] KEESE L^IBRARY
i OF THE . â€¢
1 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
UNDER THE EDITORSHIP OF
The Rev. CHARLES AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, D.D.
Professor of Theological Encyclopedia and Symbolics
Union Theological Seminary, New York
The Rev. SAMUEL ROLLES DRIVER, D.D.
Regius Professor of Hebrew, Oxford
The Rev. ALFRED PLUMMER, M.A., D.D.
Late Master of University College, Durham
On the Holy Scriptures of the Old and
THERE are now before the public many Commentaries,
written by British and American divines, of a popular
or homiletical character. The Cambridge Bible for
Schools, the Handbooks for Bible Classes and Private Students,
The Speaker's Commentar}', The Popular Commentary (Schaff),
The Expositor's Bible, and other similar series, have their
special place and importance. But they do not enter into the
field of Critical Biblical scholarship occupied by such series of
Commentaries as the Kurzgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch zum
A. T. ; De Wette's Kurzgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch zum
N. T ; Meyer's Kritisch-exegetischer Komtnentar ; Keil and
Delitzsch's Biblischer Commentar i'lber das A. T. ; Lange's
Theologisch-homiletisches Bibelwerk ; Nowack's Handkommentar
zum A. T ; Holtzmann's Handkommentar zum N. T. Several
of these have been translated, edited, and in some cases enlarged
and adapted, for the English-speaking public ; others are in
process of translation. But no corresponding series by British
or American divines has hitherto been produced. The way has
been prepared by special Commentaries by Cheyne, Ellicott,
Kalisch, Lightfoot, Perowne, Westcott, and others; and the
time has come, in the judgment of the projectors of this enter-
prise, when it is practicable to combine British and American
scholars in the production of a critical, comprehensive
Commentary that will be abreast of modern biblical scholarship,
and in a measure lead its van.
ftiE International Critical Commentary
Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons of New York, and Messrs.
T. & T. Clark of Edinburgh, propose to publish such a series
of Commentaries on the Old and New Testaments, under the
editorship of Prof. C. A. Briggs, D.D., D.Litt., in America, and
of Prof. S. R. Driver, D.D,, D.Lht., for the Old Testament, and
the Rev. Alfred Plummer, D.D., for the New Testament, in
The Commentaries will be international and inter-confessional,
and will be free from polemical and ecclesiastical bias. They
will be based upon a thorough critical study of the original texts
of the Bible, and upon critical methods of interpretation. They
are designed chiefly for students and clergymen, and will be
written in a compact styh Each book will be preceded by an
Introduction, stating thf ilts of criticism upon it, and discuss-
ing impartially the que.^ -ti remaining open. The details
of criticism will appcc i proper place in the body of the
Commentary. Each of the Text will be introduced
with a paraphrase, r 5 y of contents. Technical details
of textual and ph'lolog criticism will, as a rule, be kept
distinct from matter of ^x more general character ; and in the
Old Testamen*^ the e egetical notes will be arranged, as far as
possible, so a. co he .c;rviceable to students not acquainted with
Hebrew. "he J ory of Interpretation of the Books will be
dealt with, whe' necessary, in the Introductions, with critical
notices of the no. important literature of the subject. Historical
and Archaeological questions, as well as questions of Biblical
Theology, are included in the plan of the Commentaries, but
not Practical or Homiletical Exegesis. The Volumes will con-
stitute a uniform series.
The International Critical Commentary
ARRANGEMENT OF VOLUMES AND AUTHORS
THE OLD TESTAMENT
GENESIS. The Rev. John Skinner, D.D., Principal and Professor ot
Old Testament Language and Literature, College of Presbyterian Church
of England, Cambridge, England. [Now Ready.
EXODUS. The Rev. A. R, S. Kennedy. D.D., Professor of Hebrew,
University of Edinburgh.
LEVITICUS. J. F. Stenning, M \., ' of Wadham College, Oxford.
NUMBERS. The Rev. G. BucHA'/i D.D., Professor of Hebrew,
Mansfield College, Oxford. lA^ow Ready.
