J. Horsfall (Joseph Horsfall) Turner.

Ancient Bingley: or, Bingley, its history and scenery online

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Online LibraryJ. Horsfall (Joseph Horsfall) TurnerAncient Bingley: or, Bingley, its history and scenery → online text (page 1 of 28)
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This Volume is Respectfully Inscribed

as a small recognition of the
assistance received from him, and from

his late Father's MSB.

The Author holds himself culpable if

any error of transcription be found,

and pleads his multifarious

engagements as some





N glancing over what was promised in the prospectus
issued in August, 1896, I find that instead of Eighty
illustrations I have obtained One Hundred and Eighty,
and this increase has necessarily augmented the
number of pages. Of their interest and quality I
must leave others to judge, and simply repeat here
my obligations to W. Ferrand, Esq., Mrs. Wickham,
Mrs. Sharp, Mr. Shackleton, Mr. Colefax, Messrs.
Harrison, and others. Two items I have been com-
pelled to leave out, but hope there will be a demand
for their publication in a separate volume, viz., The Parish Eegis-
ters from 1577 to 1638, as copied by the late Mr. Hartley Hartley
and myself; and the Churchwardens' Book, 1650 to 1694, copied
entirely by him and carefully read over by us with the original.
Though these are necessarily omitted much other matter has been

I have had such an abundance of material that I fear I shall
be charged with condensing rather than elaborating. I have had
neither time nor inclination to attempt "fine writing," and already
have discovered the word " were " where " was " ought to have
been used.

20th Nov., 1897.





SITUATION. Geology. Lake-dwellings. Pit-dwellers. Iber-
ians. Aryans. BRITISH REMAINS. Druids' Altar. Earth-
works. Fire-worship. Cairns. Skirtfuls. Castlefield.
British names. Roman occupation. Roads. Coins.
Rumbles Law. Elam discovery - - 17-29.

ANGLES. Norse, Danes. Runic stone, cross, dip-stone or
font, battle memorial. Pagan settlers. Chieftains.
Courts and laws. Gods. Feasts. Kings. Social con-
dition. Christianity introduced. Place-names. King
Eadberht. King Ongus. Hewenden battle. Haigh,
Fowler, Stephens and Vietor on Bingley runes. Ety-
mology. Old maps - - 80-53.

NORMANS. Dr. Collyer's poem. Doomsday Book. Craven
Survey. Norman owners. Gospatric. Lords of the
Manor. Burun. Paynel. Gant. Market. Magna
Charta. Cantilupe. Zouch. Harcourt. Astley, pedi-
grees and arms. Walker, Currer, Benson, Lane Fox - 54-69.

SUB-MANORS. Cottingley. Hainworth. Halton. Harden.
Riddlesden. Montalt or Mauds. Paslew. Freeholders.
Paslew trial. Currer. Savile. Ferrand 70-76.

OLD DEEDS. 1100-1500. Pedigrees of landowners. Mon-

talts, Marleys, Fairfax, Kighleys, &c., &c. - 76-100.

Lists of inhabitants, 1327, 1336, Poll Tax, 1379. Family
names. Trades - 101-109.

Templars. The Knights' Court Records. W T ills proved.
Rievaulx. Kirklees. Kirkstall. Fountains. Paslews,
two abbots. Halton skirmish. Drax. Priest-thorp, not
Snitterton. Slavery. Frank. Casteley. Villayn - 110-120.

BINGLEY CHURCH. Vicars, 1275. Eltofts. Bishop Wylson.
Sunderlands. Church terrier. Excommunications.
Puritanism. Registers. Pews. List of inhabitants, 1684.
Place-names. Bells. Burial-ground. Clock - 121-138.



NONCONFORMITY. Puritanism. Bingley Exercises. Easter
Sacraments. .Eli Bentley. Oliver Heywood. His visits.
Ferrands. Leach. Walker. Broadley. Decayed gentry.
Fanatics. Sunderland's robbery. Heywood's Register of
burials, &c. Meeting-houses - 139-153.

Joseph Lister. Bradford Siege. Accepted Lister. Inde-
pendent Ministers. Squabble - 153-163.

