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^ OF PRI^



^LOGICAL SE*^



BR 45 .B35 1863
Bampton lectures



THE

BAMPTON LECTUKES



FOR MDCCCLXIII.



LOIfDON"

rltlNTED BY SPOTTISWOODB AND CO.

NEW-STREET SQUARE



THE RELATION



BETWEEN THE



DIVINE AND HUMAN ELEMENTS IN
HOLY SCRIPTURE.



EIGHT LECTUKES



PREACHED BEFORE

THE UNIVERSITY OE OXFORD
IN THE YEAR MDCCCLXIII.

ON THE FOUNDATION OF

THE LATE REV. JOHN BAMPTON, M.A.)L-

CANON OF SALISBURY.



J. HANNAH, D.C.L.

WARDEN OF TRINITT COLLEGE, GLENALMOND, AND PANTONIAN PROFESSOR OF THEOLOGT j
LATE FELLOW OF LINCOLN COLLEGE, OXFORD.



LONDON:

JOHN MTJEEAT, ALBEMAELE STEEET,

3863.



The rigkt of translation is reserved



EXTRACT

FROM

THE LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT

OF THE LATE

EEV. JOHN BAMPTON,

CANON OF SALISBURY.



' I give and bequeath my Lands and Estates to the Chancellor,

Masters, and Scholars of the University of Oxford for ever, to have
and to hold all and singular the said Lands or Estates upon trust, and
to the intents and purposes hereinafter mentioned ; that is to say,
I will and appoint that the Vice- Chancellor of the University of
Oxford for the time being shall take and receive all the rents,
issues, and profits thereof, and (after all taxes, reparations, and
necessary deductions made) that he pay all the remainder to the
endowment of eight Divinity Lecture Sermons, to be established
for ever in the said University, and to be performed in the
manner following :

' I direct and appoint, that, upon the first Tuesday in Easter Term,
a Lecturer be yearly chosen by the Heads of Colleges only, and by
no others, in the room adjoining to the Printing-House, between the
hours of ten in the morning and two in the afternoon, to preach
eight Divinity Lecture Sermons, the year following, at St. Mary's
in Oxford, between the commencement of the last month in Lent
Term, and the end of the third week in Act Term.

' Also I direct and appoint, that the eight Divinity Lecture
Sermons shall be preached upon either of the following Subjects —
to confirm and establish the Christian Faith, and to confute all



vi EXTRACT FROM CANON BAMPTON'S WILL.

' heretics and schismatics — upon the divine authority of the Holy
1 Scriptures — upon the authority of the writings of the primitive
' Fathers, as to the faith and practice of the primitive Church —
1 upon the Divinity of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ — upon
' the Divinity of the Holy Ghost — upon the Articles of the Christian
' Faith, as comprehended in the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds.

' Also I direct, that thirty copies of the eight Divinity Lecture
' Sermons shall be always printed within two months after they are
' preached, and one copy shall be given to the Chancellor of the
' University, and one copy to the Head of every College, and one
' copy to the Mayor of the City of Oxford, and one copy to be put
' into the Bodleian Library ; and the expense of printing them shall
' be paid out of the revenue of the Land or Estates given for
' establishing the Divinity Lecture Sermons ; and the Preacher shall
' not be paid, nor be entitled to the revenue, before they are
' printed.

' Also I direct and appoint, that no person shall be qualified to
' preach the Divinity Lecture Sermons, unless he hath taken the
' degree of Master of Arts at least, in one of the two Universities of
' Oxford or Cambridge; and that the same person shall never preach
' the Divinity Lecture Sermons twice.'




CONTENTS.



LECTURE I.

INSPIRATION AND REVELATION ; THEIR RESPECTIVE DEFINITIONS
AND RANGE PAG3 1

[Delivered March 8.]

Romans viii. 16.

* The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that ice
are the children of God.'

Introduction. — The influence of the Holy Spirit, whether before or
since the Fall, not such as to supersede the free agency of man.
The unfettered action of our faculties within their own sphere
compatible with our dependence on the grace of God for all
good. The consequent combination of a divine and human
element in all our holy thoughts and works.

Probability that in that purest form of spiritual influence to
which we owe the Holy Scriptures the divine and human
elements will both be complete.

Erroneous tendencies of opposite theories, which on the one
hand cause the divine to exclude the human, and on the other
hand cause the human to blot out the divine.

