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The relation between the Divine and human elements in Holy Scripture : eight lectures preached before the University of Oxford in the year MDCCCLXIII .. online

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sure to be paradoxical, and to seem to contradict themselves. Their
inspiration only makes them the more fearless in such seeming con-
tradictions.' — Davies, in Tracts for Priests and People, xi. 29. See
also above, Note 6.

Note 12, page 93. Mr. Froude has spoken of the Book of Job
as an extraordinary contrast to the rest of the O. T. Canon, ' smiting
through and through the most deeply-seated Jewish prejudices.' —
Book of Job, p. 3. In correction of which view, we may refer to the
argument of an article in Christian Remembrancer, Jan. 1849, p. 196,
sqq. : ' The language of Job toward the Deity is another remarkable
feature of the book. This language is a startling carrying out even
of that bold ground which he takes about himself; for he positively,
as far as Avords go, accuses the Deity of injustice.' ' It is obvious at
first sight that this language cannot really mean what it literally
means.' ' The holy men speak as if God were hard and unjust
upon them, all the while feeling the fullest and most penetrating
conviction of His goodness. Indeed, just as in the case of ordinary
irony, feeling expresses itself by contraries,' &c. ' All prayer may


be said to partake in some measure of this irony.' ' Thus the
piercing tone of pra} r ers in the Psalms,' &c. Compare Mr. Farrar,
B. L., p. 7, note.

In like manner, on the controverted subject of the Jewish know-
ledge of a future state, ' we cannot but observe, upon reflection,
with what religious humility the minds of holy men, under the
elder dispensation, seem to have fitted themselves to that exact
amount of revelation, on this subject, which they had.' ' Amid all
the superior brightness of a more perfect hope, Ave can still allow its
own peculiar beauty to the faith of the Jewish saint, believing with
an obedient and resigned vagueness, and prepared in God to go he
knew not and asked not whither.' — Christian Rem., I. I., p. 164.
Compare Stanley, Jewish Church, p. 154, as quoted above, Lecture II.
Note 8; and p. 471. ' The elder Hebrew Prophets were content,
for the most part, with the consciousness of the Divine support in
this life and through the terrors of death, but did not venture
to look further.' Compare also Milman's remarks on Ecclesi-
asticus, History of the Jews, ii. 32, note (and above, Lecture II.,
Note 20).

Note 13, page 95. In this, as in so many other cases, the fact
that a principle is brought out more vividly at one time than another,
is constantly made the ground for the assertion, that it is absolutely
excluded from the sphere where it is less conspicuously traced.
See above, p. 19. The doctrine of Ezek. xviii. is distinctly re-
cognised in the Pentateuch. ' Yet now if Thou wilt forgive their
sin — ; and if not, blot me, I pray Thee, out of Thy book which
Thou hast written. And the Lord said unto Moses, Whosoever hath
sinned against Me, him will I blot out of My book.' — Ex. xxxii.
32, 33. ' The fathers shall not be put to death for the children,
neither shall the children be put to death for the fathers : every
man shall be put to death for his own sm.' — Deut. xxiv. 16 ; cf.
2 Kings xiv. 6 ; 2 Chron. xxv. 4. The subject is fully discussed in
most Introductions to the Pentateuch. See also Spinoza, Tract. Theol.
Pol., ii. 49, p. 45 ; Waterland, Works, iv. 222; Warburton, Divine
Legation of Moses, V. 5 ; vol. iii. p. 5, &c, ed. 1846, and the
notes ; Mozley, Predestination, p. 36 ; Trench, Sennon on the
Mount, &c, pp. 41-3; 45-7; 187-8; K. P. Smith, On Isaiah,
Introd., p. xvii.

Note 14, page 97. See Lyall, Propcrdia Projihetica, P. III., ch. ii.,
especially pp. 323-4. Cf. Milmun, llistoiy of the Jeivs, ii. 364. It
appears that even the most advanced schools are disposed to leave


us ' a chapter possibly in Deuteronomy foreshadowing the final fall
of Jerusalem.' — E. and R., p. 70.