-Quakers. Register - 163-166.

Baptists - 166-169.

Primitive Methodists, Free Church, &c. - - 169-173.

CHRONOLOGICAL CHAPTER. Flodden Field. Subsidy, 1524.
Topography. Deeds, 1580-1636. Subsidy, 1621-7.
Cottages built, 1639. Fairfax and the War. Treatment
of the Poor, 1655. Hearth Tax, 1672. List of inhabit-
ants. Sunderland's Robbery, 1674. Cottingley bridge.
Bingley bridge. Marley bridge. Gilbeck bridge. Stock
bridge. Beckfoot bridge. Assessments. Bingley token.
Voters, 1742. Market - 173-193.

FAMILIES. Benson, Lord Bingley. Lane Fox. Ferrand.
Busfeild. Atkinson. Stansfield. Twiss. Sunderland.
Rishworth. Birkhead. Eltoft. Oldfield. Rawson.
Kighley. Briggs. Hartley. Hudson. Greenwood.
Starkie. Peile. Fell. Leach. Horsfall. Feather.
Dobson-Lamplugh-Wickham. Morvell, Appleyard.
Anderton. Hulbert. Beanlands. Nevile. Broadley.
Murgatroyd. Shackleton. Quakerism. Co. Kildare.
Parker. Paslew. Wills. Abbot of Whalley. Elland.
Mawd or Montalt - 194-252.

Thornton, the African Geologist - 252-257.

~W. Busfeild- Ferrand, Esq. Alfred Sharp, Esq. Joshua
Briggs. Milner. Oldfield. Fell. Field. Riddlesden.
Priesthorpe. Frank. Dobson. Slater. Savile. Paslew.
Currer - 257-265.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Nicholson. Ben and John Preston.

Abraham Holroyd. Harrison's publications. General - 266-285.


METHODISM - 289-296.

MODERN ANNALS - 297-303.

TOPOGRAPHICAL NOTES - - - - 804-312.






Wm. Ferrand, Esq., J.P.f Frontispiece

Bustic Bridge, The Grange* ...


J. Horsfall Turner, large paper copies.

Emblazoned Arms, Lords of the
Manor ; Bnrun, Paynell, Gant,
Cantilupe, Zouch, Harcourt,
Astley, Walker 17

Bingley Market, large paper
copies ...



St. Ives, anciently Halton or
Harden Grange*

St. Ives' Lake

Emblazoned Arms, Lords and
Gentry ; Currer, Benson, Lane-
Fox, Paslew, Marley, Eltoft,
Copley, Bish worth ... ... 64

Wm. Wickham, Esq., M.P., 1896
H. L. Wickham, Esq., b. 1789
His wife, nee Lucy Markham...


Gawthorpe Hall 68

Hon. William Wickham, M.P.,

Old Vicarage 118

born 1761


Emblazoned Arms, Gentry.
Ward.Ward, Kighley, doubtful.
Elland, Swyllington, Maude,
Sunderland 121

West Biddlesden 150
Fairfax Table, St. Ives* ... 180

Col. Henry Wickham, J.P.,
born 1731

His wife, nee Elizabeth Lamplugh
Alfred Sharp, Esq., J.P. J
Old Grammar School ...






Druids' Altar 20
Tailpieces ... 25, 53, 138, 173
Bunic Stone ... ... . 26

Copley Crest ...
Laue Fox Crest...
Clapham Arms ...
Tempest Arms ...



Currer Arms



Savile Arms ...



Parker Arms



Thoruhill Arms ...


Speed's Map, 1610 ... . 47
Morden's Map, 1680 ... . 48
Bowen's Map, 1695 ... . 48
Teesdale's Map, 1827 ... . 49
Busfeild Arms . 55

Clifford Arms
Ylton Arms ...
Mauliverer Arms
Hawksworth Arms


Ferrand Arms . 55

Baildon Hall


Doomsday Book, 1087... . 56

Hastings Arms ...
Dodsworth Arms



East Biddlesden Hall



Bawdou-Hastings Arms




Kighley, Keighley Arms




Steveton Tomb, Steeton


Maude, Montalt Arms ... . 66
Copley Arms . 69

East Biddlesden Hall*:
Marley Hall,i


From photographs by *Mr. H. England. fMessrs. Elliot and Fry. JMr. Appletou.
VLent by Bradford Historical Society.