In suggesting that these may be corrected by admitting the
completeness of both elements, we make no attempt to draw a
frontier line between those elements, or to define the mode of the
Divine influence ; but we know the avenue through which the
Holy Spirit reaches us — namely, through the spirit in ourselves.

The starting-point, then, must be sought for in the doctrine
of Inspiration; to which the doctrine of Revelation sup-
plies the counterpart: the distinction between these words



VU1 CONTENTS.

corresponding, though not with perfect exactness, to that
which we draw between the writers of Scripture and the
subject-matter of their record. The two terms not coexten-
sive, either with each other or with Scripture.

I. Inspiration implies the existence of a spirit in man, which is
capable of holding communion with the Holy Spirit of God.

1. Uniform accuracy with which, from creation to resurrec-
tion, Scripture treats the human irvtv/Aa as a separate principle,
which must be carefully distinguished from the sold. St. Paul's
trichotomy not to be confounded with the Aristotelian, which
rests upon a different method. The proper place and province
cf the spirit, especially in regard to the differentia of man.

2. The Presence of the Holy Spirit not to be limited to any
one particular form of Inspiration. Difference of degrees
under which the Presence of all the Persons in the Trinity is
revealed to us.

Presence of the Holy Spirit in the material universe ; in the
intellect, the will, the moral faculties of man ; but in old times
more especially as inspiring the series of the Old Testament
writers. Great change traceable in the New Testament, where
the Baptism of John and all other gifts previous to the day of
Pentecost are counted as nothing in comparison with the gifts,
themselves also widely diversified, which are bestowed under
the conditions of the Christian covenant. Inspiration of the
New Testament writers analogous to what was noted in the Old.

Illustrate by the distinction between comparative and abso-
lute condemnation and exclusion, as applied to other aspects of
the gifts of God.

The wide range of Inspiration no argument against our
belief in the special intensity of its peculiar influence in the
Bible.

Converging proofs of the canonical authority of Scripture.

II. Revelation supplies the main feature in the differentia, by which
that special inspiration is defined. But here again we can
trace fainter kinds outside of Scripture, in manifestations of
God through the works of nature and the conscience of man.

Revelations granted in Scripture, and there distinguishable
from human materials, differ from both the above kinds of
manifestation, as being direct communications to the human



CONTENTS. IX

spirit of objective knowledge which it could not or did not
otherwise command : —

1. Looking at Scripture externally, it contains two series of
facts, which answer to each other in the Old and New Testa-
ments, and which are combined into unity by a uniform and
supernatural interpretation revealed to its writers.

2. Taking the chain of facts as one, it is all along accom-
panied by the revelation of a higher series, belonging to a
supernatural order. Impossibility that this could have been
supplied from human resources.

The Presence of the Spirit, which gave that revelation, to
be again carefully distinguished from His Presence in the hearts
of all Christians, as the sole source of a holy life. Answer
remonstrances against the bondage of a historical religion, by
pointing out that

1. Scripture not only embodies the results of the highest
spiritual gifts; but

2. Records the only certified revelations from the unseen
world.

These explanations intended to form the basis of an enquiry into the
completeness of both the divine and human elements, to each
of which subjects three of the succeeding Lectures are devoted.



LECTURE II.

THE DIVINE ELEMENT — REALITY OF THE REVELATION, AS ESTA-
BLISHED BY A CONTRAST WITH HEATHEN RELIGIONS . PAGE 38

[Delivered March 15.]

Acts xvii. 30, 31.
'And the times of this ignorance God winked at; but now
commandeth all men everywhere to repent : Because He
hath appointed a day, in the which He will judge the world
in righteousness, by that Man whom He hath ordained ;
whereof He hath given assurance unto all men, in that
He hath raised Him from the dead'

The comparison between the divine element of Scripture and the
substance of other religions to be worked out first as to truth,
and secondly as to falsehood.



X CONTENTS.

I. The five classes under which the whole subject may be
arranged : —

1. The religious knowledge of the heathen, as ascertained
independently of Scripture. Different theories on its source,
and on its relation to the contents # of the sacred record. The
two main aspects in which it has presented itself to the obser-
vation of the Church. Common point of departure for both
streams of sacred knowledge to be sought for in the primeval
promise.

2. The same as traceable within the Scriptures themselves.
Relation of the Church from the beginning to the outer world
with which it came into immediate contact.

