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The relation between the Divine and human elements in Holy Scripture : eight lectures preached before the University of Oxford in the year MDCCCLXIII .. online

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tribuunt, imo plus etiam spiritui dant, dicentes spiritum esse
ajtemuin, atyQaprov, imo faoTroiovv: at longe aliam volunt esse
•^i/X»7e conditionem. £Lec post hominis lapsum a spiritu sejuncta
Qvr)Ti] est, atque turn demuni immortalitatis particeps erit, si cum
spiritu denuo fuerit conjuncta.' P. 171 ; cf. p. 174. On the position
of the heathen, see also Lecture II., p. 40, sqq.

Note 2, page 2. See the positions laid down in 529 at Concil.
Araus. II., Labbe, viii.711. Compare S. Thorn. Aquin., I ma II dac
cix. 2 ; Hooker, Works, ii. 549 ; Bull, Works, ii. 134 ; Mohler,
Symbolism, i. 36, &c. ; Mozley, Predestination, pp. 163, 345, &c. ;
Bright, Notes on XVIII. Sermons of St. Leo, p. 144. The two lines
of opinion are drawn out at length in an article on the relation of
Calvinism to Modern Doubt, in the Christian Remembrancer for
Jan. 1863.

Note 3, page 4. Following the more general expressions of
Scripture, rov Kvpiov avvepyovvroQ, Mark xvi. 20; Qeov yap icr/AEY
avvepyoi, 1 Cor. iii. 9 ; crvvtpyovvTEQ l£, 2 Cor. vi. 1 ;• the early
Christian writers applied such terms to the composition of the
Bible as GvvzpyovvroQ Kai rov dyiov Hvev/jiaroQ' Origen, On Matt.
iii. 732, B. ; cf. rij tov Qeiov Tlrtvparoq rov avvepyouvTOQ avro'ic
cnro^ei^ei' Euseb., H. E., iii. 24, p. 84, ed. Burton. Even so early
an authority as Irenams accounts for hyperbata in the style of
St. Paul: ' propter velocitatem sermonum suorum,et pi"opter impetum
qui in ipso est spiritus.' — Contr. Hair., iii. 7, p. 182. With this we
may compare St. Augustine's ' inspiratus a Deo, sed tamen homo.'
{In Joh. Evang. I. i., Opp. III. ii. 289.) But the complete recog-
nition of the human element, in correction of the stricter definitions
of the seventeenth century, was reserved for writers nearer to our
own time, who are now accustomed, on all hands, to accept the
distinction, which was once regarded with deep suspicion, as the very
basis of their reasoning. See, for instance, among works expressly
on the subject of inspiration, Gaussen's Theopneustic, p. 54: ' Tant
s'en faut que nous meconnaissions cette individuality humainc,
partout empreinte dans nos livres sacr6s, qu'au contraire c'est avec
ime gratitude profonde, avec unc admiration toujours croissante, que
nous considerons ce caractere vivant,* &c. Dr. Lee, Inspiration of


Holy Scripture, 2nd ed., p. 18, &c: ' The Bible presents to us, in
whatever light we regard it, two distinct elements, the divine and
the human. This is a matter of fact. On the one hand, God has
granted a revelation ; on the other, human language has been made
the channel to convey, and men have been chosen as the agents to
record it. From this point all theories on the subject of Inspiration
take their rise.' Cf. pp. 369, 505, 507, 510, &c. Mr. Westcott's
Introduction to the Study of the Gospels, Pref., init. : ' A message of
God through men and to men.' P. 5 : the wrong view, when ' men
considered the Divine agency of Inspiration as acting externally,
and not internally, as acting on man, and not through man.' P. 7 :
' it is authoritative, for it is the voice of God ; it is intelligible, for
it is in the language of men.' P. 10 : ' the divine element is already
in combination with the human when we are first able to observe
its presence.' P. 12 : ' the combination of the Divine influence with
the human utterance.' P. 14 : ' the human element becomes part of
the message from heaven,' &c. &c. Mr. T. E. Birks, The Bible and
Modern Thought, p. 339 : ' The two elements (doctrine and science)
are blended throughout no less intimately than body and soul are
united in man himself.' Pp. 475-85, an Appendix on { the im-
portance of recognising fully the human element in Scripture, as
one integral part of the true doctrine of Inspiration.' (Cf. pp. 212,
216, 259, 261, 263, 283, 284, and Christian Observer, January
1863, pp. 65-7.) Dr. Davidson, Introduction to Old Testament,
ii. 438 : ' the Old Testament prophecies . . . bear the irresistible
impress of their people and time, as well as the personality of the
speaker ; in other words, the cooperation of his own spirit.'

