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The relation between the Divine and human elements in Holy Scripture : eight lectures preached before the University of Oxford in the year MDCCCLXIII .. online

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moral law within.' Quoted also, Discussions, p. 301 ; Young, Pro-
vince of Reason, p. 141 ; Jowett, Commentary on St. Paul, ii. 387,
413, first ed. ; Saisset, Modern Pantheism, ii. 146 ; Stanley, Sermons
in the East, p. 75.

Note 19, page 26. ' In the Old Testament, as in the New, the
question as regards religion is not the reality of the facts which are
there recorded — that is a matter to be determined by historical
proof — but the proper explanation of them. Whether the facts
related in the books of Moses really happened is one thing ; whether
they were wrought by God, and if so, for what end, belongs to a
different enquiry. So, also, when we are speaking of the facts re-
corded in the New Testament.' — Lyall, Propccdia Prophetica, p. 3.
' Our revelations, we may say, were not the literary work of some
sage or legislator, or put forth as a mere writing or collection of


writings ; but they are a series of historical revelations, given at
different times and in different manners, and by different messengers,
each for its special purpose in connection with what was then passing
in the world ; and yet all having reference to one great evan-
gelical purpose.' — Hampden, B. L., Preface to 2nd ed., p. xli. 'The
conveyance of God's will by means of facts is the foundation of what
we term Eevealed Religion.' — Lee, p. 6. ' Much of what we learn
from the sacred record is not of a spiritual nature at all ; but even
when that which is written is in its highest aspect purely spiritual,
and what is only truly known when spiritually discerned, the spiri-
tual is presented to us in Divine facts, which, as facts, could only
become known by revelation. The Divine facts are commended to
our faith by the glory of God which shines in them, and by the
light which they shed on our condition as subjects of the kingdom
of God ; but as facts they could never have become the subjects of
human knowledge, excepting by such inspiration as we ascribe to
holy apostles and prophets. The great facts which our faith em-
braces are as the links of a Divine chain, of which some links have
had a visibility here on earth, while the rest belong entirely to the
invisible. But even of those links which have been visible — the life
and death of the Son of God — the whole spiritual aspect has been
invisible, and could only be known to man by revelation.' — Campbell,
Thoughts on Revelation, p. 90. Cf. Birks, Bible and Modern Thought,
pp. 86, 237, 340, 374, sqq.

Note 20, page 35. Dr. Lee has collected instances from the
Fathers of the similitudes employed ' to illustrate the effect of the
Divine influence upon the souls of those "holy men of old, who
spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost," ' under the two
classes of musical instruments and material similitudes of any kind.
Appendix G , pp. 503-7 ; cf. pp. 81—3. I annex a few from
more recent writers. A Harp or Lute (S. Justin. Mart., Cohort,
ad Gent., 8 ; Opp., ii. 38, ed. Otto ; S. August., Be Civit. Dei, xvi. 2 ;
Opp., vii. 416, &c); Hooker, Works, iii. 662-3: 'They neither
spake nor wrote any word of their own, but uttered syllable by
syllable as the Spirit put it into their mouths, no otherwise than the
harp or the lute doth give a sound according to the discretion of his
hands that holdeth and striketh it with skill. The difference is
only this : an instrument, whether it be a pipe or harp, maketh a
distinction in the times and sounds, which distinction is well per-
ceived of the hearer, the instrument itself understanding not what