3. The divine element of Scripture properly so called.
Nature of its development; rather analytic than synthetic.
That development traceable both through theology, in the gra-
dual disclosures of the Name of God ; and through morality, as it
is deepened and organised in the writings of the prophets.

4. The positive ordinances by which it was guarded ; their
nature and true relation to spiritual religion.

5. The human element through which it was conveyed.
The characters and other qualifications of the inspired writers.

II. Falsehoods and shortcomings of heathen religions: —

1. The truths which can be traced in them never embraced
any entire system ; the religions were ever ready to go over to
the side of evil; they degenerated till they represented a lower
moral stage than that of their own worshippers; when the
forms of religion broke away from their substance, and my-
thologies became the least religious portion of the national life.

2. Their whole framework was manifestly human, not
divine ; as proved by an inspection of both theologies and
philosophies of religion.

3. The difference illustrated at length from St. Paul's Dis-
course at Athens. Nature of his appeal ; and the partial
support which each portion of it would secure from different
sections of his hearers. His ' new doctrine :'

o. As to God; the Creator, the Preserver, and the Governor
of men.

ft. As to mankind; all men brethren of each other and
equally sons of God.



CONTENTS. xi

y. As to the new relation between God and man through
the Redemption and Resurrection.
The contrast thus brought to its issue in the Incarnation of Christ,
and the grand results which depend upon it. Mode in which
the one fatal defect of all false religions was remedied, when
a way was thus opened, through which man could again find
access to God.



LECTURE III.

THE DIVINE ELEMENT — REALITY OF THE INSPIRATION, AS ILLUS-
TRATED BY THE ANTINOMIES OF SCRIPTURE . . page 74

[Delivered April 19.]

1 Cor. xiii. 12.
' Noio toe see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face. 1

From the reality of Scripture Revelation, we pass to consider its
Inspiration; and first, for the Antinomies of Scripture; or the
mode in which great truths were brought within the range
of the human intellect.

General character of Scripture accommodation ; nature and limita-
tions of the doctrine ; the revelation as explicit and direct as
the qualifications of its hearers would permit them to receive.

Two modes in which alleged contradictions in Scripture can be dealt
with; indirect, or apologetic; and direct, or expository. The
latter course to be now pursued; moral difficulties, however,
being reserved for Lecture VI.

Distinction between contradiction in the text and contradiction in the
comment. The latter on no account to be mistaken for the
former.

The general characteristic of the highest principles, that they can only
be set forth fully in contrasted statements, of which neither is
exclusively true. Show this both in speculation and in reve-
lation. Causes of this peculiarity twofold : —

1 . Relative ; in cases where a counter-truth is revealed by
the same authority.

2. Absolute; in cases where the difficulty emerges of itself,



Xll CONTENTS.

if we make the effort to fathom a principle which baffles the

operation of our thought.
General list of illustrations from Scripture ; and different degrees

in which the apparent difficulty can be removed.
These instances supply the basis for the following remarks on the

method of Scripture : —

1. That each alternative is usually stated unreservedly,
simply, and emphatically ; with no attempt to weaken its force
by any suggestions of a reconciliation. Such concentration a
foremost sign of earnestness and truth.

2. This fearlessness of enunciation seen most conspicuously,
when the antithesis is brought out in one passage, in one chap-
ter, in one book, or in one department of Scripture.

3. Illustrated by the elpwvtia. of the Jews; as shown, not
only by their acceptance of the Book of Job, but by the lan-
guage of Abraham and Moses, of David, of Asaph, of Solomon,
of Jeremiah.

Detailed examination of two more prominent instances : —

1. The apparent corrections supplied by later writings to
the earlier teaching; the Second Commandment compared with
Ezekiel xviii. ; and passages examined which seem to impose
limitations on the claims of the Law, and point to its approach-
ing cessation at Christ's Advent.

2. The apparent contrariety between St. Paul and St. James,
on the respective provinces of faith and works.

Marvellous unity of Scripture, as traceable beneath the external
diversity of its various writers, contrasted as they are with
each other in position, character, and previous training.



CONTENTS. Xill



LECTUEE IV.

THE DIVINE ELEMENT — REALITY OF THE INSPIRATION, AS ILLUS-
TRATED BY THE DUPLEX SENSUS .... PAGE 107

[Delivered April 26.]
KOMANS XV. 4.

