rule they were
only taught to the most expert dancers,
the steps being usually very intricate.
The list of these dances appended makes
no claim to be a complete one, but it
contains the best known danoes of this
Cimit A' riiAilin (Rub the Bag),
An ptucAifte (the Stucaire).
CAiitiuifiin triASAix) (Funny Tailor).
SeAJAn UA *Ouiti^ An gleAtinA.
DuACAill cAet -out).
An fuifin bAti.
E>puil An fe<\jt moji ifcij.
ptuipin nA tnbAti -conn 65
SAJAJIC 'TIA 6ACAif.
Patrick's Day in the Morning.
The Garden of Daisies.
The Downfall of Paris.
The Job of Journey Work.
The Three Sea Captains.
The Jockey through the Fair.
(? Jockie to the Fair).
The Humours of Bandon.
The Blackthorn Stick.
Lady Cucool (?).
Rocky Road to Dublin
The Girl I Left Behind Me.
Ace and Deuce of Pipering.
Drops of Brandy.
Cover the Buckle.
Short Double (Co. Cork).
Maggie Pickins (Donegal).
My Love She's but a Lassie yet
THIS is a favourite Munster Figure
Dance. It is in six-eight or jig-time,
and is composed of two parts, with eight
bars in the first part and fourteen in
the second. The tune is given by Dr.
Joyce in his Ancient Irish Music, and
a somewhat different setting of it will
be found under the title of Ree Raw
(Uij AH t' A ^ A ) i Dr. Petrie's Ancient
Music of Ireland.
THIS is the name by which a Donegal
five-hand reel is usually known. It is
so called from the fcucAijie (interloper,
eavesdropper), the name applied to the
odd lady or gentleman. It consists of
alternate swinging and stepping ; var-
iety is lent by the fcucAijie coming into
the dance at each turn, a fresh person
being left out, and so on.
THIS is another Figure dance of an
" irregular " time. It is written in
four phrases, the first of five bars, the
second of five bars, which are repeated
to form the third phrase, and the fourth
is a repetition of the first phrase.
ANOTHER Figure dance. The tune, which
is in hornpipe time, is given in Dr. Joyce's
Ancient Irish Music, and consists of two
parts, with the unusual number of twelve
bars in each part. The name implies
the highest degree of excellence in pipe
THIS is also an " irregular " Irish dance
tune which will be found in several col-
lections of Irish dance music. It con-
sists of eight bars in the first part and
fourteen in the second. It is a fav-
ourite Munster Figure dance, and is
danced by one or two people.
IN Donegal this is danced as a "sling"
(i.e., slip) jig, with a fixed set of steps.
In Munster the tune of this name is a
favourite hop-jig tune.
THERE is a dance, bearing this title,
known in East Cork. It is generally per-
formed to the air of the " Western
Dane" (PDame) which is in jig-time.
It is usually danced by two persons.
The dance is known in Tipperary also.
THIS is the title of another Figure dance,
which appears to be peculiar to Bast
Cork. It is usually danced by two or
THIS dance, in jig time, is also peculiar
to East Cork. It is usually danced by
THIS is danced to the tune of the same
name. It somewhat resembles the
" Single," and requires three people to
dance it. It has a chain figure.
THIS is one of the best known Donegal
" set " dances. It is danced to an air
of that name, which is the same as the
air of the Scottish song " Whistle o'er
the lave o't." In Donegal there are
several Figure or " Set " dances in which
twelve steps, or a less number, are
danced to a particular tune. The steps
are always the same in any particular
THIS is another Donegal Figure dance,
which is danced to a tune of that name.
OF the other Figure dances mentioned,
most are danced by one or two people,
and consist of a certain number of
steps connected by a Figure or " Set."
TUNES of occupation, such as the Car-
penters' March, spinning songs, cradle
songs, ploughmen's whistles, milking
songs, are of frequent occurrence in our
collections of traditional music. Some-
thing of the same kind appears to have
existed in our dances, though in a lesser
degree. Among these peculiar dances
which, for want of a better name, we
term pantomimic dances, the followinf
were the most common :
t)ACA riA bptAnt>Aix>e.
tYlAtupeAt tiA tn-buipreifi.
