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The relation between the Divine and human elements in Holy Scripture : eight lectures preached before the University of Oxford in the year MDCCCLXIII .. online

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is a spark of the Divinity' (On Eeid, p. 773); but we must add,
with Bishop Hampden, that ' he mistakes the nature of the Divine
jirinciple in man, not including in it a capacity of moral improvement,
since he limits it to vovq, or intellect ' (On the Philosophical Evidence
of Christianity, p. 53, note) ; and with De Pressense, that 'his God,
as he himself says, is above virtue; it is pure thought, rather than
moral perfection ; indifferent and alone, He takes no cognisance of
man ; morality has no Divine basis, no eternal type, no aid to look
for from above' (Religions before Christ, p. 134).

We may suppose him to maintain that there are gradations
of Deity in all things that fall short of God ; as though it were
flashes of His light, particles of His essence, dispersed throughout
the universe ; springing from Him as their source, tending
to Him as their centre ; the final cause of all things being,
in a less proper sense, and, as though it were unconsciously, the
efficient cause of all things also, by virtue of an attractive or
magnetic power. But it is rather in his commentators than in
himself that we find the more explicit view, that all mind every-
where is but a portion of the Divine essence, and will be reabsorbed
after death in the fountain of light from which it has been
parted. Compare Mr. Farrar, B. L., p. 140. Also Sir A. Grant,
Essays on the Ethics, p. 238 : ' As long as the soul is described as
bearing the relation to the body of sight to the eye, of a flower to
the seed, of the impression to the wax, we may be content to consider
this a pieco of ancient physical philosophy. Our interest is different


•when the soul is said to be related to the body " as a sailor to his
boat" \_De An., II. i. p. 413, a. 9]. But here is the point also where
Aristotle becomes less explicit. Having once mooted thi3 comparison,
he does not follow it up.' A creed which is thus implicitly, if not
explicitly, pantheistic, supplies no parallel for the Scripture doctrine,
that God bestowed on man a created and separate spirit, which, from
the moment of creation, ■would remain distinct from its Creator ; the
organ of Divine communion, the vehicle through which the Holy
Spirit visits us with power and light.

Note 9, page 10. I refer to the discussions raised by Mr. Darwin,
On the Origin of Species, Sir C. Lyell, On the Antiquity of Man, and
Professor Huxley's Evidence as to Maris Place in Nature ; to which
I may add Professor Rolleston's Lecture On the Affinities and
Differences between the Brain of Man and the Brains of certain
Animals, in the Medical Times and Gazette, Feb. and March, 18G2.

The following scale is given in Sir C. Lyell's work : — The largest
gorilla brain, 34-g- cubic inches ; smallest human, 62 ; largest human,
114 (p. 491 ; cf. Huxley, I. L, p. 77, who there supplies the reason
why, in an earlier part of Sir C. Lyell's book, p. 84, the smallest hu-
man brain is brought down to 46). Dr. Rolleston says : ' the maximum
ape's weight is 14 ounces, the minimum human is, speaking roughly,
21b., i.e. 32 ounces avoirdupois;' I. L, p. 262. Dr. Eorison had
stated the difference in the following terms : ' On a centigrade scale
of cerebral development, all values of the human organ shade into
each other from one hundred downwards to seventy-five ; while
all values of the brute brain, from the fish to the ape, range upwards
in close sequence from zero to about thirty.' (Replies to E. and R.,
p. 325 ; cf. The Three Barriers, pp. 92, 97, 161, 164, 175.) 'But,'
he adds, ' there is no bridging brain between.' So also Huxley,
p. 104. Compare Anthropological Revieiv, i. 57.

Note 10, page 11. ' Alteram argumentum, quo probamus Numen
esse aliquod, sumitur a manifestissimo consensu omnium gentium,
apud quos ratio et boni mores non plane extincta sunt inducta
feritate ' (Grotius, De Ver. Rel. C, i. 2). I take this statement from
an elementary work, to show that the limitation under which all
reasonable men would propound it, excludes the appeal to the fuw
doubtful and degraded instances which have been urged against the
universality of the main proposition. Cf. the E. T. of Saisset, Modern
Pantheism, i. 34, note; and Max Muller, Ancient Sanskrit Litera-
ture, p. 538.