Frank Arms 99

Arthington Arms ... ... 99

Fairfax Arms 100

Rookes-Stansfield Anne ... 103

Lister Arms ... 103

Wade Arms 103

Thornton Arms ... 104


Wood Arms ... 105

River and Church 109

Dixon Arms ... ... ... 114

Gascoigne Arms ... ... 115

Ferrand Arms ... ... ... 116

Bingley Church, S 120

N.E 122

Hoyle Arms 128

Wickham Arms... ... ... 135

Duncombe Arms ... ... 136

Rev. Oliver Hey wood ... ... 143

Hudswell's Writing 160

Rev. E. S. Heron 162

Baptist Church 168

Primitive Methodist (Liberal Club) 169


Rev. A. McKechnie 171

Morton Primitive Methodist ... 171

Christian Brethren ... ... 172

Castletield Wesleyan 173

Old St. Ives 176

Rev. E. R. Lewis 183

Sunderland Chest 184

Rev. J. Martin 185

Cottingley Bridge 187

Beckfoot Bridge 189

Bingley, &c., Tokens 190

Market and Stocks 192

Orange Doorway, St. Ives ... 193

Lord Bingley ... ... ... 194

Rev. Brad gate Ferrand ... 197

Walker Ferrand, Esq 198

W. Busfeild Ferrand, Esq. ... 199

J. A. Busfeild, Esq . 201

W. Busfeild, Esq., d. 1729 ... 203

Elizabeth, his wife 204

Rev. Dr. J. A. Busfeild 206


Elizabeth, wife of Dr. Busfeild 207

Rysh worth Hall 208

Col. J. A. Busfeild 209

Upwood, 1790 210

Upwood, 1874 211

Thomas Busfeild, Esq. ... 212

General Twiss ... ... 215

Myrtle Grove 216

Briggs Arms ... ... 223

Rev. Richard Hudson 224

Mr. Hartley Hartley 225

Leach Arms ... ... 227

Calverley Arms 232

Appleyard Arms ... ... 234

Hnlbert Arms 236

Richard Shackleton 240

Bingley 249

Thornton's Autograph ... ... 252

Cottingley Hall 253

Elm Tree Hill 258

Myrtle Grove 259

Wesleyan Church, Board School 260

Briggs' School, Rumbles Moor 262

Field Arms 263

Stage Wagon 265

John Nicholson... 266

Bingley in 1830 268

Benjamin Preston ... ... 272

John Preston ... ... ... 274

Abraham Holroyd ... ... 275

Cottage Hospital 280

Bingley Parish Church ... 280

Holy Trinity Church 283

Greenhill Hall 288

Old Market Place 289

Toils Farm 291

Eldwick Wesleyan Chapel ... 291

Toils Window 292

Ancient Deed, 1357 296

Five Rise Locks 298

Eldwick Hall 307

Eldwick Church 308

The Heron 310

Goitstock 311

tst lifting of

BINGLEY Town is situated on the banks of the River Aire,
in the West Eiding of Yorkshire. Its longitude is 1 50'
west of Greenwich, and its latitude stands at 53 51'. A
great peculiarity of the valley is noticed by all observant travellers by
rail. This consists of extensive superficial beds of alluvial deposits,
of immense boulder beds, and accumulation of Esker gravels. We
are on the border of the limestone of the north, the coal of the east,
and the millstone grits of the south and west. We have also the
presence of a glacial drift. We have crow coal at Cottingley mixed
with galliard, averaging 75 feet in thickness. At Morton Banks a
seam of coal crops up. The ac-
companying table will give the
reader a general idea of the geo-
logical formation of the district.
On Gilstead Moor are well-develop-
ed flagstones. Fire-clay is found
at Morton and Baildon. The
Eskers are specially noticeable
near Hawksworth, but mounds of
water-worn gravel and sand en-
closing hollows occur below Keigh-
ley, and the pebbles in them bear
traces of ice-scratching.