DEUTERONOMY. The Rev. S. R. ', n*..D., D.Litt., Regius Pro-
fessor of Hebrew, Oxford. \N(m) Ready.
JOSHUA. The Rev. George Adam SMm . D.D., LL.D., Principal of the
University of Aberdeen.
JUDGES. The Rev. George Moore, D.D., ^;7^.D., \ ^fessor of Theol-
ogy, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. ' " . , \Now Ready.
SAMUEL. The Rev. H. P. Smith, D.D., Prof|v- of C>ld Testament
Literature and History of Religion, Meadville, Pa. ^ [Now Ready.
. ?i 'I
KINGS. The Rev. Francis Brown, D.D., D.Litt., LL.D., President
and Professor of Hebrew and Cognate Languages, Union Theological
Seminary, New York City.
CHRONICLES. The Rev. Edward L. Curtis, D.D., Professor of
Hebrew, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. [Now Ready.
EZRA AND NEHEMIAH. The Rev. L. W. Batten, Ph.D., D.D., Pro-
fessor of Old Testament Literature, General Theological Seminary, New
PSALMS. The Rev. Chas. A. Briggs, D.D., D.Litt., Gradua'e Fro-
fessor of Theological Encyclopaedia and Symbolics, Union Theological
Seminary, New York. [2 vols. Now Ready
PROVERBS. The Rev. C. H. Toy, D.D., LL.D., Professor of Hebrew,
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. [Now Ready.
JOB. The Rev. S. R. Driver, D.D., D.Litt., Regius Professor of He-
The International Critical Commentary
ISAIAH. Chaps. I-XXVII. The Rev. G. Buchanan Gray, D.D., Pro-
fessor of Hebrew, Mansfield College, Oxford. [In Press.
ISAIAH. Chaps. XXVIII-LXVI. The Rev. A. S. Peake, M.A., D.D.,
Dean of the Theological Faculty of the Victoria University and Professor of
Biblical Exegesis in the University of Manchester, England.
JEREMIAH. The Rev. A. F. Kirkpatrick, D.D., Dean of Ely, sometime
Regius Professor of Hebrew, Cambridge, England.
EZEKIEL. The Rev. G. A. Cooke, M.A., Oriel Professor of the Interpre-
tation of Holy Scripture, University of Oxford, and the Rev. Charles F.
BuRNEY, D.Litt., Fellow and Lecturer in Hebrew, St. John's College,
DANIEL. The Rev. John P. Peters, Ph.D., D.D., sometime Professor
of Hebrew, P. E. Divinity School, Philadelphia, now Rector of St. Michael's
Church, New York City.
AMOS AND HOSEA. W. R. Harper, Ph.D., LL.D., sometime President
of the University of Chicago, Illinois. [Now Ready.
MICAH, ZEPHANIAH, NAHUM, HABAKKUK, OBADIAH, AND JOEL.
Prof. John P. Smith, University of Chicago; W. Hayes Ward, D.D., LL.D.,
Editor of T/w Independent, New York; Prof. Julius A. Bewer, Union
Theological Seminary, New York. [Now Ready,
ZECHARiAH TO JONAH. Prof. H. G. MITCHELL, D.D., Prof. John P.
Smith and Prof. J. A. Bewer. \In Press.
ESTHER. The Rev. L. B. Paton, Ph.D., Professor of Hebrew, Hart-
ford Theological Seminary. [Now Ready.
ECCLESIASTES. Prof. George A. Barton, Ph.D., Professor of Bibli-
cal Literature, Bryn Mawr College, Pa. [JVow Ready.
RUTH, SONG OF SONGS AND LAMENTATIONS. Rev. CHARLES A.
Briggs, D.D., D.Litt., Graduate Professor of Theological Encyclopaedia
ind Symbolics, Union Theological Seminary, New York.
THE NEW TESTAMENT
ST. MATTHEW. The Rev. WiLLOUGHBY C. Ai.LEN, M.A., Fellow and
Lecturer in Theology and Hebrew, Exeter College, Oxford. [Now Ready.