1 Whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for
our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the
Scriptures might have hope.' 1

Two conditions of a revelation ; that it shall be adjusted to its
original hearers, yet capable of future expansion. The latter
the basis of the duplex sensus; a doctrine which has been
much misunderstood and suspected.

The necessity of admitting such a doctrine, under proper limita-
tions, established both from the very conception of a revela-
tion, and from the facts which are presented in Scripture ;
and that, whether we look at the language of the prophets,
or at the interpretations furnished by Christ and His apostles.

The explanation to be found in what may be called the double
authorship of Scripture ; and in the peculiarity that the res
beneath the voces are significant as well as they.

But we have here to note especially :

1. That the rights of the human writers are invariably
respected and reserved. Each always had one primary
and sufficient meaning, connected with his special mission.
The secondary application, which is often repeated more than
once before the end, is in addition to, and in no way subver-
sive of, the original or primary meaning.

2. That the first sense does not lose its use and interest
when the second is disclosed. Abiding value of the Mosaic
Law.

The New Testament usage suggests three classes of interpretation : —

1. Symbolical; when objects and events, which in them-
selves were real and historical, are found to embody a spiritual
lesson.

2. Typical ; when that spiritual lesson is distinctly prophetic.



XIV CONTENTS.

3. Representative ; wheu rules are translated back into

their principles.
Illustrations at length of all these, and especially of the first, by a

detailed examination of St. Paul's mode of dealing with the

history of Sarah and Hagar.
Extension of the same principle to explain the New Testament

quotations from the Old Testament.
Enquiry whether we are to confine ourselves to the recognition of

such secondary meanings as are authorised in Scripture.
Summary of the objections which the above course of argument

proposes to remove.



LECTURE V.

THE HUMAN ELEMENT — HISTORY AND SCIENCE . page 139

[Delivered May 3.]

2 Cor. iv. 7.

' We have this treasure in earthen vessels, that the excellency
of the power may he of God, and not of us." 1

A well-instructed faith need not fear the complete recognition of the
human element. Evil of deductive definitions and exaggerated
language, with instances of both.

Real ground for uneasiness because of the attempt to argue across
from alleged historical inaccuracy to general untruthfulness,
and even moral and religious error. Restrictions under which
the enquiry must be conducted.

I. Historical Question. — Light thrown on the subject by

1. Various readings in Scripture;

2. Apparent method of its composition, and its relation to
earlier materials ;

3. Traces in the older Scriptures of slight editorial glosses
or corrections.

Examination under each of these heads of the precise significancy
of the facts established ; and contrast between the little which
liny really prove, and the exaggerated conclusions which have
been rested on them.



CONTENTS. XV

II. Scientific Question. — Grand distinction between the form of
Scripture and its substance; and danger of thrusting human
interpretations into the exegesis of Scripture itself. Meaning
of the warning, that we are not to tie down Scripture to
theories of science, which may have coloured the contempo-
rary language of its human authors. That language optical or
phenomenal ; and in other respects also adjusted to its earliest
hearers.

Examination of the record of creation ; which should be regarded
rather as a theological revelation than as history or tradition,
or as visions, parable, or psalm. The geological attack con-
fined in general to the form, not the substance, of the record.
Reasons for which we may conceive that this particular form
was imposed ; and its connection with the Fourth Command-
ment.

Evil of misunderstandings, on either side, in relation to the scien-
tific question. True position of Scripture in its bearings on
science.



LECTURE VI.
TIIE HUMAN ELEMENT — MORAL DIFFICULTIES . . page 171

[Delivered May 10.]

Matt. xiii. 33.

' The kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman
took, and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole ivas
leavened,'

The obstacles which retarded man's recovery of truth after the Fall.
Light thrown on this subject by the figure of leaven, as suggest-
ing the gradual introduction of a counter-principle of good,
to thwart and exterminate the influence of evil. Illustrate by
the gradual unfolding of intellectual and moral truth, and the
establishment of purer national customs and laws.

Instances of moral difficulties raised on ancient Scriptural histories ;
as to the apparent neglect of truth, justice, and mercy.

Fragmentary character of the earliest morality ; its want of organisa-
tion and discrimination.



XVI CONTENTS.

Proof afforded by more detailed narratives in Scripture, that a
mixture of sin in the motives of actions was followed by a
mixture of evil with the reward.