The gravel mounds near Bingley
have probably formed part of the
moraine of a glacier which de-
scended Airedale. They more or
less fill the bottom of this valley
between Bingley and Shipley, and
also the tributary valley of Harden
Beck. At Bingley the thickness
of the gravel is over a hundred feet.* Here they form a barrier
across the river, and the valley above this place formed the bed of a
lake. Large quantities of decayed wood, nuts, &c., have been found
in the alluvium hereabouts. Between Shipley and Bingley another
barrier formed by these gravels completely dammed up the river,
which afterwards cut a new channel for itself through the solid sand-
stone on the north. In some places terraces of sand, gravel and

* Geological Survey, 1879-

Soils, sands,
gravels, clay,

Man, and present
plants and animals.
Mammals, anthro-
poid monkeys. Ex-
tinct animals. Sub-
tropical plants.

ironstone, lead.




Slates, metals,
stratified rocks.

Fishes, shell-fishes,


Sea-weed, worms,
shells, corals.

rocks, granite.

No organic remains


clay indicate former banks of the Aire. The Rough Rock of Keigh-
ley and Oakworth Moors is thrown out by a fault from CulHngworth
to Oakworth. It is again thrown down by the fault through Cuckoo
Park. It occurs as an outlier on Harden Moor. In the country
lying south east of Harden Beck, the triangular space lying between
two faults south of Wilsden, is occupied by Rough Rock, which
finally runs down to the Aire valley to the north of Cottingley, whilst
south of this village it is again overlaid by coal measures. The
highest escarpments of Ilkley Moor and the surface rock of Baildon
Moor are Rough Rock. Between Bingley and Baildon it forms the
bold escarpments of Gilstead Moor and Baildon Bank.

From these introductory remarks it will be noticed that the ancient
parish of Bingley was mainly a series of moors and fens in very
primitive times. The marshes were preceded by a chain of lakes,
but that period was probably long anterior to the appearance of the
human species in Britain. I can quite conceive that the expansive
beds of the Aire, and the security of the valley mounds already
referred to, would be readily occupied by primitive man as he
ventured further and further up the stream. I need not dilate on
the Cave-dwellers, evidences of whom exist in several Craven caves,
but of Pit-dwellings and Lake-dwellings we may be sure that this
locality has had ample evidence. Of the three modes of primitive
homes, the lake dwellings are the most difficult to discover, as might
be expected by destruction of floods, the rotting by water, and the
extra casualities incurred in valleys. Yet numerous remains have
been found in Europe of pile-houses, built like Stockholm on the
margins of lakes and streams, and Ulrome in East Yorkshire is only
one of many found in fair preservation in the British Isles. These
abodes have only been systematically studied and explored during
the past fifty years, and the numerous stakes that have been pulled
out of the beds of the Aire and Calder were probably relics of lake
dwellings, had there been persons present to see them, able to
identify them. These brushwood platforms and piles are invariably
covered deeply with sediment and thus hid from view. In Venezuela,
Africa, and other lands recently explored, such dwellings are still
found inhabited. The crannoges of Ireland and Scotland have long
been known, and the numerous lake dwellings have had scientific
treatment in Dr. Keller's two volumes. Lieut. Boynton of Ulrome
has been the pioneer in Yorkshire, and the result of investigations
there and abroad shews us that these dwellings were placed near
islands or peninsulas in the lakes and rivers for protection against
unfriendly tribes and wild animals. The occupiers were a pastoral
people, they tilled the ground, kept some domestic animals, and
added fish to their daily diet, and nuts and fruits for dessert. The
relics I saw at Ulrome, and the remains of the interlaced floors,
shew that they had comfortable, dry, and well supplied homes.
Their pottery was numerous though very crude ; and the Romans
had made their homes over the demolished abodes of the Britons,


as was evident by finding all the Roman remains eighteen inches
above the British ones. Flint, bone and horn were utilized for
making knives and other domestic utensils, and for war implements.
These were co-eval with and followed by stone and bronze. The
piles were six to ten inches in diameter, and three feet long.

