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FROM THE LIBRARY OF
REV. LOUIS FITZGERALD BENSON. D. D.

BEQUEATHED BY HIM TO

THE LIBRARY OF

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY



Secti(»i






A HISTORY



HOLY EASTERN CHURCH.



Cl)e patiiarrt)ate of aiejranlrria.



PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION,

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE HOLY
EASTERN CHURCH.

IN THREE BOOKS.



Book I. — Its Geography.
,, II. — Its Liturgies and Ecclesiology.
,, III. — Its Controversies on the Filioque, Azymes, and
Transubstantiation.



s>^'



A HISTORY



FEB 8 1932



:y.



HOLY EASTERN CHURCH.



€f)t patriaitftate of gilejranlrn'a^



BY THE / /

REV. JOHN MASON NEALE, M.A.,

asaarticn of SacfebiUe CoUesc, ^ast C&rinatctJ.



VOLUME L



LONDON :
JOSEPH MASTERS, ALDERSGATE STREET.

OXFORD : J. H, PARKER.
CAMBRIDGE: MACMILLAN AND CO.

MDCCCXLVII.



LONDON:

PRINTED BT JOSEPH MASTERS,

ALDERSGATE STREET.



TO HIS HOLINESS

A R T E M I U S,

BY DIVINE MERCY

POPE AND PATRIARCH OF ALEXANDRIA,

LIBYA, PENTAPOLIS, AND ALL THE PREACHING OF S. MARK,

AND CECUMENICAL JUDGE,

^Jis Jgistorg of tfje OTfjutc?) of S» ^tjanasms

IS, WITH ALL HUMILITY,
INSCRIBED.



PREFACE.



1. The sources whence a History of the Church of Alexan- sou^^^^^f ^
dria is to be derived, are so many and so various, and some of History.
them so httle known, that it will be perhaps useful to particular-
ize them. They naturally divide themselves into two branches ;
those which treat of the whole, and those which only embrace a
portion, of Alexandrian History.

2 There are fom- works which relate the Annals of the Historians

._^_, ,,., who have

Egyptian Church from the preachmg of S. Mark to the time at Jreaied^on^^
which their respective authors lived; those of Le Quien, Renau- it.
dot, Sollerius, and Wansleb.

3. The treatise De Patriarchatu Alexandrino of the learned Le Quien.
Dominican Father, Michael Le Quien, is contained in the
Second Volume of his Oriens Christianus, pp. 329 — 368. The
plan of this work is well known. It commences with a general
sketch of the rise, progress, rights, privileges, and character of
the Church of Alexandria : of the heresies by which it has been
infested, and the duties which were claimed from it by the
Church Cathohc. It proceeds to a list of the Patriarchs, both
heretical and Mclchite ; giving, under each,' a slight and brief
review of his actions. It concludes with a catalogue of all the Sees
which are known to have been its suffragans; and a list under each,



Vlll PREFACE.

of all the Prelates who are recorded as having filled that par-
ticular See. The patient industry, accuracy, fairness, and
moderation of this work are above praise : it did not, however,
receive the last touches of its author ; and occasionally self-
contradictions may be discovered in it. It is evident also from
many accidental hints that the writer was not acquainted with
Arabic; a circumstance which must considerably detract from
the worth of such a history. Nevertheless, it is very valuable as an
outline which may be filled up from other sources ; and it is the
only complete history which we possess of the Catholic Church
of Alexandria.