Note 15, page 100. Am ri ovv, <pr)<r\i>, ovh\c eveko.\e(T£ MwwcteT ?/
i]rttiQy](TE keXevovti Zia H]v 7reptroyu>)v to aafiftaTov \vEadai ; ^TjXoron
WQ tov crafifiarov TTEpirofirig ovarjg Kvpiwripaq, ku'itoi ovk kari tov

TO/dOV >/ TrEptTO^}), rtW EK TWV TTaTEpWV, 'e^IvOeV ETTElCTErE-^dE'iaa TO) VOjJU).

— Chrys. ap. Caten. G. P., ed. Cramer, ii. 264. ' Sententia est
Hebrsorum, Circumcisio pellit Sabbatum .... (Opus Christ!)
continetur in natura? praeceptis, qua? antiquiora sunt ipsa circum-
cisione, sicut circumcisio est antiquior rigido otio Sabbati per Mosem
imperato ... Si lex ritualis cedit rituali antiquiori, quanto magis legi
per naturam cordibus inscripta?, ut quavis occasione miseros juvemus?'
— Grotius in Joann. vii. 22-3. Cf. Lightfoot, Works, ii. 557 ; Morris,
Prize Essay, &c, p. 98.

St. Augustine's explanations of the position of the Law are care-
fully summed up by Dean Trench in the work already referred to ;
pp. 67, 185, &c. The typical, and therefore temporary, character of
the Law is often the sole solution offered to account for the strong
language used by St. Paul ; 2 Cor. iii. 6 ; Gal. iii. 13, 19, &c. It
was indeed a serious evil to mistake the shadow for the substance ;
but it is not less important to establish the results of the principle,
that, viewed in itself, the Law conveyed knowledge without grace.
It is this which gives point to the apostolic contrast. The Law was
holy; but it became an unendurable burthen (Acts xv. 10), if a
rigid obedience to its dictates was regarded as the sole ground
for justification. In this sense it could kill ; yet it had been
obeyed, upheld, and reverenced by those who had shone forth
amidst dark ages as bright examples of the power of faith. "We
cannot explain this sharp antagonism by proving merely that it
was temporary in its obligation, unless we can show also, that
throughout its course, it was equally restricted in its power. The
coming of Christ might fulfil, and therefore supersede, a type :
but how could it change blessings into curses ? How could it turn
earlier good into present evil ? This it could not do. But what it
could and did do was, to drag to the light existing evil, as the
preliminary for furnishing its cure : on the one hand, by revealing
and satisfying the true but forgotten scope of the promise ; on the
other hand, by convicting the Jews of destroying the Law, which
they professed to honour, by turning its letter against its spirit. And
it is throughout this argument, as I have endeavoured to point out,
that the Apostle and his Master are at one.


Note 16, page 101. 'To condemn works without faith is surely
quite consistent with condemning faith without works. St. James
says, we are justified by works, not by faith only ; St. Paul implies,
by faith, not by works only. St. Paul says that Avorks are not
available before faith ; St. James that they are available after faith.' —
Newman, On Justification, p. 330. Compare Neander, Planting, &c,
p. 358, sqq., ed. Bohn ; Arnold, Sermons chiefly on the Interpretation
of Scripture, No. xxxiv. p. 358.

But in truth this contrast is only one instance of a wider charac-
teristic, by which Scripture often speaks of each cause in salvation
as the sole cause, leaving it to the enlightened conscience to ascribe
to each its proper weight and province. ' Whereas faith on our part
fitly answers, or is the correlative, as it is called, to grace on God's
part, sacraments are but God's acts of grace, and good works are
but our acts of faith ; so that whether we say we are justified by
faith, or by works, or by sacraments, all these but mean this one
doctrine, that we are justified by grace, given through sacraments,
impetrated by faith, manifested in works.' — Newman, I. I., p. 348.
Compare his Parochial Sermons, iii. 84, on ' Faith and Obedience;'
and iv. 350, on ' Faith and Love.' ' Various qualities are stated as
essential to salvation, one in one passage, another in another. Thus
faith is said to save ; " by grace ye are saved ; " a man is justified by
faith ; he is justified by grace ; he is justified by the blood of Christ ;
he is justified by ivorks. In other places love is represented as the
great justifying principle in the sight of God. One quality of the
mind is connected with and implies another. Faith and love
necessarily go together. Works are connected with both.' — Davidson,
in Home, ii. 478.