Note 11, page 11. The following are among the chief recent
opinions on the differentia of man : — Language : Professor Max
Miiller, Lectures on the Science of Language, 1861, p. 13: 'However
much the frontiers of the animal kingdom have been pushed forward,
so that at one time the line of demarcation between animal and man
seemed to depend on a mere fold in the brain, there is one barrier
which no one has yet ventured to touch — the barrier of language.'
Cf. Locke, on p. 14 : ' the power of abstracting is not at all in brutes,'
&c. ; and p. 340 : ' Where, then, is the difference between brute and
man ? . . . I answer, without hesitation, the one great barrier between
the brute and man is Language.' 1 Huxley, Man's Place in Nature,
p. 103, note : ' believing, as I do, with Cuvier, that the possession
of articulate speech is the grand distinctive character of man,' &c.
P. 112: ' he alone possesses the marvellous endowment of intelligible
and rational speech, whereby, in the secular period of his existence,
he has slowly accumulated and organised the experience which is almost
wholly lost with the cessation of eveiy individual life in other animals;
so that now he stands raised upon it as on a mountain top, far above
the level of his humble fellows, and transfigured from his grosser
nature by reflecting, here and there, a ray from the infinite source of
truth.' Self-consciousness : — Bischoff, in Anthropological Review,
No. I. p. 56. Mind, Tongue, Hand : — Dr. Rorison, The Three
Barriers, p. 128; cf. pp. 92, 96, 97, 127. Improvable Reason: —
Archbishop Sumner, Records of Creation, p. 179, ed. 1850; cf.
Lyell, On the Antiquity of Man, p. 496. Morality and Religion : —
M. de Quatrefages; see Lyell, I. L, 496; translator of M. Saisset,
Modern Pantheism, i. 34, note ; also ii. 237. Compare Mr. Maurice,
Claims of the Bible and of Science, p. 49 : ' Let the physical
enquirer make out the affinity of each of us to the ape — such
humiliation is seasonable and profitable ; but he shall not hinder us
from bearing witness to him, that he has a glorious parentage ; that
he has the nature which was redeemed by the Son of God.' I need
not point out in detail the completeness with which this view
exhausts the imagery, in which the superiority of man over brute
has been so repeatedly described; Huxley, I. 1., p. Ill; Hallam,
Literature of Europe, iii. 286 ; &c. "We must only bear in mind
the warning of Pascal : ' It is a dangerous thing to demonstrate to
man how he resembles the brutes, without at the same time showing
him his superiority over them.' Thoughts, iv. 15 ; p. 85, ed. Pearce.
See further, Lecture VIII., p. 227.


Note 12, page 13. 'Among other things "which revelation makes
known to its concerning the Divine Nature, is this, that it is capable
of divers kinds or manners of Presence, according to its own Will.
.... First of all, while existing everywhere, He yet dwells by a
purer and subtler influence, and, as we may say, by a more intimate
Presence, in some creatures than in others, in angels than in men,
in men than in the lower animals, and in these last, it should seem
probable, than in inanimate matter. . . . Again, it has pleased Him
on occasion to dwell, by intenser localisation, so to speak, in particular
places : as in the cherubic forms (probably) at the gates of Eden
after the Fall ; in the burning bush ; in the cloud at the Exodus,
and on Mount Sinai; in the Tabernacle ere the ark of the covenant
was made ; on the outstretched wings of the cherubim above the
ark, both in the Tabernacle and first Temple ; and behind the veil,
though there was no ark, in the second Temple.' — Freeman, Prin-
ciples of Divine Service, ii. 157-8. I am not concerned with the
inferences which Mr. Freeman draws. Cf. ib., iii. 15. ' Undoubtedly
there are many different degrees of the Divine Presence. God is in
some real sense more present in heaven than upon earth, and
in heaven itself most present on His heavenly throne ; and so upon
earth also, though He pervade the whole of it, yet is He chiefly in
His sanctuaries, and in them (it may be) most present at the holy
altar.' — Rawlinson, Christianity and Heathenism, p. 1G. Comjiare
Moberly, Sayings of the Great Forty Days, pp. 47, 84, &c. ; Hessey,
B. L., p. 183.