4. Very different is the character of the next work I have to
mention ; the ^^ History of the Jacobite Patriarchs of Alexan-
dria,^^ written by the learned Eusebe Renaudot. It extends
from the time of S. Mark to the year 1703; but, after the great
schism, leaving the Catholic succession of Patriarchs, it confines
itself to the heretical successors of Dioscorus. It is extracted
principally from the ^' Patriarchal History -" that is to say, the
history of the Jacobite Patriarchs commenced by Severus, Bishop
of Aschumin, and carried on by Michael of Tanis, Mauhoub the
son of Mansour, Mark the son of Zaraa, and others, as far as the
conclusion of the Patriarchate of Cyril the son of Laklak ; that
is to say, down to the year 1243. The immense learning of
Renaudot, his acquaintance with nearly thirty languages, his
devotion to Eastern literature, and the advantage which he en-
joyed in being able to consult the unrivalled collection of Manu-
scripts in the King^s Library at Paris, have rendered his work,
so far as it goes, more complete than probably any other scholar
could have made it. Besides his translations from the historians
whom I have just mentioned, and whose works yet remain
manuscript, he has enriched his history from other writers, both
such had been already printed in his time, as Eutychius and
Elmacinus, and those which have been given to the world since,
as is the case with Makrizi. His pages also embrace very co-
pious accounts of the succession of Calij)hs, and of the rise and
fall of the various ^lahometan Dynasties ; and occasionally refer
to the doings or sufferings of the Cathohc Patriarchs. But with
all these merits, the work has also all the faults of Renaudot ; it
is insuft'crably long, tedious and confused; learning is wasted



PREFACE. IX

in the discussion of points known to all the world; and the
thread of the history broken and taken up again in the most
perplexing manner imaginable. In this place we may also
mention the Discursus of the same author de Patriarcha
Alexandrino, pp. 365—466 of his Collection of Oriental
Liturgies.

5. The next work I shall mention is that of Wansleb, a wansieb.
Dominican Missionary in Egypt. It also relates entirely to the
Jacobite succession ; and had the merit of being the first work

in which their history was introduced to Europe. It is divided
into seven parts. The first treats of the constitution of the Jaco-
bite Church ; the second of its customs and present state ; the
third of its belief ; the fourth of its ceremonies ; the fifth of its
canons : the sixth gives a catalogue of its Patriarchs ; and the
seventh of its principal writers. The small size of this volume,
its continual inaccuracies, and the scanty information which it
furnishes on any subject, renders it nearly useless, except for
occasional reference. The catalogue of Patriarchs is translated
from the Arabic of Abu'lberkat ; with a continuation by later
hands in the manuscript which Wansieb consulted.

6. The fourth history is the " Chronological Series of souenus.
Alexandrian Patriarchs,'' written by the Jesuit, John Baptist
Sollerius; and prefixed to the fifth volume of June, in the
Bollandist Acts of the Saints. This treatise, which fills a
hundred and sixty closely printed folio pages, is little more

than an amplification of the work of Wansieb. Sollerius,
besides his general acquaintance with Ecclesiastical history, had
little to fit him for the task ; he was not acquainted with the
Eastern languages ; he had access to no manuscripts ; nor had
he any private sources of information, except a communication
from the Jesuit Bernati, then a missionary in Ethiopia. The
consequence is that he relies too much on the comparatively
worthless materials which were in his possession ; he is anxious
to reconcile dates with each other, which are none of them
consistent with truth ; and he endeavours to settle minute
points of chronology in times when an approximation to accuracy
is all that can be hoped for. His treatise does not pretend to
be a history, and, except for its dates, adds little to our know-



PREFACE.



Hierotheus,
late Patri-
arch of
Alexandria.



Eutychius.



Elmacinus.



ledge of the iVlexandrian Church. Of the Cathohc Patriarchs
this writer takes hardly any notice.

7. Besides the works which I have mentioned, the latest of
which only comes down to the j^ear 1730, I have had two
other sources of information. I applied in the spring of
1844 to His late Holiness, Hierotheus, then Catholic Patriarch
of Alexandria, for the history of his predecessors since the
beginning of the eighteenth century ; and the results of that
inquiry will be found in their proper place. I also obtained,
through the kindness of a Jacobite Priest, a complete list of the
Patriarchs of that sect from Dioscorus to Peter VII., who now
fills that post ; and from the same quarter I also received some
interesting information as to the present state of the Jacobites
in Egypt.

