J. P Munro-Fraser.

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HISTORY



OF



SOLANO COUNTY

COMPRISING

AN

ACCOUNT OF ITS GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION; THE ORIGIN OF ITS NAME;
TOPOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY AND SPRINGS; ITS ORGANIZATION; TOWN-
SHIP SYSTEM; EARLY SETTLEMENT, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF
SCENES AS VIEWED BY THE PIONEERS, THE FIRST AMERI-
CAN ARGONAUTS OF CALIFORNIA; THE HEAR FLAG;
THE DISCOVERY OF GOLD ; THE PROGRESS OF
POPULATION AND AGRICULTURE; THE MENU
CAN GRANTS ; THE PRINCIPAL MURDERS ;
INCIDENTS OF SETTLEMENT, ELEC-
TIONS, AND TABLE OF COUNTY
OFFICERS, AND HISTORIES

OF ITS

CITIES, TOWNS, VILLAGES, CHURCHES, SCHOOLS,

SECRET SOCIETIES, ETC.

AS, ALSO,

A FULL AND PARTICULAR

BIOGRAPHY OF ITS EARLY SETTLERS

AND PRINCIPAL INHABITANTS.



ILLUSTRATED.






SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. :
WOOD, ALLEY & CO., EAST OAKLAND.

I«7 9 .









> . • « * .



THE NEW Y<

PUBLIC LLBR.

309719

ASTOR, LENOX t
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS.

R if. L



L



; ,*:."*• - Sk-N ^Pkancisco :

H. S. CROCKER & CO.
Stationers, Printers and Lithographers.



PREFACE



In presenting the following pages to our subscribers we will draw
their attention to the fact that reliability of data has been our aim,
rather than the elegance of diction and the verbiage of language.

It has in many instances been a matter of extreme difficulty, the
compiling the facts we have here put together. Want of precision
in the dates of the earlier occurrences in Solana county have been
found a great stumbling block, while a sequence of events has been
difficult to gain. Our task has been no easy one. What is there
more depressing than to be told in one's researches, " Oh, there is
nothing to write about here ;" or, " I have nothing to tell in my
biography," forgetting that no more interesting records exist than
those of the doings of the Argonauts of California, a record which
each and all should feel proud in perpetuating in some form that
will bear the brunt of time, and hand down their names and their
doings, even unto the third and fourth generation ; hence, our
Biographical Sketches will be found not the least interesting
portion of our work.

Doctor Levi Cornell Frisbie, of Vallejo, himself a pioneer of no
ordinary experience, has spontaneously penned us the following
letter, which we reproduce, not so much as a testimonial, but as a
proof of how our labors are appreciated by men of profession and
judgment.

Vallejo, May 23d, 1879.
Messrs. Wood, Alley & Co. :

Dear Sirs. — Your enterprise in collecting, preserving

and presenting in an enduring form facts and incidents connected

with the early history of Solano county, is one that pre-eminently

commends itself to the favor and support of all our people. Like



VI



all Californians, and especially Solanoites, we are very proud of
our county, and believe we have the best climate, the most pic-
turesque scenery, and most fertile soil within the borders
of the State. So important was deemed this locality that
under the old Mexican regime was located here, the National Rancho
" Suscol," as being the finest grazing and best watered tract within
the whole Province, while adjoining this magnificent domain was the
extensive and fertile valley of Suisun, granted by the Mexican
Government to the great Chief, Solano, for the use and benefit of
his tribe, who were acknowledged to be by far the bravest and most
intelligent of all the California Indians, and proved ever to be the
staunch friend of the existing government, being often called upon
by General Vallejo to protect the property of the National Rancho
and the inhabitants of the adjoining Mission and town of
Sonoma, repelling by force immensely superior numbers of the wild
and savage tribes that inhabited the north as far up as the bound-
aries of Oregon.