Necessity of avoiding the error which would treat all parts of Scrip-
ture as standing on the same level, and would examine its
lessons without reference to the circumstances under which
they were conveyed.

Position of the older Jews ; the worth and work of the old Jewish
zeal ; and the extent to which Scripture everywhere recognises
the need of righteous anger as a guard against sin.

Detailed examination of the Song of Deborah ; its date, its circum-
stances, and the explanations under which its words must be
received.

Correction in form to which such a narrative must be subjected
before we can see the exact bearing of its lessons for ourselves.
The love for good incompatible with the tolerance of evil ; as
illustrated from the history of Moses, of St. John the Divine,
and of our Lord.

Exact relation of lessons drawn respectively from the Old and New
Testaments.



LECTURE VII.

THE HUMAN ELEMENT— SUPERIORITY OF SCRIPTURE TO ITS
WRITERS ........ FACE 198

[Delivered May 17.]

Acts xiv. 15.
' We also are men of like passions with you?

The subject of the preceding Lecture to be completed by a more
minute examination of two leading instances taken from
the New Testament, where fuller materials for analysis are
given.

Human interest of Scripture largely dependent on the fact, that
its writers were ' men of like passions ' with ourselves. Yet
the divine message never tarnished by the errors of those
through whom it was conveyed.



CONTENTS. XVli

I. Exemplify by the records of St. Peter's life. Three great illus-
trations of the uneven balance between faith and knowledge in
St. Peter's character : —

1. His declaration of the Divinity of Christ, followed by his
denial ;

2. His announcement of the approaching free admission of
the Gentiles, followed by the doubts which it needed a
heavenly vision to remove;

3. His speech at the council of Jerusalem in favour of
releasing the Gentiles from the Law of Moses, followed by his
vacillation at Antioch.

Evidence that both by the side of these events in his speeches,
and subsequently in his Epistles, his Divine message stood
completely free from any weakness which could thus be traced
in his personal character.

II. Difference of character between St. Peter' and St. Paul. The
double aspect in which the earlier life of St. Paul can be
regarded. Continuity of what was good, but sudden removal
of the earlier evil. Three questions arise after his conversion : —

1. Do we find any traces of his Christian development
after that period ?

2. Supposing it to exist, does it imply that there were im-
perfections in his earliest message ?

3. Can we trace the vibrations of uncertainty in his
writings ?

Admitting the first point, we do not find that the evidence is sufficient
to give an affirmative answer to the second and third of these
questions. Examination of the three subjects in detail. Proof
of the unity which marked his message, gained by comparing
his speeches with his Epistles. Characteristics of his method,
as shown by his statements on the Law, and on the position of
the Jews.

Great importance of the human element in Scripture.



xvm CONTENTS.



LECTURE VIII.
GENERAL CONCLUSION page 226

[Delivered June 7.]

2 Tim. ii. 15.
'Rightly dividing the word of truth.''

I. Purport of this closing Lecture to sum up the results which it
has been endeavoured to establish.

Our question is the narrowest, though not the least important, of
three great controversies; relating to the respective differentiae
of Scripture, of Christianity, and of Man.

Duty of dealing with all three calmly; and of recognising without
fear the generic resemblances, so long as the specific distinc-
tions are properly guarded.

For our immediate question; dwell on the importance of according
a complete recognition to both the divine and human elements,
as the only apparent mode of reconciling the perplexities of
the great problem.

Analogy with the twofold nature of Christ; how far we may appeal
to it; what it accounts for; and wherein it stops short.

The dread of acknowledging the human element in Scripture rests
on a mistaken conception of the place and effect of sin.
Parallel with the ' divine decorum ' which is traceable through-
out Christ's life, though He ' was in all points tempted like as
we are.'

The principle maintained is to be regarded a the result of an enquiry,
not the dictate of a theory. Our examination of the facts lias
traversed the documentary history of Scripture, as to various
readings, editorial glosses, and enduring misconceptions; its
relation to older materials, as well as to tradition and heathen
history and literature ; and the form in which it resembles
other ancient histories, though arguments from chronology
and numbers are to be used with caution. Application of the
same to scientific language. The 'divine decorum' has been



Online LibraryJ HannahThe relation between the Divine and human elements in Holy Scripture : eight lectures preached before the University of Oxford in the year MDCCCLXIII .. → online text (page 1 of 30)