8. I come now to speak of those authors who have treated
of a part of the period which this work embraces. The first of
these is Eutychius. Of his history of the Catholic Patriarchs
of Alexandria I have spoken in treating of his own Patriarch-
ate ; and it is needless therefore to say anything further here,
than that I believe that nothing which he relates of interest
down to the time when his annals terminate, namely the year 938,
will be found to have been omitted in this work. Without pro-
fessing any very great obligations to him, I may j^et observe
that some of the facts which he relates in the eighth, ninth,
and tenth centuries, are mentioned only by himself.

9. The next author whom I shall name is the Jacobite
Elmacinus, as translated and edited by Erpenius. His Saracenic
History only incidentally mentions the Jacobite Patriarchs of
Alexandria ; but his accuracy and truth stand very high : and
when he fixes a date, his testimony is to be received beyond that
of any other author. 1 have in the history already given his
character; and need therefore say nothing more of him here.

10. I will next mention the Mahometan Makrizi, who,
while he draws great part of his information from Elmacinus,
nevertheless adds considerably to it, and is highly to be com-
mended for his accuracy and fairness. Of his work, which
extends to the year 1327, I have also spoken in the proper
place.



PREFACE. XI

11. The ''History of Dynasties/' written by Abu'lpharaj, Abu'ipharaj.
better known by his name of Gregory Bar-Hebrseus, and trans-
lated and edited by Pococke, is also not without its value as a
contribution to Alexandrian History. We are frequently in-
debted to it for some hint as to the actions of the Caliphs,

which may serve to clear up points left in the dark by Elmacinus
or Makrizi.

12. I now come to speak of the Ethiopic Church. The charac- Ludoiph.
ter of Ludolph's History, and Commentary on his History, is

too well known to need any observations here. It is only
wonderful that a man possessing an acquaintance with the
Ethiopic language, which has been attained by no other
European before or since his time, should have added so little
to our knowledge of that country. The facts which are to be
gleaned from this vast foho he scattered thinly among the heap
of rubbish with which they are surrounded ; and his ignorance
of everything but the language itself, his absurd confidence in
some worthless Ethiopic compositions, and his blind prejudice,
manifest themselves throughout.

13. The ''Church History of Ethiopia'' of Dr. Michael Michael
Geddes is one of the most despicable compositions which was

ever inflicted on the public. His only qualification for historian
of that country was his knowledge of Portuguese, and a tolerable
acquaintance with the various works in which the proceedings
of the missionaries in that country are related. His prejudice
against everything connected with Home is such, that nothing
can be taken upon his testimony : his principal value lies in his
pointing out original sources of information. He had been
Chaplain to the British Factory at Lisbon ; and was under the
patronage of Bishop Burnet.

14. A much fairer work is the " History of Christianity in La Croze.
Ethiopia," written by the celebrated La Croze. It does not
pretend to the same fulness as Geddes, and is derived from nearly

the same sources : but, although a Protestant, the author is
unable, like the English Divine, to see nothing but excellence
in the Ethiopian, or faults in the Roman, Church.

15. The first book of this History extends from the Foundation First Book.
of the Church of Alexandria to the rise of the Nestorian heresy.
Besides the ordinary Church historians, such as Eusebius,



XU PREFACE.

Sozomen, and Socrates, the works of S. Athanasius are of

course my chief authority. But I am also bound to express

my obhgation to the very able Life of S. Dionysius by By sens

the Bollandist ; to the Propaganda edition of the works of the

same Father; to the Benedictine Life of S. Athanasius, and

to Tillemont's Annals of that Patriarch. Li a less degree,

De la llue^s Life of Origen and Iluet^s Origeniana have been

of service to these pages.

Second 16. The sccoud book comprises the controversy on the In-

Book. . ^ ...

carnation, from the first outbreak of Nestorius, to the deposition

of Dioscorus. Here, of course, I am principally indebted to

the works of S. Cyril; to Tillemont^s Life of that Father; to

Garnier's edition of Marius IMercator ; to the two editions of

S. Leo^s works, — the one by Cacciari, the other by the Bal-

lerini : and to the very accurate chronological researches of

Pagi.