A similar principle is needed to explain many portions of the
practical teaching of Scripture; e.g.: — 1. 'He shall give His
angels charge over thee,' Ps. xci. 11 ; a lesson of trust, which is
not to be turned into a justification of presumption, as Christ Himself
has most distinctly taught us, Matt. iv. 7.

2. ' Woe unto you that are rich ! ' Luke vi. 24 ; a lesson on God's
absolute ownership, and a warning against claiming His gifts as our
own, and using them for selfish ends; which is not to be turned into
refusal of the duties of a ' faithful and wise steward ' (Luke xii. 42),
if God sees fit in any sense to set us over His household, and confide
to us the management of wealth.

3. ' Turn to him the other (cheek) also,' Matt. v. 39 ; a lesson


of patience and humility, which is not to be turned into the sanction
of injustice, in any sense that would offend against the common
good, and against the laws that are needed to protect the weak against
the strong.

Note 17, page 104. On the marvellous unity of Scripture,
compare Trench's Ilulsean Lectures for 1845, No. II.; Bishop
Ellicott, in Aids to Faith, p. 442 ; Burgon, Inspiration and Inter-
pretation, pp. cliii. 123, 234-5 ; Birks, The Bible and Modern
Thought, pp. 226, 265, 377, 398, 405. ' The series of the Inspired
stands out from all the generations to which they individually
belonged, one series, by reason of the one light which shines from
them all, and which by its unity vindicates for itself one source.' 1 —
Campbell, Thoughts on Revelation, p. 98. Not less noteworthy
is the nature of that unity, veiled beneath such wondrous diversity.
The Jews were to ' be accustomed to regard their Scriptures, not as
men regard other books, but as a sort of mine, in which their learned
men were to dig for the treasures of hidden wisdom which they
contained.' — Lyall, Prop. Proph., p. 301. ' Its contents are like a
vast quarry rather than a finished building : we find the rough
materials,' &c. — Stanley, The Bible; its Form and its Substance, p. 34.
A striking passage from Burke has been repeatedly quoted lately on
this subject; National Review, Jan. 1861, p. 159 ; Stephen, Defence
of Dr. Williams, p. 60; Phillimore, Speech on the other side, p. 22,
&c. Compare Hooker, E. P., I. xiii. 3; and Trench, On St.
Augustine, pp.3, 5, 9, &c. ' Nimirum idem coelestis Spiritus Isaiam
et Danielem in aula sua movit afflatu, Davidem et Amosum in
pastorum stabulis ; semper idoneos voluntatis suaj interpretes
deligens, et interdum ex ore infantium jierficiens laudem : aliorum
utitur eloquentia ; alios eloquentes facit.' — Lowth, De Sacr. P.Hebr.,
p. 246, ed. Lips., 1815. Compare below, Lecture V., Note 20.



Note 1, page 107. See, for instance, Bauer's continuation of
Glassii Phil. Sacr., iii. 15 : ' Sensus litteralis est unice verus. Sensus
mysticus, i. e., allegoricus et typicus, non est admittendus.' His
reasons follow on p. 23. Compare Marsh's Lectures on the Interpreta-
tion of the Bible, Nos. x.-xii. ' If we endeavour to find an allegorical
sense, either in history or in prophecy, we endeavour to find a sense
with which the literal sense is wholly unconnected. The sense,
therefore, will be supplied by mere imagination ; and not only will
different interpreters invent different senses, but even the same
interpreter may invent as many as he pleases. Indeed there have
been Jewish commentators, who have boasted that they could
discover seventy midrashim, or mystical meanings, in one sentence.
Some limit, therefore, is absolutely necessary ' (on which see below,
Note 13). — lb., p. 459. (From the time of Erasmus and Luther)
' the Greek of the New Testament was interpreted like the Greek
of a classic author ; the tropological and anagogical senses which had
been ascribed to the Latin Vulgate disappeared ; and the names
themselves ceased to occupy a place in the nomenclature of a biblical
interpreter. It became a maxim among Protestants, that the words
of Scripture had only one sense, and that they who ascribed to
them various senses made the meaning of Scripture altogether
uncertain.' — lb , p. 508. Compare Maitland, Eruvin, p. 27.