ST. MARK. Rev. E. P. Gould, D.D., sometime Professor of New Testa-
ment Literature, P. E. Divinity School, Philadelphia. [Now Ready.
ST. LUKE. The Rev. Alfred Plummer, D.D., sometime Master of
University College, Durham. [Njw Ready,
The Lxternational Critical Commentary
ST. JOHN. The Very Rev. John Henry Bernard, D.D., Dean of St.
Patrick's and Lecturer in Divinity, University of Dublin.
HARMONY OF THE GOSPELS. The Rev. WiLLiAM Sanday, D.D.,
LL.D., Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity, Oxford, ana the Rev. WlL-
LOUGHBY C. Allen, M.A., Fellow and Lecturer in Divinity and Hebrew,
Exeter College, Oxford.
ACTS. The Rev. C. H. Turner, D.D., Fellow of Magdalen College,
Oxford, and the Rev. H. N. B.\te, M.A., Examining Chaplain to the
Bishop of London.
ROMANS. The Rev. William Sand.\y, D.D., LI-.D., Lady Margaret
Professor of Divinity and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford, and the Rev.
A. C. Headlam, M.A., D.D., Principal of King's College, London.
I. CORINTHIANS. The Right Rev. Arch Robertson, D.D., LL.D.,
Lord Bishop of Exeter, and Rev. .\lfred Plummer, D.D., late Master of
University College, Durham. \Now Ready.
II. CORINTHIANS. The Rev. Dawson Walker, D.D., Theological
Tutor in the University of Durham.
GALATIANS. The Rev. Ernest D. Burton. D.D., Professor of New
Testament Literature, University of Chicago.
EPHESIANS AND COLOSSIANS. The Rev. T. K. Abbott, B.D.,
D.Litt., sometime Professor of Biblical Greek, Trinity College, Dublin,
now Librarian of the same. [Now Ready.
F^HILIPPIANS AND PHILEMON. The Rev. MARVIN R Vincent,
D.D., Professor of Biblical Literature, Union Theological Seminary, New
York City. [Now Ready.
THESSALONIANS. The Rev. James E. Fr.^me, M.A., Professor of
Biblical Theology, Union Theological Seminary, New York City.
THE PASTORAL EPISTLES. The Rev. Walter Lock, D.D., Warden
of Keblc College and Professor of Exegesis, Oxford.
HEBREWS. The Rev. James Mgff.'^tt, D.D., Minister United Free
Church, Broughty Ferry, Scotland.
ST. JAMES. The Rev. James H. Ropes, D.D., Bussey Professor of New
Testament Criticism in Harvard University.
PETER AND JUDE. The Rev. CHARLES Bigg, D.D., sometime Regius
Professor of Ecclesiastical History and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford.
THE EPISTLES OF ST. JOHN. The Rev. E. A. Brooke, B.D., Fellow
and Divinity Lecturer in King's College, Cambridge.
REVELATION. The Rev. Robert H. Charles, ]\r.A., D.D. , sometime
Professor of Biblical Greek in the University of Dublin.
The International Critical Commentary
A CRITICAL AND
OBADIAH AND JOEL
JOHN MERLIN POWIS SMITH, Ph.D.
WILLIAM HAYES WARD, D.D., LL.D.
JULIUS A. BEWER, Ph.D.
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS
Copyright, iqii, by
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS
Published November, 1911
IN 1890 the late Pres. William R. Harper agreed to write a
commentary on the Minor Prophets in two volumes for this
series of commentaries. But later on this was found to be
impracticable, and it was agreed to allow him three volumes for
the work. The first volume, containing Amos and Hosea, was
published in 1905. Dr. Harper was at work upon the second volume
when he was taken from us by death. His pupil and associate,
Prof. J. M. Powis Smith, who had assisted him in his preliminary
studies, was asked to complete the commentary on Micah and
now assumes the entire responsibility for that work. He wishes
to make grateful acknowledgment of his indebtedness to the late
Pres. William R. Harper for invaluable inspiration and much
help in the work on Micah, and to Mrs. William R. Harper for
the free use of Dr. Harper's papers and books and for permis-
sion to incorporate some of his results in the present commentary.