Third Book. 17. The third book comprises the histoiy of the Alexandrian
Church, from the commencement of the great schism to the
subjection of both Catholic and Jacobite Communions to the
arms of the Caliphs. Here we begin to derive assistance from
the works of Eutychius, Elmacinus, Makrizi, and Severus :
Liberatus, Evagrius, and the Chronicon of Victor are also our
guides. The Patriarchate of S. John the Almoner is indebted
to the labours of Stilting the Bollandist in the fourth volume of
September in the Acts of the Saints; — and the Epistles of
S. Gregory throw some light on the Alexandrian annals of that
period. To the Life of S. John the Almoner, in the second
volume of the Bollandist January, I am less indebted.

Fourth 18. In the fourth book, which extends from the Conquest of

Book ...

Amrou to the Vizirate of Saladin, Severus and his continuers
are my chief guides. Of the Catholic Church, when Eutychius
deserts us, we know nothing more than can be picked up by
incidental notices of the Byzantine historians. These are gene-
rally few and far between ; with the exception of a tolerably
detailed account of the proceedings of Athanasius II. afforded
in the prolix pages of George Pachymeres. For the Crusades,
so far as they affected Egypt, I have depended principally on
Wilken's Geschichte dcr Kreuzziige, and the authors alleged by
him. I have also derived, in Jacobite history generally, very



PREFACE. Xlll



important assistance from the Chronicle of Gregory Bar-Hebrseus,
as epitomized in the second volume of the Bibliotheca Orientalis
of Asseman.

19. The fifth book embraces the period between the elevation Fifth Book,
of Saladin and the first interference of the Portuguese in
Ethiopia. Here we are worse off for materials than at any other
period. Its most important even; is the great confessional con-
troversy, — and the remarkable history of Mark the son of
Kunbar. But from a.d. 1243, when the Patriarchal History

ends, to 1490, I am compelled to confess that Alexandrian
annals are hardly more than catalogues of names.

20. The sixth book comprises the remainder of my task, and sixth Book.
divides itself into two distinct portions. The first of these is

the rise, progress, and decline of Roman Influence in Ethiopia.
Here, besides Geddes, La Croze, and Ludolph, w^e have the ad-
vantage of Bruce^s very clear Abyssinian history; and the
original authorities are Alvarez, Tellez, and the account of the
Patriarch Joao Bermudez ; which latter is translated in Purchases
Pilgrimage, and thence retranslated by La Croze. The other
subject is the attempt made, in the seventeenth century, to en-
graft Calvinism in the Oriental Church ; and as this part of
history is extremely important, and very little known, I have
preferred rather to overstep the bounds I proposed to myself
than to treat it cursorily. My authorities, on the Roman side,
are, principally, the Perpetuite de la Foy, and the Defense de la
Perpetuite; the Creance de VEglise Orient ale of Simon; the
De Consensu of Leo Allatius ; and the incidental notices of Le
Quien and Benaudot. On the Oriental side, — the Councils of
Constantinople, Jassy, and Bethlehem, as given in Labbe ; the
History of the Russian Church by Mouravieff; the Chronicon
of Philip of Cyprus : to w^hich I may add the "Present State of
the Greek Church'' of Ricaut, — a very fair writer. On the Cal-
vinistic side, — Crusius's Turco-Grcecia; Claude's Reply to the
Perpetuite, and his Doctrine of the Catholic Church, which is a
Reply to the Defense ; Aymon's Memoirs of the Greek Church ;
Smith's Account of the Greek Church, both in English and
Latin : to which may be added Dr. Covell's account of the same
Church. I also applied to the Public Library at Geneva, for
permission to copy all the hitherto unpublished letters of Cyril



XIV PREFACE.

Lucar^s preserved in that Library ; and among these the reader
will find a very important and hitherto unprinted one^ to the
Archbishop De Dominis^ on the publication of his work De Re-
puhlicd Christiana. To all these I must add, the Life of
Cyril Lucar from the pen of Dr. Beaven, which appeared in
several numbers of the British Magazine.

