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The relation between the Divine and human elements in Holy Scripture : eight lectures preached before the University of Oxford in the year MDCCCLXIII .. online

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with this arrangement. The historical Jerusalem is ' that earthly
city Avhither pilgrims journey,' but it is understood ' allegorically, of
the Church militant ; tropologically, of every faithful soul ; analo-
gically, of the celestial Jerusalem, Avhich is our country.'

The question how far this scheme, in its explanation, as Avell as its
terms, can be ascribed to Origen, is examined by Bishop Marsh, I. I.,
p. 483. That neither of the two great divisions should be sacri-
ficed to the other is well expressed in the quotation from St. Augus-
tine, De Genesi ad Lit,, viii. 1 ; Opp., iii. 225 : ' Non ignoro de
paradiso multos multa dixisse, tres tamen de hue re quasi generales
sunt sentential. Una eorum, qui tantummodo corporaliter paradisum
intelligi volunt. Alia eorum, qui spiritaliter tantum. Tertia eorum,
qui utroque modo paradisum accipiunt, alias corporaliter alias autem
sjnritaliter. Breviter ergo ut dicam, tertiam mihi fateor placere
sententiam.' Cf. S. Thorn. Aq., I ma Qu. cii. Art. i. These early
distinctions afterwards branched out into a complex system, which
may be seen 'in all its grandeur' (says Dr. Maitland, Eruvin,
p. 28) in the early editions of Glassius ; or more succinctly in
Waterland, Works, iv. 165. It is counted by Dr. Maitland among
the ' impediments to the right understanding of Scripture.'

To compare the old division with that which I have suggested :
the tropological sense may be so expanded as, in a Avider view, to
answer to the symbolical ; and the allegorical and anagogic are but
two different stages of the typical. The older scheme leaves no
place for the class which I have arranged third, unless we regard it
as a subdivision of the allegorical. But if the definitions are not
clearly stated, and carefully maintained, there will always be some

y 2


discussion whether particular cases are to be arranged under one
head or another.

The distinction drawn between type and symbol, namely, that type
is a prophetic symbol, is now generally adopted; see, e. g., Litton's
B. L., p. 82 ; Hardwick, Christ and other Masters, i. 104 ; Mac-
donald, On the Pentateuch, ii. 452. There is more difficulty about
the word allegory, in the ordinary usage of which (' aliud verbis,
aliud sensu ostendit ; ' Quinctil., Inst. Or., viii. 6, § 44) all hold upon
a primary historical sense is lost. But Bishop Marsh points out that
aWnyopovptva is not rendered with precision in our authorised
version : ' It is one thing to say that a history is allegorised ; it is
another thing to say that it is allegory itself. If we only allegorise
an historical narrative, Ave do not of necessity convert it into
allegory' (7. /., p. 356). So also Bishop Van Mildert, I. I, 239-40 :
' some historical facts of the Old Testament appear to be allegorised
in the new (that is, a spiritual application is given to them over and
above their literal meaning), although they cannot strictly be deno-
minated types. St. Paid, in applying the history of Sarah and
Hagar to the Jewish and Christian covenants, does not call it a type ;
but only says that in giving it such an application, he had alle-
gorised the history.' Again, Dr. Fairbairn (p. 18) recognises two kinds
of allegory: — 1. ' A narrative expressly feigned for the purpose;'
2. 'if describing facts which really took place, describing them only
for the purpose of representing certain higher truths or principles
than the narrative, in its literal aspect, whether real or fictitious,
could possibly have taught.' This second sense, though less usual,
corresponds more nearly to the application of St. Paul.

Note 8, page 120. Dr. R. Williams refers us for ' the origin of
St. Paid's parable of Hagar' to Philo {Rational Godliness, p. 1G7,
note) ; and Mr. Jowett calls it ' neither an argument nor an illus-
tration, but an interpretation of the O. T. Scripture after
the manner of the age in which St. Paul lived ; that is, after the
manner of the Jewish and Christian Alexandrian writers, {in loc).
A writer ' On Kabbalism' in the Christian Remembrancer for April,
18G2, p. 358, note, says that it is 'probably an argumentum ad
hominem of irresistible force against the Judaism of his day.' Of
recent commentaries, which appear to me to give a much deeper and
truer meaning, I would especially refer to that of Bishop Ellicott.
On the representative character of Abraham and his household, see
( Hsltausen, in loc, and the passage of Calvin opioted by Dean Alford.