The list of these names indicates that the position may be made
the starting-point for the most opposite opinions. But it will be
worth while to collect a few more scattered quotations from writers
equally distinct in view, to show the hold which the formula has
gained upon contemporary language. Monod, Les Adieux cVAdolphe
Monod a ses Amis et a VEglise, p. 170: 'II a ete clairement
dans les vues de Dieu qu'a chaque page de ce livre que nous
appelons la Parole de Dieu, on reconnut en meme temps une parole
d'homme.' Dr. Arnold, Appendix to Sermons, i. 427 : ' Every
prophecy has, according to the very definition of the word, a
double source ; it has, if I may venture so to speak, two authors, the
one human, the other Divine.' SchatF, Germany, its Univei'sities, &c,
p. 298 : ' The Holy Scriptures are strictly Divine and strictly human



from beginning to end. The two natures are here united in one
organic whole. The Holy Spirit lived, thought, moved in, and
spoke through, the prophets and apostles, but as conscious, intel-
ligent, free agents, not as blind and passive machines.' Professor H.
Browne, in Aids to Faith, p. 287 : ' When we come to consider it,
there can be no doubt but that we must admit a human and a
divine element.' P. 290 : ' Such observations (of Chrysostom and
Jerome) led to a greater appreciation of the human element in the
composition of Scripture.' Cf. pp. 289, 293, 302, 308, 309, 313, 318.
Dr. Vaughan, The Booh and the Life, p. 108 : ' Impossible as it is
accurately to define in such compositions the limits of the Divine
and the human, yet unquestionably both elements enter largely, and
must do so, into the result.' Mr. J. Grote, Examination of Dr.
ImshingtorCs Judgment, p. 23 : ' I do not see why, so far as penalty
is concerned, Dr. Williams may not as well say unqualifiedly that
the Bible is an expression of human reason, as Dr. Lushington may
say unqualifiedly that it is the result of Divine interposition. Each
proposition is incomplete : the Bible is from God as well as from
man ; from man as well as from God.' Mr. Chretien, Letter and
Spirit, p. 59 : ' We look at the instrument ; we see that one mind
has adapted its parts to a single purpose : but we also see, that to
form each of these parts, subordinate agents wrote with hand and
mind. God in His providence has joined the several books together
in a volume ; the several books were written by individual men.'
Bishop of St. David's, Letter to Rev. Rowland Williams, D.D., p. 62 :
■ In common, I believe, with all on whose opinion I set any value,
I not only recognise, but claim for Scripture a human as well as a
divine element. That woidd be the fundamental condition of any
"theory of inspiration" that I should lay down.' Bishop of
Gloucester, in Aids to Faith, p. 411 : 'If asked to define what we
mean by the inspiration of Scripture, let us be bold and make
answer, that fully convinced as we are that the Scripture is the
revelation, through human media, of the infinite mind of God to the
finite mind of man, and recognising as we do both a human and a
divine element in the written Word, we verily believe that the
Holy Ghost was so breathed into the mind of the writer, so illu-
mined his spirit and pervaded his thoughts, that while nothing that
individualised him as man was taken away, everything that was
necessary to enable him to declare Divine truth in all its fulness
was bestowed and superadded.' Bishop of Brechin, Sermons on the


Grace of God, p. 108 : ' Looking at the human element in this
Divine song.' Bishop of Oxford, Fellowship in Joy and Sorrow,
init. : ' By no other token does Holy Scripture more manifest itself to
the conscience to be the Book of God, than by that profound know-
ledge of humanity which makes it the book of man.' Bishop of
London, The Word of God and the Ground of Faith, p. 31 : ' I do
not wish to enter here on any intricate or subtle questions as to all
that inspiration implies, or how far it is either possible or expedient
to discern those fine limits which mark the convergence and separa-
tion of the divine and human elements in the aggregate written word.'