Here, too, in early days, after the change of government, at the
city of Benicia was located the headquarters of the Pacific division
of our army, under command of General Persifer P. Smith ; and at
a little later day, at the city of Vallejo, the United States Navy
Yard, destined, when completed according to the projected plans, to
be the finest naval station in the world. On the western borders
of our county we have the beautiful land-locked harbors of Vallejo
and Benicia, large enough to accommodate the shipping of the
world, while along our eastern border runs the Sacramento river
and its numerous tributaries, furnishing admirable shipping facilities
for all the products of the county. The California Pacific Rail-
road, a branch of the " Great Central," traverses the entire length
of the county, and passes through all the considerable towns-
There is known to exist large bodies of cinnabar, coal, iron,
marble and building stone of superior quality. Medicinal springs,
thermal, chalybeate, and alterative are numerous throughout the



Vll



county, which have already become the resort of the invalid and
pleasure-seeker from every part of the State. We cultivate suc-
cessfully all the fruits and products of both temperate ■ and semi-
tropical zones, and, " sitting thus under our own vine and fig-tree '
are, as we ought to be, par excellence a happy and contented people.

Very respectfully yours,

L. Cornell Frisbie.

Of a necessity, where we were not afforded the requisite informa-
tion, it has been impossible to produce histories, notably in the
instances of those schools and churches under the rule of the
Catholic body, and the large flour mill of Messrs. A. D. Starr &
Co., the railroad corporations, and Wells, Fargo & Co's Express —
their omission has been no fault of ours.

In conclusion, we would tender our best thanks to those ladies
and gentlemen of Solano county who aided us ; more especially do
we offer our acknowledgements to Mrs. Thomas Brownlee and herrel-
atives, who were the first to give us a regular start in our
undertaking, while to the whole of the county officers, without
exception, and to Messrs. Wendell & Richardson, of the Vallejo
Chronicle, George Roe, of Ijhe Solano Times, C. F. Montgomery, of
the Solano Republican, Alfred B. Nye, of the Dixon Tribune, and
E. A. McDonell, .of the New Era of Benicia, for their kind assist-
ance, while such names as those of Messrs. Fitch, County
Surveyor, A. Dunn, County Clerk, G. A. Gillespie, Deputy County
Clerk. S. C. Gray, of San Francisco, L. L. Palmer, of Suisun, and
A. J. Dobbins, of Fairfield, should not be forgotten, nor indeed
should those of our own staff, Messrs. W. A. Slocum, W. N. Bowen,
and L. L. Bowen, to whom we are indebted for much valuable time

and information.

WOOD, ALLEY & CO.
East Oakland, July 1, 1879.

J. P. MuNRO FRASER, Historian.



INDEX



HISTORICAL.

Page.

History of Solano County 17

Geographical Situation and Area. 1 7

Topography 20

Geology 23

Springs, Soil and Valleys 24

Its Streams 25

Organization 26

Origin of the Township System
in the U. S. and its Extension

to California 26

Montezuma. 30-40-44

Suisun 39-42

Green Valley 31-39-41

Vacaville 31-42

Benicia 32-41

Vallejo 32-41

Tremont 34_40_43

County Seat Convention 34

Maine Prairie 39-43

Silveyville 42

Rio Vista 43

Denverton 44

Elmira 44

The Settlement 49

The American Pioneers of Cali-
fornia 53

Agricultural Lands 74

Grazing Lands 76

Swamps and Overflowed Lands. . 76

Mineral Lands 77

Timber 77

Live Stock 77

Improvements 78

Assessed Value of Property for

1876 80

Good Templars' Home for Or-
phans 81

White Sulphur Springs 88

Tolenas Springs 91

Marble Quarry 93

POLITICAL HISTORY.

Early Political History 103

Table showing the State, County,
and Township Officers from the
year 1850 to 1879, inclusive. . 121



MEXICAN GRANTS.

Page.

Suscol 130

Suisun 131

Tolenas 133

Los Putos 136

Rio Los Putos 136

Ulpinos 267 §

MURDER AND OTHER TRIALS.