Note 13, page 17. The loQlv supplied in the E. V. of John vii. 39
is the old interpretation. See Suicer, Thcs. Eccles., ii. 777-8.
Lachmann admits cecSo^eVov into his text. ' Quod elicit Evangelista,
Spiritus nondwn erat datas, quia Jesus nondum crat glorijicattts,
quomodo intelligitur, nisi quia certa ilia Spiritus Sancti datio vel
missio post clarificationem Christi futura erat, qualis nunquam antea
fuerat ? Neque enim antea nulla erat, sed talis non fuerat. Si
enim antea Spiritus Sanctus non dabatur, quo impleti Prophets
locuti sunt ? cum aperte Scriptura clicat, et umltis locis ostendat,
Spiritu Sancto eos locutos fuisse ; cum et de ] Joanne Baptist*!
dictum sit, Spiritu Sancto rephbitur jam inde ab utero matria
sua) ; et Spiritu Sancto repletus Zacharias invenitur pater ejus,
ut de illo talia diceret; et Spiritu Sancto Maria ut talia de
Domino quern gestabat utero praxlicaret ; Spiritu Sancto Simeon et
Anna, ut magnitudinem Christi parvuli agnoscerent: quomodo ergo


Spiritus nondum erat datus, quia Jesus nondum erat clarificatus,
nisi quia ilia datio, vel donatio, vel missio Spiritus Sancti habitura
erat quandam proprietatem suam in ipso adventu, qualis antea
nunquam fuit ? ' — S. August., De Trinit., iv. 20 ; Opp., viii. 829.
But see the ample collection of passages and criticisms in Archdeacon
Hare's Mission of the Comforter, note H., pp. 231-97. The highest
form of the Presence of the Spirit in the spirit of man must be dis-
tinguished from His Presence ' not by measure ' in our Lord ; John
iii. 34. ' Habere Spiritum non per se, sed per participationem, ut
Theologi loquuntur, id est ad mensuram habere ; et eo modo dare,
est ad mensuram dare.' — Maldonat. in loc. ' Dixit R. Acha :
Etiam Spiritus S. non habitavit super Prophetas, nisi mensura
quadam. Quidam enim librum unarm, quidam duos vaticiniorum
ediderunt.' — Schoettgen., Hor. Heir, in loc. Cf. Origen, Horn, in
Luc, xxix. ; Opp., iii. 966.

Note 14, page 18. See Mr. Fitzjames Stephen's Defence of Dr.
Williams, p. 207, &c. ; E. and E., p. 78 ; Dr. Stanley's Lectures on
the Jewish Church, p. 442, &c. Mr. Chretien says : 'It has often been
remarked, that the word " inspiration " is employed in the Prayer
Book only to express the action of the Holy Spirit on the mind and
heart of the believer. It has not been so often observed that even
in these instances the word is of comparatively recent introduction.'
— Letter and Spirit, p. 179. The passages are as follows : —
(1.) Collect for Fifth Sunday after Easter, Gelasian, te inspirante;
Muratori, i. 585. (2.) Prayer for the Church militant. (3.) Collect
for purity before Communion, per infusionem, Muratori, ii. 383 ;
Sarum Missal, p. 579, ed. Forbes. (4.) The Veni Creator Sj)iritus ;
'Thy heavenly grace inspire," 1 1552; 'Our souls inspire,' 1 1662.
(5.) Article XIII. : ' Works done before the grace of Christ, and the
inspiration of His Spirit; ' spiritus ejus afflatum, 1552—62. Cf. Concil.
Trid., Sess. vi. Can. 3: ' si quis dixerit, sine prarveniente Spiritus
Sancti inspiratione] &c.