Noted, page 124. The general law, however, that 'the elder
shall serve the younger' (Gen. xxv. 23 ; Eom. ix. 12), has an extra-
ordinary application through the history of the older Church. Seth
was younger than Cain ; Shem than Japhet (cf. Gen. x. 21 ; Lee,
p. 532); Abraham than his brethren {see Comm. on Acts vii. 4);
Isaac than Ishmael ; Jacob than Esau ; Judah than Reuben ;
Ephraim than Manasseh ; Moses than Aaron ; Samuel than the sons
of Peninnah ; David than Eliab, &c. Compare also, Abel younger than
Cain ; Joseph younger than his brethren ; Solomon younger than
Adonijah (1 Kings ii. 22). Gideon's family was poor in Manasseh,
and he the least in his father's house (Judges vi. 15). Saul was
' a Benjamite, of the smallest of the tribes of Israel ;' and his family
' the least of all the families of the tribe of Benjamin' (1 Sam. ix. 21).
See Macaulay's remark on this, H. E., i. 72. The Jewish history
' would rather seem to indicate that younger brothers are under the
especial protection of heaven. Isaac was not the eldest son of
Abraham, nor Jacob of Isaac, nor Judah of Jacob, nor David of
Jesse, nor Solomon of David.' Compare Jowett on Eom. ix. 10 ;
and the Plain Commentary on Matt. xi. 12 and Luke xv. 32.

Against what is said on the same page, 124, that the Law was ' no
bondage ' to the ancient worthies, it might be objected that St. Peter
calls it so ; Acts xv. 10. For an answer, see Neander, Planting, &c,
i. 117 : ' By " a yoke" St. Peter certainly did not mean the outward
observance of ceremonies simply as such, . . . but he meant the
outward observance of the Law as far as it proceeded from its internal
dominion over the conscience, so as to make justification and salva-
tion dependent upon it.' See above, Lecture III., Note 15.

Note 10, page 129. ' The occurrence of a commandment to keep
the Sabbath, in a table generally moral, implies that there is a moral
element in that commandment.' . . . ' The Sabbath, as it appears
in the Fourth Commandment, was a development of such moral
element in a manner suited to a particular people, and being thus
rendered political and ceremonial, does not, in that form, come
under the precepts that are called moral.' — Hessey, B. L., pp. 23-4 ;
cf. p. 209 : ' The apostles . . . carried out the moral part of
the Fourth Commandment, which demands a periodic devotion of
time to God's service, and incidcates, by the mysterious example of
the Almighty Himself, the alternation of rest with labour.' Compare
above, Lecture II., Note 11 ; and Lecture V., p. 164. Also, Dr.
Moberly, Law of the Love of God, p. 191 : 'if God surrounded a


law with temporary characteristics, such as those which invested the
law of the Sabbath under the Mosaic dispensation, these same
characteristics, when ceasing to form part of the law, must continue
to form a commentary upon the law, and an illustration of its meaning
and intent." 1

In like manner, the law of circumcision, as it stood, con \ eyed no
obligation to the Gentile ; but it retained its value, as at once a
record and a moral rule. It was a record of the forms through
which God's older covenant had been sealed. It was a rule which
embodied in the strictest shape the law of the circumcision of the
heart. It ceased to be obligatory, because the time was come to
which St. Paul taught that the O. T. itself had pointed, when the
free admission of the Gentile would cancel the old ritual of the Jew.
But what it lost in obligation it more than recovered in vitality.
It rose into fresh dignity in the nobler system, when its earlier
bearing was more distinctly realised ; and we might almost say that
it had never seemed so full of vitality, as at the very moment when
it ceased to be obeyed.