A correction to the extreme view of the single sense is supplied
by the two considerations to which I call attention in the text ;
namely, the very definition of a Revelation, and the teaching of
Christ and His apostles in the New Testament.

On the first of these points, compare Bacon, Advancement of
Learning, Works, iii. 484, ed. Ellis and Spedding : ' The Scriptures,
being given by inspiration and not by human reason, do differ from all
other books in the author,' &c. And p. 487 : (the Scriptures) ' being
written to the thoughts of men, and to the succession of all ages, with a
foresight of all heresies, contradictions, differing estates of the Church,


yea, and particularly of the elect, are not to be interpreted only
according to the latitude of the proper sense of the place, and re-
spectively towards that present occasion whereupon the words were
uttered,' &c, 'but have in themselves . . . infinite springs and
streams of doctrine to water the Church in every part ; and therefore,
as the literal sense is as it were the main stream or river, so the
moral sense chiefly, and sometimes the allegorical or typical, are
they whereof the Church hath most use : not that I wish men to be
bold in allegories, or indulgent or light in allusions ; but that I do
much condemn that interpretation of the Scripture which is only
after the manner as men use to interpret a profane book.' Add
Selden, Table Talk, p. 11, ed. Singer: 'The Scripture may have
more senses beside the literal ; because God understands all things at
once ; but a man's writing has but one true sense, which is that which
the author meant when he writ it.' (Cf. Warburton, D. L., iii. 214.)
And Butler, Anal., ii. 7, p. 304 : ' To say, then, that the Scriptures,
and the things contained in them, can have no other or farther
meaning than those persons thought or had who first recited or
wrote them, is evidently saying that those persons were the original,
proper, and sole authors of those books, i. e., that they are not
inspired.' The argument is that of Augustine and Aquinas: 'Quia
vero sensus litteralis est quern auctor intendit, auctor autem Sacra?
Scriptural Deus est, qui omnia simul suo intellectu comprehendit,
" non est inconveniens," ut dicit Augustinus, " si etiam secundum
litteralem sensum in una littera Scripture plures sint sensus." '
— I ma Qu. i. Art. x.

For the second ground, see Middleton, Doctrine of the Greek
Article, p. 403, ed. Rose : ' else we must assert, that the multitude
of applications made by Christ and His apostles are fanciful and
unauthorised,' &c. And Marsh, I. 1., p. 455 : ' In whatever case a
passage of the Old Testament, which, according to its strict and
literal sense, relates to some earlier event in the Jewish history,
is yet applied, either by Christ or by an apostle of Christ, to what
happened in their days ; and moreover is so applied, as to indicate
that the passage is prophetic ; of such passage we must conclude, on
their authority, that beside its plain and primary sense, it has also a
remote and secondary sense. The difficulties, which no human
system can remove, are in such cases removed by Divine power.'
It was also a question of fact by which Bishop Horsley was led to
change his opinion, from believing ' that every prophecy, were it


rightly understood, Avould be found to carry a precise and single
meaning ; ' the fact, namely, that Noah's prophecy on Japhet
contained ' variety of intent and meaning,' as was proved by its
repeated fulfilments. — Sermons, i. 344.