Note 15, page 19. Compare a similar distinction drawn by
Hooker on another subject, E. P., III. viii. § 5 : ' The cause why
such declamations prevail so greatly, is, for that men suffer them-
selves in two respects to be deluded : one is, that the wisdom of man
being debased either in comparison with that of God, or in regard of
some special thing exceeding the reach and compass thereof, it
seemeth to them (not marking so much) as if simply it were con-
demned.' ' As there is a sense in which the grant of glory was made


even under the Law, as in its miracles, ... so in another point of
view it belongs exclusively to the promised blessedness hereafter.
Still there is a real and sufficient sense in which it is ascribed to the
Christian Church.' — Newman, Parochial Sermons, iii. 281. 'Now
what were all these but pledges and earnests of a bliss which is to
come hereafter ? Eeal and high as was this fellowship with God, it
was but the first manifestation of that glory which shall be revealed. It
was the foretaste of this Beatitude ; the inheritance of the pure in
heart ; a faint anticipation of that vision in bliss, which makes
blessed all who behold it. Let us then go on to consider, so far as
we may, what is the nature of the beatific vision. It is plainly
something that is yet to come. " The pure in heart shall see God."
This was not finally fulfilled in the visions of seers, nor in the
presence of Christ in the flesh, nor in any manifestation that has yet
been made of God to His servants. Such beginnings and first intui-
tions as they may have had here in this life did but lead on to the
perfect sight of the Divine Presence. They were of old both fu (film ents
and prophecies, earnests and actual gifts, in part realities, and in
part adumbrations, of that vision of God which shall be hereafter.' —
Manning, University Sermons, p. 123. 'The gift, then, of written
revelation in the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms, is distinctly and
expressly referred to the Spirit of God. But the Gospel is eminently
the dispensation of the Spirit. His Presence after our Lord's
ascension was to be so much more fully manifested, that by com-
parison it is said to be vouchsafed for the first time.' — Birks, The
Bible and Modern Thought, p. 238. Cf. Maldonat. on Matt. ix. 13.
Note 1G, page 20. ' When the Church is asked for her proofs of
the Divine authority of the Scriptures, her first word is — Testimony ;
and her second is — Testimony; and her third is — Testimony. It
is ti-ue there are countless subsidiary confirmations of their claim to
be what she says they are ; just as there were many subsidiary
things which went, in Demosthenes' view, to make an orator. But
in the last resort, when pressed with the enquiry as to what her
mind rests on as ultimate and beyond appeal and gainsaying, the
proof which the Church alleges is one and one only. The whole
thing has been a matter of testimony from the beginning.' — Christian
Remembrancer, Jan. 1856, p. 6. ' We receive the books of Holy
Scripture on the testimony of Christ, speaking in His Church.' —
Wordsworth, Inspiration, p. 82. We must distinguish, however,
between the testimony of the Church and the personal authority of


the individual writer. Thus, when Mr. Swainson says : 'By an
amount of evidence which seems to be overwhelming, it is proved
that when a book claimed to be admitted on the Canon of the
Church, only one enqiury was made, and that was, Wlio was the
Author ? and if the document or letter could be proved satisfactorily
to have proceeded from an Apostle of our Lord, the enquiry was
closed' {Authority of N. T., p. 9), we feel that the account leaves
some difficult questions altogether without an answer. E.g., on
p. 18 he says : ' The question which so long agitated the Church as
to the authority of the Epistle to the Hebrews, was really a question
as to its author, and not until it was believed that the Epistle was
written by St. Paul, does it seem that men's minds were satisfied,
and the work allowed to take its place among the acknowledged
documents of the Christian covenant.' It seems to follow, that
whenever they doubt whether it was written by St. Paul, they are
justified in being dissatisfied again. We must be cautious not to
lay down unguardedly a principle of only partial application, which
would needlessly increase the responsibility of all critical enquiries.
Mr. Chretien, Letter and Spirit, p. 49, dwells on the difficulties in
point of fact ; and Dr. Wordsworth says : ' We cannot say, with some
persons, that we receive the Scriptures as Divine because we know
who their writers were, and that they were good men, full of the
Holy Ghost, and that therefore whatever they wrote must be inspired
of God. The truth is, we do not know by whom some of the books
of Scripture were written.' — Inspiration, p. 81.