is piped or harped. The prophets and holy men of God not so . . .
For herein they were not like harps or lutes, but they felt, they felt
the power and strength of their own words. "When they spake of
our peace, every corner of their hearts was filled with joy. When
they prophesied of mourning, lamentations, and woes, to fall upon
us, they wept in the bitterness and indignation of spirit, the arm
of the Lord being mighty and strong upon them.' — (Also in Lee,
pp. 22, 82.) Coleridge, Confessions, p. 14 : ' This is the very essence
of the doctrine, that one and the same Intelligence is speaking in
the unity of a Person ; which unity is no more broken by the diver-
sity of the pipes through Avhich it makes itself audible, than is a
tune by the different instruments on which it is played by a con-
summate musician, equally perfect in all ;' after which he proceeds
to ' enquire on what authority this doctrine rests.' An Organ ;
Gaussen, Theopneustie, p. G7 : ' Avez-vous visite Fetonnant organiste
qui fait couler avec tant de charme les larmes du voyageur, dans la
cathedral e de Fribourg, pendant qu'il touche Fun apres l'autre ses
admirables claviers, et qu'il vous fait entendre tour a tour, ou la
marche des guerriers sur le rivage, ou les chants de la priere sur
le lac, pendant la tempete, ou les voix de Faction de graces apres
qu'elle est calmee ? Tous vos sens sont ebranles, car vous avez
tout vu et tout entendu. Eh bien, c'est ainsi que FEternel Dieu,
puissant en harmonie, a, tour a tour, appuye le doigt de son Esprit
sur les touches qu'il avait choisies pour l'heure de son dessein, et
pour Funite de son hymne celeste.' Again, p. 75 : ' Ce sont les
orgues du Tres-Haut, mais qui vont charmer le coeur de Fhomme,
et remuer sa conscience, dans les cabanes du berger, comme dans
les palais ; dans les chambres hautes du pauvre, comme dans les
tentes du desert.' The figure is worked out with great skill and
refinement by Mr. Chretien, Letter and Spirit, p. 25. A Pen and
Penmen, from Ps. xlv. 2 : ' My tongue is the pen of a ready
writer.' (Cf. S. August., Conf. vii. 27, Opp., I. 143, E : ' venerabilem
stilum Spiritus tui; ' Enarr. in Ps. cxliv. 17, Opp., IV. 1G20, F:
' chirograph um Dei.') On the mechanical theory, the writer becomes
' the pen and not the penman of the Holy Spirit.' — Westcott, Introd.
to Gospels, p. 6 ; Lee, p. 22 ; Stanley, Jewish Ch., p. 433; Farrar,
B. L., p. 159. 'According to this theory, as expounded by such
divines as Quenstedt and Ilollaz, the prophets and apostles were mere
amanuenses of the Holy Ghost. It was only per catachresin that
they could be properly said to be the authors of the writings which


bore their names ; utpote qui potius Dei auctoris calami fuerunt.' —
Bishop of St. David's, Letter to Dr. R. Williams, p. 38. On the other
hand, ' if the sacred writers were not clerks, but, so to speak, secretaries
of state, men entrusted with God's secrets, imbued with the mind
and counsels of God, acquainted with His secret will and designs,
receiving from Him, when necessary, precise verbal instructions,
when this was unnecessary, speaking from the fulness of their own
knowledge, but in every case (to keep up our metaphor) having to
submit their despatches to the eye of the Great King, to receive His
sanction and authentication, before sending them forth as documents
containing their Master's pleasure; then diversities of style, and
individual idiosyncrasy breaking out, is exactly what we should
expect.' — Lord A. Hervey, Inspiration of Holy Scripture, p. 83.
' Not copying machines, but living men.' — Birks, Bible and Modem
Thought, p. 283. ' No figure can more correctly represent the idea
to be conveyed, as there is none more common with writers both of
the Old and New Testaments, than that which teaches us to consider
the prophets and apostles as ambassadors from God to mankind.' —
Lyall, Propcedia Proph., p. 175.



Note 1, page 38. This phrase is sometimes challenged ; but I
think without just cause. In his Charge of 1857, p. 82, the Bishop
of St. David's speaks of the ' original rule ' of Holy Scripture ' as
one superior to every other in kind as well as in degree.' Dr.
Williams objects, Earnestly Respectful Letter, p. 30 : ' Difference
of degree is as of bght from twilight, or full-grown manhood from
childhood. Difference of kind is as of good from evil.' The Bishop
rejoins by enlarging his original image. He had said : ' The fulness
of the stream is the glory of the fountain ; and it is because the
Ganges is not lost among its native hills, but deepens and widens
until it reaches the ocean, that so many pilgrimages are made to its
springs.' ' I meant,' he now writes (p. 34), ' that the authority
of Scripture was unique, because it is not merely a record of
revelations, but the one original record of all the revelation that
mankind has ever received, or has any reason to expect, concerning
the objects of Christian faith and hope. I meant that it stands
alone,' &c. ' If I had aimed at a more exact correspondence, I
should have compared Holy Scripture to the source of a mighty
stream, with the addition, that it possesses a quality distinguishing
it from all other waters, and likewise a marvellous virtue, by which
it assimilates all the tributaries which swell its volume to its own
nature.' In Dr. Lushington's Judgment on Dr. Williams, June 25,
18G2, p. 16, it is held that the acknowledgement of a difference in
degree is not enough to satisfy the English formularies.