These appear chiefly in the general comments on Micah, chs. i
and 2 and 6^ ^
The delay in the preparation of the volumes was so great that
it seemed best to distribute the work remaining to be done among
several scholars. Accordingly, Zephaniah and Nahum were un-
dertaken by Prof. Charles P. Fagnani, who, however, was obliged
after some years to give them up on account of ill health, when
Prof. J. M. Powis Smith kindly assumed the task. Habakkuk
was assigned to Dr. W. Hayes Ward, Obadiah and Joel to Prof.
Julius A. Bewer. These six prophets are published in this vol-
ume. The remaining prophets, Haggai and Zechariah by Prof.
Henry G. Mitchell, Malachi by Prof. J. M. Powis Smith, and
Jonah by Prof. Julius A. Bewer, will be published soon in a third
volume completing the commentaries on the Minor Prophets.
The order of arrangement of the Minor Prophets in these vol-
umes differs, not only from the traditional arrangement found in
our Bibles, but also from that proposed by Dr. Harper in his orig-
inal plan. Dr. Harper departed from the traditional arrangement
in his volume by placing Amos before Hosea, and also in his plan
for the remaining volumes stated in the preface of his commentary.
The traditional arrangement was not a chronological one, even
from the point of view of traditional theories of authorship, and
from the point of view of modern criticism it has little if any pro-
priety. It would be exceedingly difficult and, so far as the edi-
tors are concerned, impracticable to insist upon any chronological
scheme, especially in view of the great number of different writ-
ings of different dates combined under the names of these Minor
Prophets, where indeed there is ample room for differences of
opinion. We were compelled therefore to consider the views of
the several authors, and at the same time respect the traditional
arrangement wherever practicable. The order finally agreed upon
in this commentary is not therefore an ideal one, but the best that
we could make imder all the circumstances.
The several authors have their own special preferences in doing
their work, and there are therefore differences in these commenta-
ries such as would have been avoided if any one author had com-
posed them all. All the commentaries, however, conform to the
general plan of the series.
It was thought best to publish the work of the several authors un-
der separate sub-titles, each with its own separate pagination. This
volume is thus really composed of three little volumes bound in one,
each author being responsible only for his own work. The editors
are not responsible for the opinions of the authors or for the details
of their work, but only for the choice of the authors and such gen-
eral supervision of their work as to insure its conformity to the
plan of the series.
INTRODUCTION TO MICAH 5-29
Â§ I. The Book of Micah 5-16
1. The Text 5H5
2. The Style 6
3. Poetic Form 6-8
4. Component Parts 8-16
5. The Formation of the Book of Micah . 16
Â§ 2. The Prophet Micah 17-19
1. His Name 17
2. His Home 17-18
3. His Character 18-19
Â§ 3. The Times of Micah 19-23
1. The Date of His Prophecies 19-21
2. The Background of Chs. 1-3 21-23
Â§ 4. The Message of Micah 23-26
Â§ 5. Recent Literature on the Book of Micah . . . 26-29