Cut 6 5U|iA-6.
Drogheay s March.
Ttinnce An cipin.
ACCORDING to Sir William Wilde, this
term was applied in Connaught to a
long pointed stick used in setting po-
tatoes; and there was a tune of this
name known in parts of the West, which
was accompanied by an odd sort of
dance, a kind of pantomimic representa-
tion of the whole process of potato plant-
ing. In Munster the term is understood
to mean a stick for planting cabbages.
The tune is an ordinary double jig in
two parts with eight bars in each.
THIS was also danced to a tune of that
name. It is known throughout Munster.
but appears to have been at one time
performed as a sort of festal or panto-
mimic dance by the butchers of Limerick
city. Like our other pantomimic dances
it is reputed to be very old.
DANCED by two people to reel time. At
one part of the dance the dancers close
fists and make a sort of attack and de-
fence to the time of the music. Coola-
gurra is the old Irish name of a village
now called Mount Uniacke in the parish
of Killeagh, Co. Cork, where it has been
a favourite dance. As the alteration
in the name of the place from Coola-
gurra to Mount Uniacke took effect as
far back as 1703, some idea will be
formed of the antiquity of the dance.
THIS, the most remarkable of our panto-
mimic dances, appears to have been con-
fined to the Co. Wexford, where it was
danced until quite recently. The name
has so far puzzled antiquarians. Patrick
Kennedy in his " Banks of the Boro', "
gives the following description of it as
he saw it danced in the year 1812:
" Six men or boys stood in line at
reasonable distances apart, all armed with
short cudgels. When the music began,
feet, arm?, and cudgels commenced to
keep time, each dancer swaying his body
to the right and left, described an
upright figure of eight with the cudgels.
In these movements no noise was made,
but at certain periods the arms moved
rapidly up and down, the upper and
lower halves of the right-hand sticks
striking at the lower half of the left-
hand stick in the descent of the right
arm, the upper half in the ascent, and
vice versa. At the proper point of the
march each man commenced a kind of
fencing with the man opposite him, and
the clanks of the cudgels coincided with
the beats of the music and the move-
ments of the feet. Then commenced
the involutions, evolutions, interlacings.
and windings, every one striking at the
person with whom the movement brought
him face to face. The sounds of the
sticks supplied the bookings in the reels.
The steps danced were not difficult.
The war dance was performed to martial
tunes resembling Brian Boru's March."
THIS is our present form of the sword
dance (sticks being substituted for
swords) of the existence of which in
Ireland there is some evidence. In
the Rev. P. S. Dineen's edition of the
poems of O'Rahilly there is a stanza
from an old e!egy quoted in which some
of the pastimes indulged in of old in
great Irish houses are mentioned.
Hinnce An JATJAJIAIJ AJ
Uinnce An clAi-6im x>o
Hinnce cfie<\r-Ac fie
Ip-pinnce fA'OA jte t
It may be reasonably inferred that the
modern Uinnce AH ctpin is the lineal,
though somewhat degenerate descend-
ant of the sword dance ; and if we are
to seek its original form we must look
to the Scottish Highlands for it.
ANOTHER dance of the existence of which,
as early as 1680, we have evidence, is
what is generally known by the name
of the Cake-Dance, no doubt a mere de-
scriptive name given to it by writers
who were unable to comprehend the
real name. So far as can be ascer-
tained it was peculiar to the West of
Ireland. A cake, one account goes, was
set upon a distaff, and this was the
signal of pleasure and became the re-
ward of talent; it is sometimes carried
off by the best dancer, and sometimes by
the archest wag of the country. At a
little distance from this standard of
revelry is placed its chief agent, the
piper, who is always seated on the
ground with a hole dug near him into
which the contributions of the company
are dropped ; at the end of every jig
the piper is paid by the young man
who dances it, and who endeavours to
enhance the value of the gift by first
bestowing it on his fair partner a prac-
tice which was in vogue until very re-
cently. Though a penny a jig is
esteemed very good pay, yet the gal-
lantry and ostentation of the contributor,
anxious at once to appear generous in the
eyes of his mistress, and to out-strip the
liberality of his rivals, sometimes trebles
the sum which the piper usually receives.