Note 11, page 130. The difficulty is well put by Dr. Arnold,
Two Sermons on the Interpretation of Prophecy, in Sermons, vol. i.
pp. 3G7, 388. But indeed it has long claimed and received great
attention ; in such older works as the BifiXog Ka-aXXayrjg of Suren-
husius (1713); in such recent publications as Gough's Neiv Testa-
ment Quotations collated with the Scriptures of the Old Testament
(1855); in the lists of Dr. Davidson, ed. of Home's Introduction,
ii. pp. 113-74, and Mr. Ayre, the editor of a different represen-
tative of the same volume, pp. 113-78; and in such treatises as
Chapter V. in Michaelis's Introd. to N.T., i. 200-4G, ed. Marsh;
Appendix A. to Mr. Westcott's Introd., &c. ; and Mr. Jowett's
Essay ' On the Quotations from the Old Testament in the New,'
St. PauVs Epistles, i. 353-62, 1st ed. Cf. Lee, /. I., p. 334, sqq.
The separate passages are also discussed, and in most cases with
sufficient fulness, in the Commentaries of Ellicott, Alford, Words-
worth, and others. On the extent to which these quotations were
anticipated by the Jews, and wherein the usages differ, see Lyall,
Propa'd. Proph., pp. 184, 191, 193, &c, 301.

The position of the LXX has been thought to add considerably
to the difficulty. But if it bo granted that the N. T. writers were
allowed to use the language which mosl naturally occurred to them,
there is no reason for surprise when we find that, in ordinary cue-.


they were permitted to quote the Holy Scriptures also in the terms
with which both they and their hearers were most familiar ; nor is
this concession in any way inconsistent with the belief, that whenever
they were dealing with the inner mind of Scripture, they were guided
by the Holy Spirit to unfold the deeper meaning of the words to
which they appealed. Their method, I need scarcely add, is de-
fended by the example of our Lord.

Note 12, page 131. The same watchful superintendence will
account for many peculiarities of verbal expression. So Bengel of
the Apostles : ' Apostoli interdum tetigere mysteria, quorum decla-
ratio plenior postmodum per ipsos erat exitura : et iis tantisper
tetigere verbis, qua? et sermoni V. T. et prassenti ipsorum, vero, sed
nondum pleno sensui, et intentioni divince per eos ulterius se decla-
raturse mirabiliter congruerent. Hoc loco [Act. ii. 39] Spiritus S.
per Petrum ea locutus est, de gentibus cito, magno numero, citra cir-
ciuncisionem adsciscendis, qute Petras ipse posted non illico percepit ;
et tamen cum Esahi congruebant ; et verba etiam hsec apta sunt
sensui illi, quern postea cepit. Omnia Scripture verba scientissime
sunt electa.' Similarly Dean Trench, Star of the Wise Men, p. 88,
says that such analogies as Matt. ii. 15, ' ground themselves in the
intentions ©f God, and are not merely traced by the ingenuity of
man : we must believe that it belonged to His eternal purpose that
the earlier should in manifold ways prefigure the later ; and that
among the other witnesses for a Divine intention running through
the whole history of Israel, He was graciously willing that this
should not be wanting.' On Gal. iii. 8, 9, Mr. Jowett comments :
' as in 1 Cor. ix. 8, 9, 10, a providential intention is attributed to
the words of the O. T.' On the remarkable instance of Gal. iii. 16,
see the notes of Grotius, Bengelius, and Ellicott. On Hebr. v. 6, &c,
see Birks, The Bible and Modern Thought, p. 272.

Note 13, page 133. The limitation to Scripture authority is put
in its most stringent form by Bishop Marsh, who rests his recogni-
tion of a secondary sense on no other ground ; above, Note 1 .
' Since in every instance, where a passage of the Old Testament has
a secondary sense, the existence of that secondary sense depends
entirely on the Divine authority, which has ascribed it to the
passage, we must wholly confine the application of a secondary sense
to those particular passages to which a secondary sense has been
ascribed by Divine authority.' — L. 1., p. 457 ; cf. p. 374. Against
this, see Fairbairn, Typology, i. 37-43, 2nd ed. Compare Mid-


dleton, Doctrine of the Greek Article, p. 407 : ' It is not for un-
authorised applications that I contend ; it is only for those which
have been made by Christ or His apostles.'' And Olshausen, on
Gal. iv. 26 : ' Our time, therefore, as not being favoured with so
intense an operation of the Spirit, cannot proceed independently in
the adoption of types, but must adhere to those expressed and sanc-
tioned in the Scriptures.' Dean Alford condemns Macknight's mode
of stating the limitation as a ' shallow and indolent dictum.' — On
Gal. iv. 24.