COMMENTARY ON MICAH 30-156
INTRODUCTION TO ZEPIL\NIAH 159-181
Â§ I. From the Fall of Thebes to the Fall of Nineveh 159-165
Â§ 2. Zephaniah and His Times 166-171
1. The Man 166-167
2. The Times 167-171
Â§ 3. The Book of Zephaniah 171-176
1. The Contents 171-172
2. Later Additions . 172-174
3. Poetic Form 174-176
Â§ 4. The Message of Zephaniah 177-180
Â§ 5. Literature on the Book of Zephaniah i8a-i8i
COMMENTARY ON ZEPHANIAH 182-263
INTRODUCTION TO NAHUM 267-283
Â§ I. The Book of Nahum 267-274
Its Contents 267-268
Its Unity ... 268-270
Its Poetic Form 270-274
Â§ 2. The Times of Nahum .... 274-279
Â§ 3. The Man and the Message 279-282
The Man 279-280
The Message 280-282
Â§ 4. Literature on the Book of Nahum 282-283
COMMENTARY ON NAHUM 284-360
INDEXES TO MICAH, ZEPHANIAH AND NAHUM . . 361-363
I. Index of Hebrew Words 361
II. Index of Subjects 362-363
INTRODUCTION TO HABAKKUK 3-7
Authorship and Date 3-7
Topical Analysis 7
COMMENTARY ON HABAKKUK 8-28
INTRODUCTION TO OBADIAH 3-18
Â§ I. The Composition of the Book 3-5
Â§ 2. The Date of the Book 6-9
Â§ 3. The Interpretation of the Book 10-13
Â§ 4. The Prophet and His Book 13-14
Â§ 5. The Text 15
Â§ 6. The Metre 15-17
Â§ 7. Modern Literature 17-18
COMMENTARY ON OBADIAH 19-46
INTRODUCTION TO JOEL 49-72
The Composition of the Book 49-56
The Date of the Book 56-62
The Interpretation of the Book 62-67
The Prophet 67-68
The Text and Metre 68-71
Modern Literature 71-72
COMMENTARY ON JOEL 73-144
INDEXES TO OBADIAH AND JOEL 145-146
I. TEXTS AND VERSIONS
= Arabic Version.
= Aquila's translation, cited
from Field's Hexapla.
= Armenian Version.
= Authorized Version(i6ii).
Cod. = Prophetarum posteri-
orum codex Baby-
ianus. Ed. H. L.
= Origen's Quiiita.
= Ethiopic Version.
= The Septuagint, in the
received Greek Ver-
~ Codex Alexandrinus.
= Aldine Text.
= Codex Sinaiticus.
= Codex Vaticanus.
= Codex Marchalianus.
= Codex Taurinensis.
= Texts of Holmes and Par-
= Jerome's Version.
Kenn. = R. Kennicott, Vettis Tes-
cum variis lectionibus
= The Old Latin Te.xt of
the Minor Prophets,
cited from Oesterley's
edition in the Journal
of Theological Studies,
vol. V (1903).
= The Massoretic Text.
= New Testament.
= Old Testament.
= Revised Version.
= Revised Version, margin.
= The Peshitto, cited from
the Paris Polyglot.
= Syro Hexaplar text.
= Slavic Version.
= Symmachus's translation.
cited from Field's Hex-
The Targum, cited from
the Paris Polyglot.
cited from Field's Hex-
The Vulgate, cited from
Hetzenauer, Biblia Sa-
cra VulgatcB Editionis
II. BOOKS OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS
= The Wisdom of
Ben Sira, or Eccle-
1, 2 K.
= I, 2 Kmgs.
I, 2 Ch.
= I, 2 Chronicles.
I, 2 Cor.
= I, 2 Corinthians.
= Canticles = The
1, 2 Mac.
= I, 2 Maccabees.
I, 2 Esd.
= I, 2 Esdras.
= I, 2 Samuel.
I, 2 Thes.
= I, 2 Thessalonians.
I, 2 Tim.
= I, 2 Timothy,
= Wisdom of Solomon.
= Ze haniah.
= Rabbi Izaak
= Rabbi Abraham ben
Juda A barb
Meir ibn Ezra
= American Journal of
- American Journal of
-â– Altorientalische For-
schungen, von H.
â– â– W. R. Arnold, The
Na. I'-2^ ZAW.,
= J. Bachmann, Zur
anja, in SK., 1894,
= F. Baethgen.
= J. Barth, Die Nom-
inalbildung in den
= G. A. Barton.
= Beitrdge zur Assyri-
ologie und Semiti-
â– â– G. L. Bauer, Die klein-
en Propheten uber-
setzt u.s.w. (1786).