Dr. Lee, in like manner, had said that the inspiration of the
sacred writers ' differs, not merely in degree, but absolutely in kind,
from that ordinary operation of the Spirit usually called by the same
name ' (p. 31) ; and again, p. 232, note. For this he is taken to
task by Mr. Swainson, Authority ofN. T., p. GO, note : ' How things
which differ in kind can be compared in degree, I am unable to
judge.' We may borrow an answer from a different branch of
science, where the same denial has been often given (e. g. in Anthrop.


Rev., i. 117). ' Even if it were to be clearly proved, which, however,
I do not say it yet is, that the differences between man's brain and
that of the apes are differences entirely of quantity, there is no reason
in the nature of things why so many and such weighty differences of
degree should not amount to a difference of kind. Differences of
degree and differences of kind are, it is true, mutually exclusive
terms in the anthropomorphic language of the schools; whether
they are so also in the laboratory of nature, we may very well
doubt.' — Rolleston, in Medical Times and Gazette, March 1862,
p. 262.

But in truth the matter seems sufficiently simple. The objection
overlooks the fact, that inspiration can be regarded under different
categories. Under one, we can mark out and compare together the
different gradations of the Holy Spirit's Presence (Lecture L, Notes
12, 13). Under another we can deal with the highest modes of
His Presence, as specifically distinct from all other forms, by the
use of a differentia, in which the fulness of His influence becomes a
leading feature. For purposes of comparison, we recognise the
difference of degree. For purposes of contrast, we maintain that the
highest form of presence combines with the gift of an objective
revelation, to constitute a difference in kind.

Note 2, page 40. Compare Horsley's Dissertation On the Pro-
phecies of the Messiah dispersed among the Heathen, p. 28, &c. ;
Lyall, Propwd. Proph., p. 390, on the Preparation of Prophecy
among the Heathen ; Mr. Gladstone's Homer and the Homeric Age,
vol. ii. ; Newman's Arians, p. 88, on the ' doctrine of the Alexan-
drian School,' which he calls ' the Divinity of Traditionary Religion,'
and more generally, such passages as the foUowing : c I mean those
historical matters concerning the ancient state of the first world, the
deluge, the sons of Noah, the Children of Israel's deliverance out of
Egypt, the life and doings of Moses their captain, with such like :
the certain truth whereof delivered in Holy Scripture is of the
heathen which had them only by report so intermingled with
fabulous vanities, that the most which remaineth in them to be seen
is the show of dark and obscure steps, where some part of the truth
hath gone.' — Hooker, E. P., I. xiii. 2, note. ' Whatsoever good
effects do grow out of their religion, who embrace instead of the true
a false, the roots thereof are certain sparks of the light of truth
intermingled with the darkness of error, because no religion can
wholly and only consist of untruths.' — lb., V. i. 5. ' The pagans