For recent remarks on the varying measure of the human element,
compare Christian Remembrancer, ubi supra, pp. 56, 57, with
Dr. Stanley's Lectures on the Jewish Church, pp. 284, 427.
Throughout the series quoted in this and the next note, both of
which, as I need scarcely add, could be almost indefinitely lengthened,
we may accept the recognition of both elements, without yielding to
the disposition, in any quarter, to let the one element predominate
to the exclusion or extinction of the other.

Note 4, page 6. The following extracts, which form a con-
tinuation to those cited in the preceding note, will justify the
assertion that there is a ' growing disposition ' to accept this parallel,
which is examined more closely in Lecture VIII. , p. 230.

The 20th number of Les Adieux cVAdolphe Monod, p. 175, &c,
draws out the thought in detail : ' L'une de ces paroles, Jesus-
Christ, est la Parole vivante de Dieu, la manifestation personnelle
de ses perfections invisibles au sein de l'humanite ; l'autre, l'Ecri-
ture, est la Parole ecrite de Dieu, manifestation verbale donnee
par le langage de ces memes perfections invisibles,' &c. This is
copied at length by Mr. Swainson, Authority of N. T., p. 145, who
adds : ' The analogy may be carried onward. The early heresies
relating to our Lord's Person, and the efforts made by the Church
to meet those heresies, have almost their parallels in the later
controversies as to the inspiration of Scripture.' Also cited by
the Bishop of St. David's, I. L, p. G3, who remarks, that the ' idea
has since been more fully carried out in very beautiful analogies
by others.' Gaussen, Theopneustie, p. 71: 'Oui, nous l'avons dit,
c'est Dieu qui nous y parle, mais aussi c'est l'homme ; c'est
l'homme, mais aussi c'est Dieu. Admirable parole de Dieu ! elle
a ete faite homme a sa maniere, comme le Verbe eternel ! ' "Words-
worth, Introd. to N. T., p. xix. : ' May we not even say, that the

s 2


mystery of Inspiration bears some likeness to the highest of all
mysteries, in -which the human is joined with the Divine, the
mystery of the Incarnation itself?' (So also in The Inspiration
of the Bible, p. G.) Williams, Beginning of the Book of Genesis,
p. 35 : ' And thus the written Word of God in the world in some
respects serves the same purpose as His Presence beheld in the
flesh.' P. 89 : ' And here again, although the analogy must not
be pressed too far, Ave may say that in some respects it is like the
Incarnate Word, in that it is Divine and yet human,' Szc. Bishop
of Gloucester, in Aids to Faith, p. 413: 'Theories of inspiration
are what scepticism is ever craving for : it is the voice of hapless
unbelief, that is ever loudest in its call for explanation of the manner
of the assumed union of the Divine with the human, or of the
proportions in which each element is to be admitted and recognised.
Such explanations have not been vouchsafed, and it is as vain and
unbecoming to demand them as it is to require a theory of the
union of the Divinity and humanity in the Person of Christ, or an
estimate of the proportions in which the two perfect natures are
to be conceived to co-exist.' Burgon, Inspiration and Interpretation,
p. 2 : 'Of the written Gospel, many of the self-same things are
said in Scripture which are said of Him by whom that Gospel was
preached.' P. 3 : ' But even more remarkable are the analogies
which subsist between the written record of our Lord's life and
teaching and the actual Person of our Lord.' P. 4: 'Most sur-
prising of all is the analogy observable between the union of the
divine and the human element in the Gospels, and the strictly parallel
union, as it seems, of the two natures, the Divine and the human,
in the Person of our Lord.' (Cf. p. 107, and quotation from Eden,
p. 2G7.) Birks, The Bible and Modern Thought, p. 476: 'A
simple reference to the analogy between the personal and the
written Word ought to remove this hasty impression.' (Cf. p. 2G4,
and Christian Observer, Jan. 18G3, p. G6.) Westcott, Introduction
to the Study of the Gospels, p. 15: 'it may well seem that the
image of the Incarnation is reflected in the Christian Scriptures,
which, as I believe, exhibit the human and Divine in the highest
form and in the most perfect union.' Cazenove, On certain Charac-
teristics of Holy Scripture, p. 59: 'The written Word embodies,
we maintain, a divine and a human element ; herein preserving,
in some faint, measure, that resemblance to the Eternal Son made
man, of which we have just been speaking.' Mngee, Oxford Lenten