On the general subject of this Lecture, I may refer to Bishop
Van Mildert's Bamjpton Lectures, 1814, No. VII. ; Mr. Conybeare's
Bampton Lectures, 1824, 'being an attempt to trace the history and
to ascertain the limits of the secondary and spiritual interpretation
of Scripture ; ' Dr. Neale's Commentary on the Psalms ; Disserta-
tion III., ' The Mystical and Literal Interpretation of the Psalms ; '
Tract for the Times, No. 89, ' On the Mysticism attributed to the
Early Fathers of the Church' (see below, Note 17); Mr. Isaac
Williams's Commentary on The Beginning of the Book of Genesis,
pp. 22, 37, 55, 23G, &c. ; Waterland, Works, iv. 154; Lyall,
Propced. Proph., pp. 193, 245, 296, 299, 300 ; Fairbairn's Typology,
Book I. ; Arnold's Two Sermons on the Interpretation of Prophecy, &c.
The topic also fills a large space in the controversy which followed
the publication of Essays and Reviews. I am happy to find that
the argument of this discourse is supported by an excellent sermon
of Mr. Mansel's, which I had not seen when my own was preached :
' The Spirit a Divine Person, to be worshipped and glorified ; ' one of
the Oxford Lenten Sermons for 1863.

Note 2, page 1 10. The cases of Balaam, of Jonah, and of Caiaphas,
have been frequently used to prove that prophets were influenced by
'a power that would not be repressed;' e.g., by Professor H.
Browne, in Aids to Faith, pp. 312, 316. Compare the Bishop of
Oxford's University Sermons, p, 159 (on the other hand, see David-
son, Introd. to 0. T., ii. 435). On the whole subject, I may refer to
John Smith's Discourse ' Of Prophecy,' Select Disc, 1673, p. 161.
' Sometimes that light was more strong and vivid, sometimes more
wan and obscure ; which seems to be insinuated in that passage, Heb.
i. 1 : " God who in time past spake unto the fathers by the prophets,
■xoXvfiepuic kclI 7roXvrpo7rwc." ' — P. 109. (Few readers will need
reminding of Dr. Stanley's three sermons on The Bible ; its Eorm
and its Substance, and Lectures, on the Eastern Church, p. 322.)
' He watch'd till knowledge came,' &c. ; Christian Year, Second
Sunday after Easter.

Of the ' nearer foreground of Prophecy,' many illustrations are
given in Dr. Pusey's Commentary on the Minor Prophets, and else-
where. Compare Dr. Stanley's account of Balaam's • utterances,' —


' founded, like all such utterances, on the objects immediately in the
range of the vision of the seer, but including within their sweep a
vast prospect beyond.' — Jewish Church, p. 193. See, too, p. 453.
Also, Mr. R. P. Smith's excellent Introduction to his Messianic Inter-
pretation of the Prophecies of Isaiah ; especially pp. vi.-viii. : ' with
all this they had no conscious purpose or knowledge of the final
tendencies of their works : each had his own present business, and
addressed himself to the immediate wants and needs of his days.'
(So of Moses, of David and Solomon, of Isaiah, of the later prophets;)
' yet, notwithstanding so great a change, no note is struck which jars
with the declarations of previous prophets, nor is there a word which
does not fitly belong to Him who is our Prophet, Priest, and King.'
Note 2>,page 113. The doctrine of Typology, which has gathered
to itself so large a literature, turns mainly on the question of fact ;
the proof from Scripture that this secondary intention did exist ;
that it extended to things as well as words ; that it has received the
highest sanction from the teaching of our Lord ; that it reaches so
closely to the frontier of the actual lessons of Scripture, as to suggest
the possibility and propriety of a still wider range of analogous inter-
pretation. The opposite tendencies may be thought to have reached
their limits in the schools of Grotius and Cocceius, of which the
judgment has become proverbial : ' Grotium nusquam in sacris Uteris
invenire Christum, Cocceium ubique.' 1 (Cf. Waterland, Works, iv.
163.) See Conybeare's 7th Lecture, pp. 259-67. ' No commen-
tator ever surpassed S. Augustine in seeing Christ everywhere :

" Him first, Him last, Him midst and without end."

It has been well said that where we, after considerable study, are able
to discover some distant reference to our blessed Lord, S. Augustine
begins boldly : " This Psalm breathes altogether of Christ." ' — Neale,
On the Psalms, i. 77. Cf. Trench, On St. Augustine, pp. 54, 55.