Miss Owenson, the Lady Morgan of later
days, writing in the beginning of the
19th century, states that she was often
at these cake dances and observed the
inordinate passion for dancing, so pre
valent among the peasants. It was
very rare in fact to find an individual
who had not been for some time under
the tuition of a dancing master.
That the Cake-dance was of some an-
tiquity, is shown by a reference to it
by Vallancey in his Collectanea de Rebus
Hibernicis. There he tells us how
on the patron day in most parishes,
as also the feasts of Easter and Whit-
suntide, the more ordinary sort of people-
met near the ale house in the after
noon and danced for the cake; the
piper was there of course, and the cake
was provided at the charge of the ale-
wife. It was advanced on a board
on top of a pike about 10 feet high ;
the board was round and from it rose a
garland beset and tied round with
meadow flowers if it be in the early
summer, if later, the garland was set
out with apples set round on pegs ; then
the whole of the dancers began at once
in a large ring, a man and a woman
danced round about the bush ; the dan
oers who hold out the longest win the
oake and apples.
OTHER ROUND AND LONG
IN addition to the Round and Long
dances described in Part IV., there are
some others, of which the following ap-
pear to be the most important.
THIS reel, which is sometimes called the
Scottish reel, is danced by two men
and their partners. The arrangement
is somewhat peculiar. The men stand
back to back, and the women face their
partners. During the first half of the
tune, the dancers perform a figure re-
sembling the figure of 8, the men falling
in with opposite partners alternately, and
the women always returning to their
own place. They dance a step to
the second half of the tune and start
off again at the turn of the music. This
is a graceful and lively reel. In Done-
gal, as elsewhere, all reels of this class
are played in double time.
THIS is danced by one man and two
women, and it is usual to dance two
reels together. It has a number of
DANCED by competitors from Gorey at the
Wexford Feis held at Enniscorthy in
Oct., 1902. The dance contained a cer-
tain number of " steps " and appeared
to have the full complement of parts.
It was taught the competitors by the
father of one of them and had. to his
knowledge, been danced for at least a
couple of generations in that district.
DANCED by competitors from toe neAriiAijt,
Cavan, branch of the Gaelic League at
the Leinster Feis. 1902. It has the full
complement of parts, viz., opening,
body, figures, and finish.
THIS is danced to a tune of the same
name in jig time. It may be danced
by any number of persons. The couples
stand facing each other as in the Long
ANOTHER Long dance, to a tune of the
same name in jig time.
IRISH DANCE MUSIC.
FOR a number of reasons it has been
found necessary to restrict, at least for
the present, this section of the book
merely to the consideration of Irish
dance music in so far as it bears on
THE jig is the most characteristic musi-
cal measure among Irish dance tunes. It
is in six-eight time, ia divided, if " regu-
lar ", into two equal parts of eight bars
each, and may be in structure either
double or single. In a double jig the
bar usually consists of 6 quavers in two
triplets; in a single jig, however, a crot-
chet followed by a quaver takes the
place of the triplet in the double jig.
For dancing purposes all regularly con-
structed jigs are played in double time,
that is, the first part of eight bars is
played twice, the second eight bars is
then played twice, and so on. There
are a number of Irish tunes, which
though in jig time are " irregular," in
the sense that they do not consist of
two equal parts of 8 bars each. The
tune Patrick's Day is an example of
this class of jig; it has eight bars in
the first part and 6 in the second. The
ordinary jig cannot, obviously, be danced
to tunes of this class.
The following are good jig tunes for
dancing purposes :
The Top of Cork Road, The Connaught
Man's Rambles, Tatter Jack Walsh, The
Miners of Wicklow, The Praties are
dug, bocAjt 6 iuAtj, Smash the Windows,
Lillibulero, Rowdledum Randy.
Reel and BOTH reel and hornpipe are written in
Hornpipe! two-four, or common time, but there is
this difference between them, that in the
hornpipe there are usually two accents
where there is only one in the reel.
In other words the former is a much
more jerky measure than the latter ; the
reel, indeed, is the smoothest of Irish
dance measures. For step dancing the
reel is played in single time; the horn-
pipe, like the jig, being played in double
rime. For round dances, however, the
reel is played in double time.