Sermon, Groioth in Grace, p. 4 : 'as with the idea of the Incarnate
Word, so with the idea of the written Word : here, too, we have
a union of the Divine and of the human, a Word that is God's
word, and yet that is also the word of man.' Woodford, ib., The
Spirit interceding, p. 9 : ' And is it not precisely the same difficulty
Avhich besets us in regard to the question of inspiration ? The
work of the Spirit and the work of man in the compilation of
Scripture ; where the influence of the Divine agent ends and that
of the human begins ; the way in which the one operated upon the
other : all these are but the transfer to the subject of inspiration
of the self- same inexplicable questions which exercised the mind
of the Church in earlier times with reference to the Incarnation
of Christ and Sacramental Grace.' Thorold, in Radley Sermons,
1861, p. 89 : ' Surely there is a real and close analogy between the
human and Divine natures in the Person of Christ and the human
and divine elements in the inspired Word.' See also Schaff,
Germany, <J-c, p. 298; Tait, Inspiration and Justification, 1861;
Heard, Neiv Wine in Old Bottles, p. 137 ; Quarterly Review, Jan.
18G1, p. 304; Journal of Sacred Literature, July 1862, p. 470, &c.

Note 5, page 6. The history of this distinction is traced by
Dr. Lee with his usual admirable fulness : Inspiration of Holy
Scripture, 2nd ed., pp. 27, 462, &c. On the theological side of
his theory, compare Coleridge, Confessions of an Enquiring Spirit,
p. 20 : ' the revealing Word and the inspiring Spirit.' P. 77 : ' the
inspiration, the imbreathment, of the predisposing and assisting
Spirit — the revelation of the informing Word.' P. 88 : 'revelation
by the Eternal Word, and actuation of the Holy Spirit.' For Avhat
may be said against this theological determination, that ' Revelation
is the peculiar function of the Eternal Word, Inspiration the
result of the agency of the Holy Spirit' (Lee, p. 29) — a point
which does not come under consideration in these Lectures — see
Christian Remembrancer, Jan. 1856, p. 23 ; and Donaldson's Christian
Orthodoxy, p. 309, with Dr. Lee's rejoinder in the Preface to his
second edition, to which all references in these notes are adjusted.

More generally, compare Morell, Philosophy of Religion, p. 150 :
' all revelation, as we showed, implies two conditions : it implies,
namely, an intelligible object presented^ and a given power of
recipiency in the subject ; and in popular language, when speaking
of the manifestation of Christianity to the world, -\ve confine the
term revelation to the former of these conditions, and appropriate


the word inspiration to designate the latter.' See on this, Aids to
Faith, p. 299 ; and on the other side, Davidson's Introduction to
the Old Testament, i. 445.

"Whatever may he said of the alleged connection between this
distinction and the objective truths of theology, and whatever
difficulties may be raised against the subjective analysis, there can
be no question that it is absolutely necessary, for the sake of clear-
ness, to draw a broad difference between the materials, which may
or may not have been supernaturally communicated, and the
faculties which were in all cases enabled to receive them. The
distinction, for instance, would tend to clear up the controversy
on Tillotson's meaning, as discussed by Mr. Fitzjames Stephen,
Defence of Dr. Williams, p. 135, and Dr. M'Caul, Testimonies to
the Inspiration of Holy Scripture, p. 133. The assertion that 'all
the penmen of the Old Testament were inspired,' 1 is entirely con-
sistent with the belief, that ' Moses might write ' what things he
had done or seen ' without an immediate revelation of them.' Cf.
other similar cases in Stephen, pp. 14G, 156, &c, and E. and R.,
p. 345. Similarly in an argument of Mr. Burgon's, I. I., pp. 94,
102, the difficulty arises from a confusion between these two
conceptions. There is plainly truth on both sides ; inspiration was
not likely to come and go, as the subjects of successive chapters
varied ; yet we need not suppose that the list of the Dukes of
Edom was dictated to Moses by a voice from heaven. The inspira-
tion may be held to be all-pervading by those who acknowledge
that the revelation was but partial. Compare Bull's Sermon,
Works, i. 240, on Human Means useful to Inspired Persons : ' even
persons Divinely inspired, and ministers of God, did not so wholly
depend upon Divine inspiration, but that they made use also of
the ordinary help and means, such as reading of books, with study
and meditation on them, for their assistance in the discharge of
their office.' And see below, Lecture II., Note 12.