= A Hebrew and Eng-
lish Lexicon of
the Old Testament,
with an Appendix
containing the Bib-
lical A ramaic,
based on the Lexi-
con of William Ge-
senius as trans-
lated by Edward
Robinson, edited by
with the co-opera-
tion of S. R. Driver
and Charles A.
= Article Zephanja, in
= J. A. Bewer.
= G. Bickell, Beitragc
zur semit. Metrlk
= Idem, in ZDMG.,
ff. or Carmina Vet.
Test. Metrice (1882),
= S. Bochart.
= F. Bottcher.
= Breiteneicher, Ninive
und Nahuin (1861).
= C. J. Bredenkamp.
= K. Budde,
= Idem, Geschichte der
ries on the Twelve
Caspari, Der Prophet
Ueber Micha den
Critica Biblica, Part
II : Ezekiel and
Minor Prophets, by
T. K. Cheyne
T. K. Cheyne, Micah
R. P. Condamin.
C. H. Cornill, Einlei-
tung in die kanon-
ischen Biichcr des
Cor. â€” Continued.
(6th ed., 1908;
Eng. transl. of the
5th ed. = Intro-
duction to the Ca-
nonical Books of
the Old Testament,
COT. = Cuneiform Inscrip-
tions and the OT.
Cred. = K. A. Credner.
Dathe = J. A. Dathe, Proph-
etce minores ex re-
censione textus He-
braei et versionum
antiquarum . . . il-
Dav. = A. B. Davidson.
DB. = A Dictionary of the
Bible, edited by
4 vols. (1898-1902)
and an "Extra
cited here as vol. V.
De. = Franz Delitzsch.
de R. = J. B. de Rossi, Varice
vol. Ill (1786);
and Scholia critica
in Veteris Tes-
de W. = W. M. L. de Wette.
Dl. = Friedrich Delitzsch.
j)l_Proi. = Idem, Prolegomena
e i ne s neuen He-
chen Worterb uch s
zum A Iten Testa-
I detn , A ssyrisches
S. R. Driver, The
Mi nor Prophets:
kuk , Zephaniah,
ah, Malachi. In-
vised Version, with
Notes, Index, and
Map [The Cen-
tury Bible, 1906].
Idem, A Treatise on
the Use of the
Tenses in Hebrew
(1874; 3d ed.,
Idem, A n Introduc-
tion to the Litera-
ture of the Old
â– â– Drusius, Contfnentary
on Minor Prophets,
in Critici Sacri, etc.
â€¢ B. Duhm, Die zwolf
Propheten in den
Versmassen d e r
' Encyclopedia Bibli-
ca, ed. by T. K,
Cheyne and J.
4 vols. (1899-1903).
= A. B. Ehrlich.
= J. G. Eichhorn.
= Einleitung in das
- H. J. Elhorst, De
prophetie van Mi-
= EMyclopcedia Bri-
= F. GiesebrechL
tannica (gth ed.).
= H. Graetz, Emenda-
tiones in plerosque
= H. Ewald, Die Proph-
eten des Alien Bun-
des (1840; 2d ed.,
libros, etc. (1893).
1867; transl. as
= G. B. Gray.
Commentary on the
= E. J. Greve, Vaticinia
Prophets of the Old
Nahumi et Hah.,
Testament; 5 vols.,
= Idem, Ausfiihrliches
= K. J. Grimm, Euphe-
Lehrbuch der He-
Appendices in the
des Alten Bundes
(8th ed., 1870).
= The Expositor, ed. by
= Annotata ad Vet. Test.,
W. R. Nicoll.
vol. II (1644).
= The Expository Times.
= H. Guthe, Der Pro-
= C. P. Fagnani, The
phet Micha, in
Structure of the
Text of the Book of
Schrift (3d ed..
Zephaniah, in Old
Testament and Sem-
= H. Gunkel, Schop-
itic Studies in
fung u. Chaos in
Memory of W. R.
Urzeit u. Endzeit
Harper, II, 260-77.
= George Adam Smith,
= W. R. Harper, Ele-
The Book of the
ments of Hebrew
Syntax (1888; 5th