21. I had intended to affix an excursus in defence of the
very early chronology adopted in the first Section : want
of space has obliged me to forbear. A vindication of it may,
however, be found in the BoUandist Life of S. Peter under the
29th of June. For the same reason, I have been obliged to
omit the list of Egyptian martyrs in the Tenth Persecution, to
which reference is made at its conclusion.

22. Two remarks connected with orthography may not be
out of place. The first is, that I have adopted the two dif-
ferent spellings, Dio?cese and Diocese, to signify two different
things. By the former I mean its old sense, the jurisdiction
of an Exarch or Patriarch, as the Dioecese of Ephesus, the
Dioecese of x\lexandria : by the latter, that of a Bishop. Fleury,
in like manner, speaks of le and la Diocese. The other is, that
I have followed the Oriental method of s])elling names, after
the Mahometan invasion. Thus, Chail is written for Michael ;
Chenouda for Sanutius : Abdel-Messiah for Christodulus. I
have not done so, however, where the name is that of one well
known as an author. Thus, I do not refer to Said Ebn
Batric, but to Eutychius.

23. I have now to express my obligations for the valuable
assistance I have received in this work. I desire gratefully
to commemorate the kindness of His late Holiness, Hierotheus,
to whom I had hoped to inscribe the History of his Church.
]\Iy thanks are also especially due to the Eev. Edmund Winder,
British Chaplain at Alexandria, for the indefatigable kindness
with which he has collected and transmitted to me information ;
to Alfred S.Walne, Esq., Her Britannic IMajcsty's Consul at Cairo,
who was so obliging as to wait on the Patriarch with the queries
I had transmitted to him ; and to the Vicar of the Jacobite Pa-
triarch at Alexandria, (whoso name I regret not to know,) who
furnished me with a great deal of valuable information as to
the state of that Communion.



PREFACE. XV

But, in a most especial manner, my warmest thanks are
due to the Rev. W. H. Mill, D.D., late Principal of Bishop's
College, who, with the greatest kindness, gave me the advantage
of his remarks on most of the sheets, as they passed through
the press ; and to whom I am indebted for several corrections,
and for some important references to sources of information
with which I was previously unacquainted. Of him I may well
say, as Davies of Bentley, Quodcunque de istis lucuhrationibus
feretur judicium J illius certe rectissimo stant talo ; etut quce olim
edidit doctiores omnes legunt avidissime, ita qua apud se premitj
expectant cupidissime. I have also to express my obligations
to my friend the Rev. B. Webb, M.A., who finally read through
most of the sheets of this history before they were struck
off; a work of which he only who has tried it can calculate
the trouble or the use.

I am indebted also to D. Jose Xavier Cerveira e Sousa, Bishop
of Funchal and Arguim, for the kindness with which he
furnished me with any book which was contained in his Epis-
copal Library : and to Canon Antonio Pestana, Rector of the
Seminary in Funchal, for the obliging manner in which he
put the valuable library of that institution completely at my
disposal. Portuguese libraries are especially valuable to a his-
torian of the Alexandrian Church : for the works of Tellez
and Alvarez are not to be procured in England. Lastly, I
would thank M. Chastel, Professor of Ecclesiastical History,
and Librarian of the public library at Geneva, for the great
pains which he took in procuring the transcription of Cyril
Lucar's letters ; and M. Grivel, for the success with which
he decyphered them. They are written in a mixture of bad
Latin, bad Italian, and (occasionally) bad Greek : and the hand-
writing is as bad as the language.

I trust that, whatever judgment may be formed of this his-
tory, while its deficiencies are noted, its difficulties will also be
remembered. If the chronology shall sometimes appear unsatis-
factory, it is no shame to fail where Rcnaudot, Le Quien, and
Sollerius are often egregiously wrong. If I appear sometimes
to compress a century into comparatively few pages, it is a
century to which, as connected with Alexandria, Baronius and
rieury do not devote one.



KVl PREFACE.