The People vs. Edward Crocker. 137
The People vs. William Kemp .,. 138
The People vs. Beverley G. Wells 138
The Killing of Jonathan Cook by

George K. Mann 140

The People vs. Robert B. McMil-
lan 141

The People vs. Philander Arnold 141
The People vs. Joseph Zaesck. . . 142
The People vs. Merrill James. . . 142
The People vs. D. H. Fitzpatrick 143
The People vs. Frank Grady. ... 143
The People vs. William West-

phal 143

The People vs. D. G. Gordon. . . 144
The People vs. James Campbell

and Annie ' Robinson 144

The People vs. Pancho Valencia

and Guadalupe Valencia 144

The People vs. James Mall on. . . 145
The People vs. James Lawther. . 145

TOWNSHIP HISTORIES.

Benicia 146

Young Ladies' Seminary 171

College of St. Augustine 1 75

Benicia Lodge,No. 5,F. and A. M. 177

Benicia Chapter, No. 7, R. A. M. 1 78

Solano Lodge, No. 22, 1. O. O. F. 178

Pioneer Tannery 179

Benicia Tannery 180

Brown's Tannery 181

Pacific Cement Company 181

Benicia Brewery 182

Solano Hotel 182



Historical. — continued.



Page.

Vallejo 184

Methodist Episcopal Church 203

First Presbyterian Church 205

Church of the Ascension 206

First Baptist Church . 209

Advent Christian Church 211

Naval Chapter, No. 35, R, A. M. 212

Naval Lodge, No. 87,F. and A. M. 212
Solano Lodge, No. 229, F. and

AM 213

Golden State Lodge, I. O. 0. F. 213

Washington Lodge, No. 7, K. of P. 214
Sanioset Tribe, No. 22, I. O. of

KM 214

Farragut Post, No. 12, G. A. P. 215
Vallejo Lodge, No. 75, A. O. U.

W 216

Society of California Pioneers ... 216

Masonic Hall Association 217

Masonic and Odd Fellows Ceme-
tery 219

St. Vincent's Benevolent Society. 220-

Post Office 221

Homestead Association 221

Land and Improvement Co 222

City Water Co 223

Gas Light Co 224

• Bank of Vallejo 225

Savings and Commercial Bank. . 225

Pioneer Brewery 225

Empire Soda Works 226

Foundry and Machine Works. . . 226

Sash Factory 226

Solano Brewery 227

Pioneer Marble Works 227

Farragut Hall 227

Alert Boat Club 228

Bernard House 229

Howard House 230

Vallejo Chronicle 230

Solano Times 230

Vallejo Elevator 231

Carquinez Cemetery 235

Military Organizations 235

Fire Department 235

San Pablo Engine Co. No. 1 236

Vallejo Schools 236

Mare Island 247

Rio Vista 265

Geology, etc 266

Early Settlement 267

Rio Vista 272



Page

Rio Vista Lodge, No. 208, F.

and A. M 275

Rio Vista Lodge, No. 180, I. O.

O. F 275

River View Encampment, No. 6.

C. of R. C 275

Rio Vista H. & L. Co 276

Congregational Church 276

M. E. Church 277

Catholic Church 277

St. Gertrude's Academy 277

Public Schools 277

Newspapers 278

Business Directory 278

SlLVEYVILLE 280

Dixon 281

Silveyville Lodge, No. 201, F.

and A. M 282

Dixon Chapter No. 28, R. A. M. 282
Hyacinthe Rebecca Lodge, No.

26 282

Montezuma Lodge, No. 172, I. O.