Note 4, page 114. Compare Waterland, Works, iv. 155 : ' the
words of Scripture in such cases express such a thing, and that thing
represents or signifies another thing. The words, properly, bear
but one sense, and that one sense is the literal one ; but the thing
expressed by the letter is further expressive of something sublime
or spiritual.' Also Van Mildert, B. L., notes, p. 388. It does
not follow, however, that we may attempt to discriminate by
ascribing the res solely to God and the voces solely to man ; an
opinion condemned by Dr. Lee, p. 32. This is only one of the



many attempts to solve the mystery of inspiration by drawing a
mechanical distinction between the respective provinces of the
divine and human elements.

Note 5, page 115, The instance in Hosea is discussed by Dr.
Wordsworth, Onlnterpretation, pp. 79, 87, and in Replies to E. and R.,
p. 482 ; Dr. M'Caul, in Aids to Faith, p. 118 ; Bishop Ellicott, ib.,
p. 402 ; Dr. Neale, On the Psalms, i. 384. Cf. Dr. Mill, Pantheistic
Principles, ii. 408-14. ' When Israel was brought out of Egypt,
the figure took place ; when Christ was called, the reality was ful-
filled. The act itself, on the part of God, was prophetic. . . . The
words are prophetic, because the event which they speak of was
prophetic' — Dr. Pusey, in loc. Dr. Stanley speaks of cases where
1 a fact of the Mosaic history is resolved into a truth of the new
dispensation.' — On 2 Cor. iii. 17. 'Is it not true that Almighty
God has made even acts and histories to prophesy, independently
of any utterance of men's mouths?' — Browne, in Aids to Faith,
p. 312.

The allusion in Jeremiah xxxi. 15, to the lamentation which was
thought to issue from the tomb of Rachel when her children were
destroyed, — a reference doubtless in the first instance to some occur-
rences connected with the captivity, — is worked out by Dr. Mill.
/. /., pp. 402-8 : ' The mass of Christian as well as Jewish inter-
preters expound this prophecy as primarily respecting the Chaldean
captivity, though involving higher and more remote events in its
after development.' Dr. Stanley drops all mention of the words of
Jeremiah : ' As late as the Christian era, when the infants of Beth-
lehem were slaughtered by Herod, it seemed to the Evangelist as
though the voice of Rachel were heard weeping for her children
from her neighbouring grave.' — Jewish Church, p. 72.

Note 6, page 11G. Prophecies are ' of the nature of their Author,
with whom a thousand years are but as one day ; and therefore are
not fulfilled punctually at once, but have springing and germinant
accomplishment throughout many ages, though the height or fulness
of them may refer to some one age.' — Bacon, Works, iii. 341.
Compare Horsley, Sermons, i. 344 ; Arnold, Sermons, vol. i., notes,
p. 396 (' so thai the prophecies, as I believe, will go on continually
meeting a\ ith a t\ pical and imperfect fulfilment, till the time of the
end '); 449 (' it may be that this groat truth may be again partially
and typically fulfilled ; nay, that it may be so fulfilled many tunes
over, the fulfilment becoming continually more' and more adequate


to the prophecy, till the last and perfect fulfilment ') ; Wordsworth,
On Matt., xvi. 28, and On Interpretation, p. 74.

Note 7, page 119. The older divisions are summed up by S. Thorn.
Aq., I ma Qu. i. Art. x. The foundation of all is the literal (see below,
Note 15); and under this we may arrange what St. Augustine calls
history, aetiology, and analogy, as well as parable. But the res being
significant as well as the voces (see Note 4), there is a spiritual
meaning lying beneath the literal, which may be thus divided :

1. The old law is a figure of the new law; and this is allegory.

2. The life of Christ recorded in the new law is the example for all
Christians; and hence we derive tropologia, the moral sense. 8. The
new law is itself a figure of eternal glory, and this is anagoge. The
illustration of Durandus (Neale, I. I., p. 380) precisely corresponds

Online LibraryJ HannahThe relation between the Divine and human elements in Holy Scripture : eight lectures preached before the University of Oxford in the year MDCCCLXIII .. → online text (page 24 of 30)