might be instructed in Divine things, either by reading the Scriptures,
or by conversing with Jews, or by conversing with other nations
that had been acquainted with Jews, or by means of public edicts of
several great princes that had favoured the Jews, or lastly, by tradi-
tion handed down to them from Abraham, or from Noah, or from the
first parents of mankind.' — Waterland, Works, v. 16. ' There is yet
another more general way by which revealed religion, in some of the
principal heads or articles of it, has been diffused through the world ;
I mean tradition delivered down from Noah, or from the first parents
of the whole race, who received it immediately from God. The
doctrine of one true God supreme might probably come this way,
and be so diffused to all mankind. The like may be said of the
doctrine of an overruling Providence, and of the immortality of
the soul, and a future state of rewards and punishments. These
general principles, so universally believed and taught in all ages and
countries, are much better referred to patriarchal tradition than to
any later and narrower source. I know not whether the same
observation might not be as justly made of some other doctrines; as
of the creation of the world, and corruption of human nature, and
perhaps of several more of slighter consideration ; ' and possibly
such rites as sacrifices, Sabbaths, and tithes, and also morality. —
lb., pp. 19-22. 'The whole of the Timams, in fact, is a legend,
rather than a philosophical enquiry. It appeals, for the reception of
its truths, to the shadows with which it veils them, and the mystic
echoes of sounds heard by the listening ear from afar. In that
legend, indeed, we have very considerable evidence of the pure
source, from which the heathen world drew much of the sacred
truth that was wrapped up and disfigured in their fables. We
perceive in such a document of ancient philosophy, at once the sure
and wide-spread knowledge resulting from a Scriptural Revelation,
and the obscurity and fallibility of the information of Tradition.'
— Hampden, Fathers of Greek Philosophy, p. 287. ' The most
reverent regard to the inviolable sacredness of that truth with which
the father of the promised seed and his descendants were peculiarly
entrusted, consists well with the belief of the preservation of much
original truth elsewhere.' — Mill, Pantheistic Principles, ii. 62. ' It
would seem, then, that there is something true and divinely revealed
in every religion all over the earth, overloaded as it may be, and at
times even stifled by the impieties which the corrupt will and under-
standing of man have incorporated with it. Such are the doctrines


of the power and presence of an invisible God, of His moral law
and governance, of the obligation of duty and the certainty of a
just judgment, and of reward and punishment being dispensed in
the end to individuals ; so that revelation, properly speaking, is an
universal, not a partial gift ; and the distinction between the state
of Israelites formerly and Christians now, and that of the heathen,
is, not that we can, and they cannot, attain to future blessed-
ness, but that the Church of God ever has had, and the rest of
mankind never have had, authoritative documents of truth, and
appointed channels of communication with Him.' — Newman, I. I.,
pp. 88-9. The limitations under which this view must be applied
are now generally recognised. 'Few, if any, will now maintain the
hypothesis of our old divines of the last century, that the stories of
Iphigenia and Idomeneus are stolen from the story of Jephthah's
daughter, or the labours of Hercules from the labours of Samson.'
— Stanley, Jewish Church, p. 306. ' It seems blasphemy to consider
(some) fables of the heathen world as corrupted and misinterpreted
fragments of a Divine revelation once granted to the whole race of
mankind.' — M. Muller, Comparative Mythology,^. 8 (Oxford Essays,

Note 3, page 41. In Waterland's Charge, The Wisdom of the
Ancients borroived from Divine Revelation (Works, v. 1-29), he
gives a catena of passages in illustration of the method ; tracing it
through Aristobulus, Josephus, Justin Martyr, Tatian, Theophilus
of Antioch, Clemens Alexandrinus, Tertullian, Minucius Felix,
Origen, Lactantius, Eusebius, and Theodoret. Dr. Cassar Morgan
gives a similar set of references from Justin Martyr and Clemens
Alexandrinus; Trinity of Plato, 91-9, ed. Holden. 'Yet this
advantage, great as it really is, has not always been sufficient to
satisfy the pretensions of those who have been blessed with a Divine
revelation. Not contented with the bright sunshine which blazes
around them, they will scarcely allow the benighted heathen the
dim taper of human reason to guide their steps in their laborious
travels over the dark mountains. Whatever the Apostle Paul may
have said in his various expostulations with the Gentiles, and
particularly in his Epistle to the Romans, there are some far wiser,
in their own conceit, than seven men that can render a reason, who
boldly maintain, that whatever glimmerings of light the pagans of
old have been able to strike out by mere dint of labour and study,
have been all either directly or circuitously derived from the sacred


writings.' — lb., p. 90. On the views of Clement, see also Bishop
Kaye, Clem. Alex., p. 186; Mozley, Proudest., 115; and on those of
Eusebius, Donaldson, Greek Lit., iii. 331-3.