The defence of secondary applications really rests, as we have
seen (above, Note 1), on both a principle and a fact ; the principle
of the Divine authorship, the fact of the interpretations given in the
New Testament. Now it is not reasonable to allege, that the prin-
ciple is entirely exhausted in the instances by which the fact of its
use is established.

Note 14, page 133. See the lists of instances in Neale, On the
Psalms, i. 379, and Ellicott, Aids to Faith, p. 450. Compare
Mr. Medd's University Sermon, On the Christian Meaning of the
Psalms, p. 12 ; Conybeare, I. I., p. 314 (of Joseph and Joshua) ;
Lyall, Propa?d. Proph., p. 194 (of Isaiah ix. 6), &c. But in some
of these cases, the entire absence of Scriptural authority may be
doubtful : e. g. on Egypt (which is urged by Bishop Ellicott), see
Matt. ii. 15; Luke ix. 31; and cf. Arnold, 1. 1., and Stanley,
Jewish Ch., p. 127 : on Isaac, see Heb. xi. 19, and cf. Bauer's Glass.,
I. /., iii. 20, and Pearson, On the Creed, pp. 251, 297 : on Joseph, see
Gen. xlix. 24, and Fairbairn, I. I., 40, note : on Samson, see Judges,
xiii. 5 ; Matt. ii. 23, and Glassius and Fairbairn as above. Dr. Fair-
bairn adds, of the instances of Joseph and Samson, ' Scriptural
warrants of such a kind are out of date now — they can no longer be
regarded as current coin.' For his ' specific principles and direc-
tions,' see ib., p. 137, sqq.

Note 15, page 134. 'Et ita etiam nulla confusio sequitur in
Sacra Scripturfi, cum omncs sensus fundentur super unum, scilicet
litteralem, ex quo solo potest train argumentum, non autem ex iis
quae secundum allegoriam dicuntur, ut elicit Augustinus. Non
tarn en ex hoc aliquid deperit Sacra? Scriptural, quia nihil sub
spirituali sensu continetur fidei necessarium, quod Scriptura per
litteralem sensum nlicubi manifeste non tradat.' — S. Thorn. Aq.,
I ma Qu. i. Art. x. Compare Trench, Parables, p. 38 ; Van Mildert,
/. I, pp. 233, 251, 395.


On the duty of preserving intact the prior rights of the literal
meaning, cf. S. Thorn. Aq., I ma Qu. cii. Art. i. : ' In omnibus
autem quae sic Scrip tura tradit, est pro fundamento ten en da Veritas
historiae, et desuper spirituales expositiones fabricanda?.' So con-
stantly St. Augustine : see the reff. in Trench, pp. 52, 56, 63.
' The Scriptures have infinite mysteries, not violating at all the
truth of the story or letter.' — Bacon, Works, hi. 297. So also
p. 487 (as quoted above, Note 1) : ' the literal sense is, as it were,
the main stream or river.' Cf. Arnold, I. L, p. 397 ; Williams,
Beginning of the Book of Genesis, pp. 74, 138, &c.

Note 16, page 134. On the rules of Tychonius and St. Augustine,
see Eosenmuller, Hist. Inter pr., iii. 407 ; and for other summaries
of maxims, see Van Mildert, I. 1., pp. 251, 395 ; Fairbairn, I. I,
Book I. ch. v. ; Ellicott, Aids to Faith, p. 445 ; Jenkins, Scriptural
Interpretation, p. 20, &c.

Note 17, page 135. See Pearson, On the Creed, notes, p. 162,
ed. Oxon., 1843 ; Tract 89, p. 17, sqq. ; and Dr. Maitland's
criticism, reprinted and enlarged in his Eight Essays, 1852, No. 1.