Unfortunately anthropology is a science of very recent date, or we
shovild have heard more of the finding of canoes like the ones at
Giggleswick, Stanley,- &c., and of lake-dwellings, like those I have
seen at Ulrome in the East Riding. Anyone who has read the
works that have appeared on Lake Dwellings in Switzerland, Ireland,
Scotland, &c., would notice at a glance the special adaptability of
the Aire basin for such homes.

From the remains of crannoges or stockaded islands found at
Ulrome by Lieut. Boynton, by Keller and others in Switzerland, Sir
W. R. \Yilde in Co. Tyrone, I am convinced that the Iberians who
first peopled Airedale had similar homes here. Near crannoges,
raths or earthwork castles are often found. Caesar, Dio Cassius
and Severus had to take refuge in marshy raths. The travels of
Livingstone shew similar conditions in Africa.

The Aryans or the Gallic, who followed quickly on the Iberian
track, were a more active race, in this sense that hunting suited
their tastes rather than fishing and trapping. Pit-dwellings or
moor-land holes on the dry highlands, where natural caves did not
exist, afforded them less troublesome homes. There were no wicker
platforms to weave ; no stakes to point and drive into the embank-
ments ; no flimsy structures to erect ; and no dangers from flood.
Their highland holes were dug at much less trouble, covered with
branches and bracken, and considerably safer, and could be abandoned
without much regret on emergencies. I doubt whether the Brythons
or Welsh were numerous in these parts, but of the Iberians and
Aryans the bones found on the Baildon, Ilkley and other local moors
amply testify to their presence. Whilst the Aire valley at Biugley
has been till recent times a swampy and marshy district, there were
two extensive moorlands bordered close upon it, and on the two
slopes, rather than on the hills or in the hollow, the homes of the
succeeding inhabitants were first placed. Timber was to be found at
that time on the moors, as well as dense jungles in the valley, and
we need but see the museums at Giggleswick, Priffield, Leeds, &c.,
to be convinced tlist man had to fight his way against wolves, wild
boars, the urus or wild bull, the reindeer, the bison, liyrena, and the
cave lion ; not to mention the beaver, fox, and smaller animals.

Traces of remains of ruminant and pachydermous animals, the
elephant, hippopotamus, bear, small lion, elk and giant deer
probably of pre-glacial times, have been found in the gravel deposits.
The remains of human handiwork of a later date may be grouped
under two heads, () u-capons, as stone hammers, arrow-points, axes,
spear-heads ; (&) domestic utensils, scrapers, saws, hatchets.

* Found in the Calder in 1818 ; from an oak tree, burnt hollow.


We generally speak of our first inhabitants in West Yorkshire as
Brigantes, which indicate either highlauders or fire-worshippers, and
a hardy, fearless race they proved when the Eoman legions attacked

them. We speak of their re-
ligion as Druidism, but we know
very little about it. On the
verge of Harden Moor, over-
looking Bingley, is the Druids'
Altar, which Mr. James says
has been so known from time
immemorial. About half-a-mile
below, not far from Ryshworth
Hall, are two curious earthworks
of a conical form. Mr. Jarnes, describing
the earthwork at Flappit Springs, says it
is about fifty yards in diameter, with a
ditch two yards deep and three wide. This
"Castle Stead Ring" he conjectured was
one of a line of British forts, or an agrari-
an camp for guarding the cattle. It is
DRUIDS' ALTAR. quite likely that the Druid rocks are not

misnamed, considering the rock-markings, circles of stones, burial-
mounds, carneddes, (" skirtful or apronful of stones," a name given
to them not only on Burley and Harden Moors, but at Ecclesfield,
Pendle, and other places,) canoes, flints, hammer-heads, arrow-heads,
found in abundance on Ilkley, Baildon, Burley, Gilstead and other
West Riding Moors. My friends Mr. John E. Preston and his son
must have the credit of discovering the bulk of such British remains
as have been noted in this parish. Their collection from Gilstead
Moor should be secured for some local museum. Etymological
students trace fire-worshippers in the names Brigantes, Brigantium
in the Alps country, brigands, and even in the Irish name, St.
Bridget. Of course I need not remind most readers that the names
of our rivers Aire, Wharfe, Calder, Don and Ouse are British.
The Aire was in name and character the clear stream, alas ! how
inappropriate now. The hills, Pennine, Pendle, Chevin and Baildon,
have British names. Possibly Bailey hill, the site of Bingley Castle
is also British, from the Gaelic balla, a defence or rampart. A map
of Europe will shew how wide-spread are the names of these rivers
and hills.