The following are among the best, as
they are the best known, Irish reels :
Flower of Donnybrook, Miss M'Cloud,
The wind that shakes the barley, Bonny
Kate, Limerick Lasses, The Boyne
Water, Farewell to Whiskey, The Green
Fields of Erin, The Pure Drop, All the
Ways to Galway, Sc^icin eofttiA.
THIS is written in nine-eight time, with
nine quavers, in three triplets, (or the
equivalent thereof) in a bar. In the
opinion of Dr. Petrie the measure is
almost peculiar to Irish music. It is
played double both for step dances and
Hop-jig tunes: Rocky Road to Dub-
lin, Drops of Brandy, Dublin Streets,
The Munster Gimlet, Ride a Mile, Cork
City, Lasses of Sligo.
for the convenience of students of Irish
traditional music the following list
of collections is given.
THE PETRIE COLLECTIONS.
The Ancient Music of Ireland, edited
by George Petrie and published
under the superintendence of the
Society for the Preservation of the
Melodies of Ireland. Dublin, 1855.
[This book, which contains a
considerable number of Irish
airs, with a running commen-
tary by the Editor, is the most
important contribution to the
study of Ancient Irish Music].
The Ancient Music of Ireland, by
George Petrie, Supplement to the
above collection, containing 34 airs,
also with running commentary by
the Editor. Dublin, Gill and Son.
Ancient Music of Ireland, from the
Petrie Collection, arranged by F.
Hoffmann. Dublin, Pigott & Co.
[This collection contains 202
airs taken from Dr. Petrie's
large MS. collection],
The Complete Petrie Collection, pub-
lished for the Irish Literary Society
of London by Boosey & Co., Lon-
don. Edited by Sir C. Villiers
[This magnificent collection
will contain all the airs col
lected by Dr. Petrie about
1700. Two parts have al-
ready appeared ; the third and
final part will, it is under-
stood, be published before the
close of the present year (1902)].
THE BUNTING COLLECTIONS.
NEXT in importance are the collections
made by Edward Bunting and published
in 1796, 1809 and 1840.
General Collection of the Ancient
|riSh Music. Containing a var-
iety of admired airs never before
published and also the composi-
tions of Conolan and Carolan,
collected from Harpers, etc., in
the different provinces of Ireland.
Edited by Edward Bunting. Lon-
don, Preston & Son v
General Collection of the Ancient
Music Of Ireland, with a disser-
tation on the Egyptian, British,
and Irish Harp. London, Clementi
Ancient Music of Ireland. Dublin,
Hodges, Smith, and Co, [This
is the most valuable collection
made by Bunting. It contains
an interesting dissertation on harps
and harp music].
The following Collectiont, arranged in
chronological order, will be found to
possets considerable value for the
student of Irish traditional music.
Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book. Circa
The collection of airs, usually 1610.
known by this name, contains at
least three Irish tunes, viz., The
Irish Ho-Hoane, The Irish Dumpe,
and Callino Casturame (? cailin og
Playford's Dancing Master. 1650
In the various editions of this to
work there are many Irish airs 1725.
given. Some of these are men-
tioned in Part I. of this book.
[The collections of Country
Dances published by J. Walsh,
London, between the years
1700 and 1720 also contain
some Irish airs].
Burke Thumoth'S (? Thomas Burke) Circa
Collections. " Twelve Scotch and 1720.
Twelve Irish Airs " and " Twelve
English and Twelve Irish Airs."
London, J. Simpson. The latter j
collection contains some airs com- j
posed by Carolan.
Neale's Collections of Irish Tunes. ! Circa
Published by John and William ! 1730.
Neal (also Neale, Neill & O'Neill), '
Dublin, Christ Church Yard. The
three collections are:
A Book of Irish Tunes.
A Book of Irish and Scotch
A Collection of Country Dances.
A Collection of Carolan's Airs.
Dublin, John Lee.
E. Exshaw, a Dublin bookseller,
published about the year 1780 a
magazine in which musical supple-
ments were given, containing
many Irish airs.
Historical Memoirs of the Irish
BardS, by J. C. Walker. Dublin,
[A number of interesting Irish
airs are appended to this
The Hibernian Muse.