Note 18, page 135. See, for instance, Alford's Note on John
ii. 19, and St. Augustine on John v. 25-9, in Trench, On St. Aug.,
p. 81. See also S. Aug., Enchiridion de Fide, Spe, et Caritate,
ch. Hi. liii. ; Opp., vi. 215-6, where, commenting on Rom. vi. 2-11,
he says : ' Quidquid igitur gestum est in cruce Christi, in sepultura,
in resurrectione tertio die, in adscensione in coelum, in sede ad
dexteram Patris ; ita gestum est, ut his rebus non mystice tantum
dictis, sed etiam gestis, configuraretur vita Christiana qua? hie geritur.'
Bishop Ellicott (p. 452) puts the N. T. passages as ' probably under
ten,' and even of these he thinks some ' debateable.' ' Historico-
prophetical (parables) are only a few.' — Trench, Parables, p. 46 ;
cf. p. 143. On the Good Samaritan, ib., p. 318. In a more
general sense, however, ' there is scarcely a fact announced but
some great moral truth beams out from beneath it, and lights it
up with a deeper significance.' — Birks, /. /., p. 59 ; cf. p. 161 : ' the
miracles of our Lord, with scarcely an exception, are parables also.'
' The narratives of the Gospel are parables as well as histories.' —
Dr. Vaughan, Sermon at St. Peter's School, York, p. 6.



Note 1, page 141. The words are those of Dr. Tregelles. They
have not unnaturally attracted considerable attention. See Donald-
son's Christian Orthodoxy, p. 123; Tischendorf, Pre/, to N. T.,
1849, p. lv. ; Davidson, Facts, Statements, and Explanations, 1857,
p. 14 ; Bishop Ellicott, in Aids to Faith, p. 435 ; Mr. F. Stephen,
Defence of Dr. Williams, p. 52, &c. For the next sentence, see a
quotation in Dr. Lee's Preface to the second ed. of Inspiration, &c,
p. vii. See also below, Note 4.

Note 2, page 141. The remark is constantly suggested by the
history of the doctrine of inspiration since the time of the Reformers ;
see, e.g., Mr. Westcott, Introd. to Study of Gospels, p. 5; and it
receives some illustration from the differences pointed out by Mr.
F. Stephen, in his Defence of Dr. Williams, between the Fomularies
of the English Church and those of other reformed Communions.
For a systematic attempt to trace the pedigree of the Dictation
theory, see Christian Remembrancer for Jan. 1863, p. 54, &c.

Note 3, page 142. This expression of Paley is adopted by
Lyall, Propcedia Prophetica, p. 114; Williams, Lampeter Theology,
pp. 43, 85 ; Stephen, Defence of Williams, p. 143 ; Dean Milman,
History of the Jeivs, new ed., Pref, p. vi. ; Maurice, Claims of the
Bible and of Science, p. 163 ; and it evidently colours the language
of Professor Jowett, E. and R., pp. 349, 350, 403. For what
may be said to limit or explain it, see Mr. Birks's ed. of Paley's
Evidences, Supplement F, p. 402.

Note 4, page 142. Paley goes on to urge (p. 414) that it is 'an
unwarrantable as well as unsafe rule to lay down concerning the
Jewish history, what was never laid down concerning any other,
that either every particular of it musl be true, or the whole false.'
Formerly, 'any doubt about the inspiration of facts woidd have
been a startling innovation; the whole fabric, as then constructed,
would have tottered had a single stone, however small, been removed.'
— Pusey, Theology of Germany, ii. 59. ' The supposition that a single


word occurred in Scripture which was not divinely suggested and
inspired was thought to overthrow the Apostle's assertion of the
inspiration of all Scripture.' — lb., p. 72. ' "Where am I to stop?
If I pull out one brick," as a young man once said to me, " from
the edifice of my faith, all falls." Well, as long as you are in
this frame of mind, you are not fit to judge calmly or wisely.' —
Magee, Scepticism, p. 22. ' All the books of the Bible must stand
or fall together. . . . But remove in thought a single stone, and in
thought that goodly work of lawgivers and judges, kings and
prophets, evangelists and Apostles, collapses into a shapeless and
unmeaning ruin.' — Burgon, Inspiration and Interpretation, p. 112.
'Each page of (the O. T.) is committed to the credit of the rest,
and the whole book, or collection of books, is committed to the
credit of each page. . . . The volume stands or falls, then, together.
. . . If a verse stands, the O. T. stands.' — Eden, ib., p. 208. ' It
will not allow us to insist on any theory as supplying the principle
of cohesion to Holy Scripture, as if the whole would break into
fragments, like a Rupert's drop, were the minutest portion dis-
placed.' — Chretien, Letter and Spirit, p. 75. (It is alleged that)
'if one assertion in those books be doubted, the whole cause of
God and of Christ is in danger ; ' 'if one link is unsound, the
chain breaks.' — Davies in Tracts for Priests and People, xi.
pp. 30-2. Compare the controversy between the Bishop of Man-
chester and the Bishop of Natal ; Guardian newspaper, April 1,
1863, p. 302 ; Colenso, On the Pentateuch, Preface to Part III.,
p. xxviii. ; Maurice, Claims of the Bible and of Science, p. 138.