Note 6, page 7. For definitions of insjriration, and criticisms
upon them, besides the great magazine of materials in Dr. Lee,
and other writers on the special subject, see Mr. MorelTs Philosophy
of Religion, pp. 149-92, and the remarks of Professor II. Browne,
Aids to Faith, p. 3iC>, and jtfr. Farrar, B. L., p. 40. Add Stanley,
Epistles to the Corinthians, i. 253, 2G8, 1st ed. ; Ellicott, Aids
to Faith, p. 411; Westcott, Introd. to Study of Gospels, p. 8;
Williams, Christianity and Hinduism, p. 471, sqq. ; an article by


Tholuck, translated in Journal of Sacred Literature, July 1863,
p. 353 ; J. M. Campbell, Thoughts on Revelation, p. 73, sqq. ;
Mr. Jenkins's pamphlets, Scriptural Interpretation, and A Word on
Inspiration* &c. See also below, Lecture V., Note 6. But the
main question of recent times has related to the conditions under
which we must accept that wider view of inspiration which the
formularies of our own Church embody. To give references on
this subject would be to present a list of a large portion of recent
controversial writings.

Note 7, page 9. The sense of the cardinal text, 1 Thess. v. 23,
has been obscured by three imperfect interpretations, which respec-
tively fail to exhaust it.

1. That it is only the same trichotomy Avith which we are
familiar in the classical writers. See Whitby, in loc. ; Donaldson,
Vindication of Protestant Principles, p. 162 (cf. Christian Orthodoxy,
p. 382) ; Mill, Analysis of Pearson, p. 87. Against this, see Bull,
Works, ii. 95 : ' many learned interpreters tell us here, that St. Paul
alludes to the threefold distinction of the soul, into the vegetative,
the sensitive, and the rational, and so that the Spirit in St. Paul
signifies no more than the to iiyzpovucbv, or mind. But it seems
plain to me, that the Apostle meddles not with the threefold faculty
of man's soul (for what hath the body to do in that distinction ?),
but rather describes the threefold principle of the composition, if I
may so speak, of a Christian (which St. Paul calls the oXoKX-npov),
who, besides his body and soul, which make him a perfect natural
man, hath also the Uyevpa, the Spirit (that Philo speaks on), to
render him a perfect man in order to a supernatural life.' Compare
Mr. Jowett, Comment, on Rom. vii. 14 : ' the language of the New
Testament does not conform to any received views of psychology.'

2. That the irvtvpa in this passage is the Holy Spirit. This is
the meaning of Bishop Bull, in the argument just cited. But his
statements on the subject vary. See Works, i. 32 : ' The same
our blessed Saviour assures our belief of this truth by His own
example, when, being at the point of death, He said, Father, into
Thy hands I commend my spirit, Luke xxiii. 46. He believed that
He had a spirit, a superior soul, that after the death of His body,
and the extinction of His animal soul, should still remain ; and
this He recommends to the gracious and safe custody of His Father.
And lest we should think that this was a peculiar privilege of the
soul of the Messias, St. Stephen, when dying, after the same manner