A collection of Irish airs, includ-
ing the most favourite compositions
[This valuable collection con-
tains 37 airs by Carolan, and
67 others, which include a
number of Irish tunes from
"The Poor Soldier", "The
Duenna ", " The School for
Scandal ", " The Agreeable
Surprise", "Love in a Camp",
" Beggars Opera ", " Robin
Hood ", " Rosina ", etc.]
Jackson's Celebrated Irish Tunes.
Dublin. Edmond Lee. [This col-
lection contains 13 airs].
Gooke's Selection of Irish Airs.
" 21 favourite original Irish Airs
(never before printed)." Dublin,
Ancient collection of Irish airs
by John Mulholland. Belfast,
Simms & Mclntyre.
[Vol. II. is dated 1810].
Selection of the most admired
original Irish airs ; never before
published. Dublin, Hime.
' Far r ell's Collection of National Irish
Music for the Union pipes; with
instructions for learning the pipes.
[Probably the most valuable
work on the subject].
Smollet Holden's Collection. Circa
Old Established Irish slow and 1802.
quick tunes. Dublin, S. Holden. j
Moore's Irish Melodies.
Thomson's Collection (Beethoven's har-
The Hon. George O'Callaghan.
The Citizen Magazine, containing Irish
airs, with a commentary by W. E.
Poets and Poetry of Munster.
Do. (2nd Series).
Spirit of the Nation.
Levey's Collection of Irish Dance Music,
P. Hughes' Collection.
Dr. P. W. Joyce's Collection with a
valuable running commentary.
Single jig, pope
Hop- jig, pope luAt
Period (n.), buille An
Side couples, Rg^ Cor .
tierce cliAtAin. si ng i e ree l, COM Aon-
Intermediate couples, M ^ t
Contrary couples, &te P' Ceim ' P L ceim '
Side, couples opposite,
Side-step, An teAc-
Two short-threes, An
Bising step, An cAjt-
t")P1-MT~P tYIP -\TIOtt1
Sink, An CAWA-O.
Cut (n.), Slior-
Dance (v. imp.), n.nnc Sevens, SeAccAnnA.
(pi. Uinnci-6). Swm S ( v ')> tiiAfCAro.
Grind (n.), CJIUTJA-O.
Double jig, pope
Turn (v.), CAf (pi. CA| -
Time (music), An Aimfip-
Beel-time, A i m f i ji
The dances described in Part IV. of
this book were obtained from the
From CAT>5 SeAJ^Ain UA SiiitleAOAin,
dancing master, Glenbeigh, Co. Kerry.
16 hand reel.
12 hand reel.
" Half-chain " 8 hand reel.
"Glenbeigh Bridge" 8 hand jig.
" Quarter chain " 8 hand jig.
" Humours of Bandon " 4 hand jig.
"porm-AlA " 4 hand reel.
" An Uinnce Uoinnce " Long Dance.
Taken down in London from Patrick
D. Reidy, Professor of dancing to
the Gaelic League of London, and form-
erly dancing master of Castleisland, Co.
" Slip-sides " 8 hand reel.
" Half-round " 8 hand .reel.
"High Caul Cap" 8 hand reel.
"St. Patrick's Day" 8 hand jig.
" Square " 4 hand reel.
" Kerry Dance " Long Dance.
" Hop-time " Long Dance.
Taken down in Cork from John O'Reilly
of Killorglin, Co. Kerry.
" Cross Reel " 8 hand.
"Full Chain" 8 hand jig.
Taken down in Glasgow from Patrick
Gallagher, of Ballaghtrang, Co. Done-
" Hands across " 8 hand jig.
" Duke reel " 6 hand.
"Half-turn" 4 hand reel.
" Hook jig " 4 hand.
j ; l' J?Ainne t)uin HA n-gAll" Country
Taken down in Glasgow from Thomas
Danaher, of Moonegay, Co. Limerick.
" Limerick Walls " Long Dance.
Taken down in Dublin from Richard A.
Foley, of Knockmonlea, Co. Cork.
" Coji -an ttocAiji rhoifi " 4 hand.
Taken down at Marblehill, Co. Donegal.
" Fairy Reel " 6 hand.
Taken down from competitors from
Castlebridge. Co. Wexford, at the Ennis-