My attention has been called to a striking passage in an address
on the Atonement, by one of the writers cited above, Dr. Magee,
Radley Sermons, &c, 18G1, p. 49: 'Rash speculations and un-
warrantable dogmatism grow round every truth in process of time,
just as suburbs grow round a fortress in long years of peace. But
all such outlying buildings only endanger the citadel by giving
shelter to the foe ; and he is the wisest defender of the citadel of
truth who, with most unsparing hand, pulls down the long suburbs
of opinion which alike conceal its proportions and imperil its safety.'

Note 5, page 143. ' To make use of such an argument is, indeed,
to bring the Sacred Ark itself into the battle-field, and to make
belief in Christianity itself depend entirely upon the qiiestion,
whether Moses wrote the Pentateuch or not.' — Colenso, Part. I.,
p. xxx. ' Whatever intermixture (the Bible) may show of human


elements, of error, infirmity, passion, and ignorance,' &c. — lb.,
p. 13. ' The dark patches of human passion and error,' &c,
E. and R., p. 177. ' The great truth of the unity of God was
there from the first ; slowly as the morning broke in the heavens,
like some central light, it filled and afterwards dispersed the mists
of human passion in which it was itself enveloped.' — lb., p. 385.
' It may have pleased God that the vehicle of His revelation to man
should not be absolutely pure, and free from the stains and in-
accuracies which appear to be necessary to everything else which
is in any way mixed up with human nature.' — Stephen, Defence of
Williams, p. 21.

Note 6, page 143. Amongst recent definitions of inspiration in
the strictest sense, besides that of Dr. Tregelles (above, Note 1),
Mr. Burgon's, Inspiration, &c, p. 89, seems to have been the most
commonly quoted ; as by Colenso, Part I. p. G ; Part II. p. ix. ;
Dr. Stanley, The Bible, &c, p. 35, note ; Dr. Northcote, On the
Colenso Controversy, p. 39 ; and othei-s. It is this, apparently,
which a writer in the Christian Remembrancer for Jan. 18G3,
p. 243, calls ' a most extreme and entirely indefensible theory of
inspiration.' Of older definitions, one of the best known is that of
the Formula Consensus Helvetica, 1G75 ; Niemeyer, Collectio
Confessionum, p. 731 (by Heidegger, ib., p. lxxxi.). See, e.g., Lee,
J aspiration, p. 447, note ; Thirlwall, Answer to Williams, p. 39 ;
Stephen, /. I., pp. 124, 182; Heard, New Wine, &c, p. 74;
Ellicott, Pref to Galatians, p. viii. ; Stanley, Bible, &c, p. v., &e.
On the history of the controversy about the Hebrew vowel-points
which gave rise to it, see Pusey, Theology of Germany, i. 141;
ii. 71 ; Farrar, B. L., p. 158, note; Morell, Philosophy of Religion,
p. 188; Tholuck, On Inspiration, Journal of S. L., July 18G3,
p. 3G1.

On the word Dynamical, which has been much used lately, see
Morell, Philosoj)hy of Religion, p. 151 ; Westcott, Introduction to the
iihidy of the Gospels, p. 13; and especially Lee, On Inspiration,
p. 25.

Note 7, puge 144. See Bentley's Remarks upon a late Discourse
of Free-Thin Ling, in Works, iii. 347— 361, ed. Dyce; a passage which
• in I hat topic has since formed the storehouse of argument. Sec.
e.g., Kennicott, First Dissertation, 1753, p. 563; Tregelles, On the
Printed Text of the Greek Testament, pp. 49-57; Scrivener's Intro-
duction to the Criticism <;/' the New Testament, \>. 7. Compare Dr.


Stanley, The Bible, &c. p. 31 : ' The various readings which in the

Online LibraryJ HannahThe relation between the Divine and human elements in Holy Scripture : eight lectures preached before the University of Oxford in the year MDCCCLXIII .. → online text (page 25 of 30)