I have reserved, for my Introduction to the study of the
History of the Oriental Church, some remarks which it seems
right to make on the spirit in which such a book should be
written. The historian should write, not as a member of the
Roman, not as a member of the English, Church ; but, as far
as may be, with Oriental views, feelings, and even, perhaps,
prepossessions. Mouravieff^s history is a perfect example in
its kind. It was intended that this Introduction should have
been prefixed to the present volumes. But it swelled to a size
which precluded the possibility of that arrangement ; and has
been also kept back for valuable information which I hope to
receive from Constantinople and Damascus.

Sackville College,

East Grinsted.

S. Mark's Day, 1847.



CONTENTS



VOLUME I.



BOOK T.



FROM THE FOUNDATION OF THE CHURCH OF ALEXANDRIA TO THE RISE
OF NESTORIANISM.



Section I. The Foundation of the Church
II. The Foundation of the Church

III. Origen ....

IV. The Octapla .
V. The Decian Persecution and its results .

VI. The Millenai-ian Controversy
VII. Question of Re-Baptism
VIII. Valerian persecutes the Church
IX. Rise of the Sabellian Heresy
X, War, Famine, and Plague in Alexandria
XI. End of S. Dionysius
XII. S. Maxinius and S. Theonas

XIII. Persecution of Diocletian

XIV. S. Antony and the Rise of Monasticism
XV. The Arian Heresy

XIV. The Great and (Ecumenical Council of Nictea
XVII. Conversion of Ethiopia
XVIII. Athanasius falsely accused concerning Ischyras and Arsenius
XIX. First Exile of S. Athanasius
XX. Egyptian Monasticism
XXI. Second Exile and Return of S. Athanasius
XXII. Third Exile of S. Athanasius
XXIII. Fourth and Fifth Exiles of S. Athanasius : his Return and

Death .....
XXIV. Pontificate of Peter



Page.

3

12

19

31

39

55

58

65

69

76

80

85

90

106

113

137

152

157

169

176

180

188

195
201



XVlll CONTENTS.

Page.
Sect. XXV. Pontificate of Timothy .... 208

XXVI. Destruction of the Temple of Serapis: Theophilus at Con-

stantinople . . . . .210

XXVII. The Early Pontificate of S. Cyril . . 225

BOOK II.

FROM THE RISE OF THE NESTORIAN HERESY TO THE DEPOSITION OF
DIOSCORUS, AND THE GREAT SCHISM.

Section I. Nestorius preaches and defends his Heresy . . 233

II. The CEcumenical Council of Ephesus . . 256

III. Reconciliation of Antioch with Alexandria . . 270

IV. The Rise and Progress of Eutychiaaism . . 278
V. The " Robbers' Meeting" at Ephesus . . .290

VI. The CEcumenical Council of Chalcedon . . 299



BOOK I,



FROM THE



FOUNDATION OF THE CHURCH OF ALEXANDRIA,
Circa A.D. 40,

TO THE RISE OF NESTORIANISM,
A.D. 428.



Xlpwrov fiev f^ap Travra teviepa '!roie7a6ai rij^ aXyOeiwi lov av'^/'^fpaCpea
Trpoai'iKei' eirena he to tormina t^§ KaOdXov *YiKK\7^aia^ r^vijaiicTaTOP on
fiaXicna (pai^eirai, TroWaKi's fiev rats e7ri^ov\a7s -rCbv evavTia do^ai^ov-icv
doKijLiaa6ei>' oTa Be QeoOeu to KpaTe7v\a'Xpv^ avOi^el^ t^v oiKeiav eiraveX-
Oibv hvvajJLiv, Kol Traaa'i ra^ eKKXrjaia^ Kai la TrXyjOrj 7rpo<s Tijf oiKeiav
akrjOeiav e7riG7raaaf.ievov. — TpeTrojuai ce 'rjhrj eirl rrju a(pr]^p](nv 7u:u
7rpa<^fjLiaTivi/y cfvpeprjbi^ Koi tXeuov 70i/ Qeov e7riKaXe(Ta/iievo9.

SozoMEN. Prolog.



THE



Batrtarcliate of ^lejcantivia.



SECTION I.

It is the constant and unvarying tradition of both the East^ and The chnroi,



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