I must refer the reader for further notices of such remains to
"Ilkley Ancient and Modern," and to " Wardell's Baildon Moors."
The Britons were nature worshippers, and as the word Druid indi-
cates, they specially honoured the oak and mistletoe. They were
undoubtedly sun-worshippers. The study of this creed, their phallic
cult, has been recently revived, but is far from being matured. On
Harden Moor is a cairn or " skirtful of stones." It is named Cat or
Scat stones, and like the notable Skirtful on Romalds Moor at


Burley, others at Pendle, indicates the burial place of a chieftain.
Harden Cat Stones is enclosed on three sides by a considerable bank
of earth and the ground bears traces of having been ploughed. This
considerable entrenchment or camp is a marked feature of the map,
but bears now a more modern name, Fairfax Entrenchment, though
it is much more ancient than Fairfax's time. Opposite to it,
near Flappit Springs, there remains about a fourth part of a con-
siderable rampart, section of a circle of eighty yards' diameter. It
is about three feet high from the inside, and as much as three to
seven feet externally from the bottom of the ditch. It is known as
Castlestead Ring. Similar earthworks and burghs are frequent in
upper Calder valley as well as Airedale, and also bear the name
castle. There is no doubt that many of them were utilized also for
defensive purposes by the Romans, Danes and Angles. Castlefield
in Bingley carries in its name the memory of one of these ancient
fortifications, and it is noteworthy that the name Bailey Hill
commonly associated with British and Roman entrenchments also
survives to tell of the position of the Castle at Bingley. Bailey Hill,
near Bradfield, Sheffield, and others of the name in Yorkshire, have
earthworks remaining.

It is worthy of note, that British personal remains, celts, flints,
arrow-heads, cinerary urns, calcined bones, charred wood, have been
found mostly on the east or left bank of the Aire, probably because
researches have not been carefully made on the right bank. About
the year A.D. 70 the Brigantes yielded to the Romans, and Druidism
lost its hold. Previous to this date the Druids had not only been
the priests, but the physicians, astrologers, law-givers and clan-
advisers. The terrible name of Agricola, the irresistible force of
Roman arms, put an end to their influence, and stopped their
abominable human sacrifices, A.D. 84. Hadrian in 120 and Severus,
the old Emperor, in A.D. 210, fairly completed the subjugation of the
British tribes, and the military occupation by the Romans, for they
did not come to colonize, but to hold as we hold India, and let us
hope to as good a purpose one as the other, initiated the prosperity
of this island. Substantial roads such as have never been super-
seded, scarcely equalled remain in this and neighbouring parishes
to this day, testifying to the thorough workmanship of the invaders.
The Roman roads have generally been the pioneers of our chief
modern highways, a word that got its application from the high
roads, raised by the Romans above the adjoining ground. For the
first and best account of one of these roads we are indebted to the
celebrated Dr. Richardson, of Bierley Hall, given in a letter to his
friend Hearne, and printed in the second edition of Leland's Itiner-
ary, (Vol. I., 143-6). " Meeting of late the Rev. Mr. Roberts, rector
of Lintou, in Craven, he told me he had observed a paved way of an
unusual breadth, between Hainworth and Cullingworth, in the parish
of Bingley, which must doubtless have been a Roman way. It
appears there bare, being above twelve feet broad, and neatly set of


such stones as the place afforded. Its stateliness shews its origin ;
and you may trace it where the ground is pretty hard, a ridge
appearing higher than the surface of the earth, in some places being
only covered with grass ; though I have been informed that it is often

Online LibraryJ. Horsfall (Joseph Horsfall) TurnerAncient Bingley: or, Bingley, its history and scenery → online text (page 1 of 28)