Note 4, page 42. The titles of three well-known works by
Mr. Blakesley (Five Sermons on the Dispensation of Paganism, in
Condones Academical), Dean Trench {Christ the Desire of all
Nations ; or the Unconscious Prophecies of Heathendom, being the
Hidsean Lectures for 1846), and M. De Pressense {The Religions
before Christ, E. T., 1862). Add Mr. Maurice's Religions of the
World and their Relations to Christianity ; and a work which was
unfortunate only in its title, and in the melancholy event which
left it incomplete, the Christ and other Masteis of the late Arch-
deacon Hardwick. A great storehouse of materials is supplied
by Dr. Dollinger's Heidenthum und Judenthum, Regensburg, 1857
(E. T., The Gentile and the Jew in the Courts of the Temple of Christ,
1862). In other forms, and unhappily too often with different
issues, the subject has had a strong attraction for some of the most
active minds of the age; see, e.g., M. Renan's review of the great
work of Creuzer and Guigniaut, in Etudes d'Histoire Religieuse,
pp. 1-71, &c. Add M. Denis, Histoire des Theories et des Ide'es
Morales dans V Antiquite ; ouvrage couronne, 1856.

Note 5, page 42. 1. ' In what sense can it be said that there
is any connection between Paganism and Christianity so real as
to warrant the preacher of the latter to conciliate idolaters by
allusion to it ? St. Paul evidently connects the true religion with
the existing systems which he laboured to supplant in Acts xvii.,
and his example is a sufficient guide to missionaries now, and a full
justification of the line of conduct pursued by the Alexandrians in
the instances similar to it.' — Newman, Arians, p. 87. ' Justin's
wish was to render the doctrines of Christianity as acceptable as
possible to the Gentiles, by pointing out features of resemblance
between them and the tenets of the philosophers.' — Bishop Kaye,
Justin Martyr, p. 47. ' Earlier Christianity regarded the Gentile
world more as a field of promise ; and saw in it the future harvest
rather than the present foe. . . . The early Church thus adopted
a friendly tone toward Gentile philosophy, and acknowledged sym-
pathies with it.' — Mozley, Pradcst., pp. 112—3.

2. The Prceparatio Evangelica of Eusebius ' is the epochal ivork
in regard to the new attitude assumed by Christian literature; it
is the declaration of a Christian, himself learned in profane lore,


that from thenceforth the Church is as independent of heathen
philosophy as it is fearless of the secular opposition of the heathen
world.' — Donaldson, Greek Lit., iii. 332. Compare Mr. Farrar's
B. L., pp. 539, 639, sqq.

The following may suffice as representative passages for the two
chief stages : —