commits his spirit to Christ Himself, then exalted at the right hand
of the Father, saying, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit, Acts vii. 59.'
See also Grotius, in loc, and Scudamore, Office of the Intellect,
p. 141. But compare the extract from Tatian, ib., p. 135 ; and Kayo,
Justin Martyr, p. 183. Also Olshausen, in loc: 'That weii/jct
cannot here be understood of the Holy Spirit, but denotes the
human spirit, is acknowledged by the latest interpreters,' &c. Bp.
Ellicott remarks, that ' Bull's theory is, in fact, really a tetractomy —
body, soul, spirit, and Holy Spirit.' Destiny of the Creature, p. 172.
3. That it is a gift peculiar to Christians. See above, Note 1.
A series of patristic quotations on the subject is collected by
Mr. J. B. Morris, in a note already referred to, Essay towards the
Conversion of the Hindus, pp. 319-29 ; and the doctrine, which
has been elaborately worked out by Delitzsch, Olshausen, and
others, is unfolded with great care in the Bishop of Gloucester's
Destiny of the Creature, &c. Compare his Commentaries on 1 Thess.,
in loc. ; Gal. v. 1G; Pastoral Epistles, pp. v. vi., and 1 Tim. iii. 16, &c ;
and Historical Lectures on the Life of our Lord, p. 112. The subject
has also received much attention in recent periodical writings.

Note 8, page 10. A mere arrangement of the passages will show
the different point of view from which Aristotle teaches the existence
of a Divine principle in man : —

All things have something Divine in them {wavra yap <£u<ra 'iyt 1
n delov Eth. N., VII. xiii. § G ; and Ktvel yap ttioq "kclvtu to ir fifiiv
Btiov Eth. Eud., vii. 14, p. 1248, a. 2G). The Final Cause, especially,
in all things is Divine (riji' apyijv 1~e kci\ to a'lTiov twv ayaQibi'Tipiov
ti com delov Tidt/JLEV Eth. N., I. xii.fn.). In man, therefore, happiness
is Divine (rwi' detoTUTuir — il juj) Qiotveptttvq Iutlv, lb., I. ix. § 3, xii.
§ 4). The character of Divinity becomes more marked, in propor-
tion as each thing advances nearer to that central light of God.
Thus, as the iroXig is nobler than any individual man, so the end of
the ttoXiq is more Divine than that of the individual (lb., I. ii. § 8).
And the same rule exalts the universe itself, in jn-oportion as it
is thought loftier than man (lb., VI. vii. § 4). As the Deity is pure
intelligence ('ioTiv >/ voncrig ror^ewg voi](jiq- Metaph. A. 9, 1074, b. 34),
it follows that rove is the most pure and heavenly dement in man
(vovq — tiTt deiop ov mt uvtc, sits rwc kv \\\ilv re deiorarov Eth. A., X.
vii. § 1, § 8 ; cf. Metaph., p. 1074, b. 16). But this is especially
the active intellect (De An., HI. 5). Noue alone is entirely separable
from the rest of man's nature (>/ U tou rod Kt^wpKruivq' Eth. N., X.


viii. § 3; cf. De An., III. 5). It came to him from without, as
something nobler than the rest of his organisation ; a visitant from a
higher sphere (6 U vovg ioikev eyyirecrdai- De An., I. 4, 408, b. 18 :
AttVercu tov vovv fiorov Bvpadev ETrtitriirat, K<xi Qelov tlvai fiovov De
Gen. An., II. 3, p. 736, b. 27). It survives alone when this mortal
body perishes (De An., I. 4, p. 408, b. 29 ; Metaph., A. 3, p. 1070,
a. 2G). Therefore a life in which vovq receives the most undivided
culture is the hajjpiest life (Eth. N., X. vii. Jin.). By living it, man
passes beyond his compound nature, into a state of being superior
to his own ; and through such a life we may conceive that the best
man draws nearest to the state and happiness of God (Eth. N., I. xii.
§ 4 ; VII. i. § 2 ; X. viii. § 13).

On looking back over these passages, we may say, with Sir W.
Hamilton, that in the view of Aristotle, ( intellect, which he elsewhere
(than in Eth. Eud., vii. 14) allows to be pre-existent and immortal,

Online LibraryJ HannahThe relation between the Divine and human elements in Holy Scripture : eight lectures preached before the University of Oxford in the year MDCCCLXIII .. → online text (page 18 of 30)