On the other hand, ' a true revelation of God must be its own
witness.' — Campbell, Thoughts on Revelation, pp. 13, 26, 71, &c.
' The question of the Canon of Scripture, and the question of the
Inspiration of Scripture, are in no way to be confounded. The
O. T. Canon we receive now, as it was recognised by the O. T.
Church. The N. T. Canon, the N. T. Church, after a time, felt

called to fix, and proceeded to ascertain and fix accordingly

But the question of Inspiration is altogether prior to, and indepen-
dent of, this matter. The existence of inspired writings having
Divine authority was a fact known and familiar to the Church from
the beginning. The N. T. Scriptures, successively as they were
written, added themselves to the Old in' the Canon of men's faith,
as new stars appearing in the firmament would take their place
among the stars of heaven.' — lb., p. 103. This conception of
'proving itself by its own light' has been the subject of much recent


criticism. Sec cf Calvin, E. and R., 828 ; Stephen, Defence of Wil-
liams, p. 88; M'Caul, Testimonies, p. 83: of Jackson, Stephen, p. 97 ;
M'Caul, pp. 84, 115 : of Chillingworth, M'Caul, p. 84, &c. Compare
Mr. Goldwin Smith, Rational Religion, p. 16 : ' The histories which
contradict the Article as to the matter of fact require elaborate con-
futation. If we can know God, and know His voice, these difficulties
are as nothing ; if we cannot know God, they are death.' ' In short,
whatever finds me bears witness for itself that it has proceeded from
a Holy Spirit.' — Coleridge, Confessions, &c, pp. 10, 13, 72. Cf.
Browne, Aids to Faith, pp. 297, 314 ; Stanley, Jewish Church, p. 454 ;
Ellicott, Aids to Faith, p. 409 ; ' The Book has found him,' &c.
1 Eye of God's Word! ' — Christian Year, St. Bartholomew; with the
quotation from Miller's B.L., p. 135 : ' this eye, like that of a por-
trait, uniformly fixed upon us, turn where we will.'

' But how do we know the Bible to be the Word of God ? Both
by testimony and by the answer of its Spirit to our spirit — by
external authority, and by its own.' — Chretien, Letter and Spirit,
p. 17. ' A healthy eye is required for perfect vision. But it is
not needful, happily, to know whether our sight depends on the
cornea or the crystalline lens, on the aqueous or the vitreous
humour, or " on a combination of the four, or of some of them, and
in what order and proportion," before we can discern and rejoice in
the presence of a beloved friend. A humble heart and a healthy
conscience will lead the most unlettered Christian to a firm belief in
the Gospel, and in the truth of the sacred Scriptures, though he
may never have cared to settle what share each kind of evidence
may have had in this result.' — Birks, Bible and Modern Thought,
p. 201.

The Scripture testimonies have been collected by Gaussen, Dr.
Wordsworth, the Bishop of Gloucester, and others ; the patristic
proofs are arranged in Bouth, Rell. Sacr., v. 335-53 ; Lee, Appendix
G., pp. 484-527 ; Westcott, Introd. to Study of Gospels, Appendix B.,
pp. 383—423 : and the witness of the English Church is discussed
in the speeches of Mr. Fitzjames Stephen and Sir R. Phillimore, and
the work of Dr. M'Caul. On the consilience of reasonings, com-
pare Lyall, Propcedia Proph., pp. 138, 351 ; Birks, Bible and Modern
Thought, p. 202 ; Westcott, I. I., p. 18.