1. Ore Be ^d)Kpa.TT]g Xoyip d\?j0£t Krai eZetcmttikHiq tcivtu elg
<f>avepov nreipdro flpEiv, Kal cnrayEiv tu>v daipovwv tovq avQpioTrovg,
k. r. X. — S. Just. Mart., Apol., I. 5; Opp., i. p. 14, ed. Otto.
Kai oi ptrh Xoyov fiiwoavTEg Xpioriarot tlcri, Kav adsoi Evopiadrjirav,
oiov ev 'EXXrjai fxtv Sw.vpar^e koX 'Hpa/cAetroe Kal oi opoiot avrolg,
k.t.X. — lb., 46; i. p. 110. XpiffTtZ <5c, rw feat vtto Swcparouc otto
pipovg yvtaaQivTi, k. t. X. — lb., II. 10; i. p. 194, T Hv ueV ovv itpb
rfJQ tov Kvpiov xapovaiag Eig BiKatoavvrjv "EWtjo-iv avaymta (piXoaotyla'
vvvl Be ■^prjtTipr) irpog 6eo(rij3eiay ylverai, TrpoTraivEia Tig ovcra toIq
ti)v ttkttiv ci cnrocel^ewQ Kapnovpivoig' oti b ttovq gov, <pi)<rlv, ov pi)
Trpoatco-ipr], eirl rijv irpovotav ra KaXa avaipipovTog, lay te 'EMiji'iKa
?/, eclv te i]jiETEpa. iravrioy jiEv yap a'inog twv koXwv 6 Qeog' aXXd
Twv fiEi>, Kara. TzporjyovpEvov, <hg Trjg re BiaOifKrig t^q TraXaiag /cat
rijg viag' tCjv Be, car' eVa/coXouQ/jua, <bg rrjg (piXoaofiag' rct^a Be Kal
Trporjyovpivwg rolg "JLXXrjaiv iBodr) tote, irplv tj tov Kvpiov KaXiaai
Kal Tovg ' JLXXrjvag' kirciBayioyEi yap Kal aun) to 'EXXtjiikov, wg b
vopog Tovg TLfipaiovg, elg XpiaTov. irpoirapatTKEva^Ei to'ivvv rj <piXo(TO(j)ia,
7rpoodoTroiov(ra Toy bird XptOTov teXeiovpevov. — S. Clem. Alex., Strom.,
I. 5 ; Opp., i. 331, ed. Potter. Kairoi Kal KaO' tavTrjv IBiKalov ttote
Kal i] <piXo(TO(pia rovg ' KXXrjvag' ovk Elg tt]V KadoXov Be BiKaioirvvr]v,
Etg r\v Evp'idKETai avvEpybg, KadciirEp /cat b npHiTog Kal b BEVTEpog fiadpbg
tu> Etg ro VTTEpuioy civiovti, Kal b ypappaTiuTijg rw (piXoaoipi'icroiTi. —
lb., I. 20 ; i. p. 377. Tijy Be <piXotro(j)iav Kal paXXov "EXXtjitiv oiov
SiadriKTjv oiKEiav avrolg BeBoadat, vTroftadpav oiiaav Tijr Kara. Xaiafbv
<piXo(To<f>iag — lb., VI. 8 ; ii. p. 773.

2. ' Adeo quid simile philosophus et Christianus ? Grascias di-
scipulus et coeli ? fama? negotiator et vitas ? verborum et factorum
operator, et rerum asdificator et destructor ? amicus et inimicus
erroris? veritatis interpolator et integrator et expressor, et furator
ejus et custos?' — Tertull., Apolog., 46; Opp., i. p. 285, ed. Oehler.
' Quid ergo Athenis et Hierosolymis ? quid acaclemiaa et ecclesiae ?
quid haereticis et Christianis ? ' — Id., De Pressor. Ilceret., 7; ii.
p. 10.

Note 6, page 43. ' The study of the history of the ancient


world is likewise important from another point of view. Chris-
tianity found in it, not only vigorous foes or latent sympathy, but,
according to a strange law, by which the vanquished almost always
end in exercising over the victors an influence, the greater because
least suspected, we shall see the ancient world, at the moment that
all things announced its defeat, morally regain the ground it had
externally lost. Heresy was nothing but a hypocritical reaction of
Paganism against Christianity.' — De Pressense, Religions before
Christ, p. 6. Compare Stanley, Jewish Church, 270, 290.

Note 7, page 45. 'When Joseph was brought to Pharaoh to
interpret his dream, the holy patriarch and the Egyptian king
speak of God in much the same language, and with the same
acknowledgement of His overruling providence.' — Horsley, Disser-
tation, &c, p. 46 ; so before, of the Abimelechs, of the family of
Nahor, &c. 'Abimelech, Ephron, Mamre, Melchizedek, all either
worship the same God, or, if they worship Him under another name,
are all bound together by ties of hospitality and friendship.' — Stanley,
Jewish Church, p. 40 ; cf. p. 08, of Job ; p. 142, of Jethro ; p. 187,
of Balaam ; and p. 416. ' The Book of Genesis contains a record
of the dispensation of natural religion, or Paganism, as well as of
the patriarchal. The dreams of Pharaoh and Abimelech, as of
Nebuchadnezzar afterwards, are instances of the dealings of God
with those to whom He did not vouchsafe a written revelation.
Or should it be said that the particular cases merely come within
the range of the Divine supernatural governance which was in their

Online LibraryJ HannahThe relation between the Divine and human elements in Holy Scripture : eight lectures preached before the University of Oxford in the year MDCCCLXIII .. → online text (page 20 of 30)