Note 17, page 2 , . Mr. Morell has collected several definitions of
Revelation; Philosophy of Religion, p. IIS. Many others will be
found in treatises to which reference has been already made in


Note 6, and elsewhere. A definition proposed by Dr. Rowland
Williams gave rise to a controversy, which ran through several
pamphlets : — ' Revelation is an unveiling of the true God, espe-
cially as Love and as a Spirit, to the eyes of our mind;' — Lam-
peter- Theology, p. 35, criticised by the Bishop of St. David's,
Charge, 1857, p. 73. The reply of Dr. Williams is in his Earnestly
respectful Letter, p. 23 ; the Bishop's rejoinder, on p. 24 of his
Letter to the Rev. Dr. Williams ; and Dr. Williams's further answer
on p. 2 of his Appendix, and p. 18 of his Persecution for the Word.
Compare Christianity and Hinduism, p. 26. I annex one definition
from the interest attached to the name of its author : ' Revelation is
a voluntary approximation of the Infinite Being to the ways and
thoughts of finite humanity.' — Remains of A. H. Hallam, p. 176.
In the first edition of Mr. Jowett's Commentary on Galatians, i. 12,
he had said that ' it seems to come from without, and is not to be
confounded with any inward emotion, any more than a dream or
the sight of a painting.' But the passage is altered in the second

An important question has been raised on the propriety of extend-
ing the term beyond the bounds of Scripture, as in the analogous
case of Insjfiration. The practice has been not uncommon : ' In-
nititur fides nostra revelationi Apostolis et Prophetis facta?, qui
canonicos libros scripserunt, non autem revelationi, si qua fuit aliis
doctor -ibus facta. .' — S. Thom. Aquin., I. i. Art. viii.ym. ' So full, so
unambiguous, is St. Paul's testimony to this revelation of God,
written in " the volume of the creatures ;" and such a revelation,
too, as he declares man had the intellectual eye to read, if he had
but had the will to obey. But there is also a second natural reve-
lation of God, which the Apostle will not suffer us to forget ; that
which is contained in the innate sense of our nature ; that moral
constitution of our souls,' &c. — Davison's Remains, p. 90. ' That
supernatural notices and revealed light were communicated, more
or less, to the bulk of mankind in every age is most certain and
uncontestable ; but whether directly by Scripture, or by other more
oblique or more remote means, may often admit of a dispute.' —
Waterland, Works, v. 15. ' I apprehend that it would be more
correct to speak of the Revelation of God as consisting of four parts,
or rather as made in four modes,' by creation, by miracles, by the
Spirit of God, and in a written book. — Maitland, Eruvin, p, 2.
' Revelation, properly speaking, is an universal, not a partial gift.'—



Newman, Arians, p. 89 ; see below, Lecture II., Note 2. ' What
can we really know of Him but from His own revelations of Him-
self; His revelations in the book of nature, in the book of the
world's history, in the book of our own consciences, but, above all,
in that book which contains His own utterances by His prophets,
and in these last days by His Son V — Professor H. Browne, Messiah
as foretold, $-c, p. 54. 'A Divine Revelation is knowledge bestowed
on us by God in the form of human thought and speech, the Holy
Spirit employing men for this end. This is what we mean when we
speak of the Scriptures as a Divine Revelation ; while in a larger
sense, all by which God litters Himself to us in creation and provi-
dence, and the Divine constitution of things, is Revelation.' —
J. M. Campbell, Thoughts on Revelation, p. 74. On the other hand,
the Provost of Oriel has recently protested against the application of
the term to ' a voice within us, prior to Revelation, or itself, as we
may choose to call, or rather to miscall it, a prior Revelation.' —
Province of Private Judgment, 1861, pp. 17, 28. So also Dr. Lee,
p. 4, proposing to restrict the word revelation to the one sense, and
to use the word manifestation for the other.

Note 18, page 24. Compare the two passages translated by Sir W.
Hamilton from Kant and Jacobi ; Lectures on Metaphysics, i. 39-41.
The latter, 'Nature conceals God ; man revealsGod,' isalso quoted by
Mr. Mansel, B.L., p. 343, and Aids to Faith, p. 28. The former has been
far more widely used. 'Two things there are, which,. the oftener and
the more steadfastly we consider, fill the mind with an ever new, an
ever rising admiration and reverence ; the starry heaven above, the

Online LibraryJ HannahThe relation between the Divine and human elements in Holy Scripture : eight lectures preached before the University of Oxford in the year MDCCCLXIII .. → online text (page 19 of 30)