O. F 282

Othello Lodge, No. 31, K- of P. 283

Dixon Lodge, I. O. G. T 283

Dixon Lodge, No. 50, A.O.U.W. 283

Bank of Dixon 283

Fire Company 283

Qatholic Church 284

M. E. Church South 284

M. E. Church , 284

Dixon Baptist Church 286

Dixon Tribune 287

Suisun 288

Suisun City 290

Fairfield 290

Court House and Jail 291

M. E. Church, Fairfield 294

Grace Church 294

St. Alphonsis Church, Suisun.. 295

Congregational Church, Suisun. 295

Suisun Lodge, No. 55, F & AM. 296

Suisun Lodge, No. 78, I. O. O. F. 297

Suisun Lodge, No. 49, A.O.U.W. 297

Bank of Suisun 298

Fire Department 298

Water Company 299

Suisun City Mills 299

Suisun Glee Club 301

Newspapers 301

County Hospital 302



XI



Historical. — continued.



Page.

Denverton 303

Schools, Churches, etc 304

Denverton Lodge, I. O. G. T. . . 305

Maine Prairie 306

Lodge of Good Templars 308

Binghamton M. E. Church 309

M. E. Church 309

Cumberland Presbyterian Church 309

Montezuma 311

Collinsville 312

Schools and Churches 313

Vacaville 314

Vacaville 317

Vaca Valley and Clear Lake R.

R. Co../ 318



Page.

Baptist Church 318

Seventh-Day Advent 319

Christian Church " 319

Davis Hotel 319

California College 319

Green Valley 322

Cordelia 323

Bridgeport -. . . 323

Rockville 324

Elmira' 325

Elmira 325

I. O. O. E. of Elmira 326

A. O. U. W 326



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.



VALLEJO.



Alvord, Luke

Anderson, M. D., Walter Duncan.

Aspenall, William

Ay 1 ward, Thomas

Bergwell, Gustaf

Bingham, George

Brooks, William S

Brown, Calvin

Brown, Samuel

Brownlie, Alexander J

Brownlie, James

Brownlie, John

Brownlee, Robert

Brownlee, Thomas

Butler, O. H

Callender, John

Carman, A. S

Colhoun, Edmund R., U. S. N. .

Condon, James

Connolly, Henry

Dare, John T

Deininger, F

Derwin, Michael S

Doyle, James

Drake, Simon S

Edwards, William P

Egery, B. D

Farnham, John

Forstenfeld, M

Frisbie, Eleazer

Frisbie, Gen. John B

Frisbie, Levi C

Frost, James, M. D



329

329

329

331

332

332

334

334

335

336

336

336

338

341

342

342

343

343

344

344

344

345

345

346

346

347

348

348

349

349

349

351

352



Gookin, Thomas P 352

Gorham, Abraham 352

Hanks, J. G 353

Harrier, Daniel W 353

Harvey, Hon. Joel A 354

Hilborn, Hon. S. G 355

Hobbs, Isaac 355

Hubbard, John E 357

Hubbs, Hon. Paul K 357

Hubbs, Charles H 364

Hunter James 365

Jefferis, P. E 366

Jones, Rev. Edward J 366

Kennedy, John E 367

Kitto, Samuel 367

Klink, Rev. K B 368

Kloppenburg, D. W 368

Lamont, James A 369

Mallett, George F., U. S. N 370

Much, George W., U. S. N 370

MacDonald, Rev. David F 371

McCudden, James 371

McDermott, Robert 372

McDonald, T. P 372

McDonald, William 372

McGettigen, Edward 373

Mclnnis, J. A 373

McKnight, Andrew 374

McKnight, A. J 375

McLeod, John C 375

McPike, A. J 376

Murphy, Charles 377

North, John 378



Xll



Biographical. — continued.



Page.

O'Brien, Thomas . 378

O'Grady, Frank 378

Pearson, Gustavus C 379

Powell, A 383

Richardson, H. D. 385

Robinson, A. T 386

Roe, George 387

Roney, .James 387

Saunders, James 388

Sheehy, Robert 389

Shirland, Frank , 389

Simonton, George W 391

Smith, James G 392

Steffen, J 392

Taylor, W. E., M. D . 393



Page.

Thompson, J. D 393

Thompson, H. M 394

Thornton, T. A 394

Tobin, J. F. . . 394

Vanderbilt, W. W 394

Walker, W 395

Ward, James 395

Weniger, Charles 396

Wentworth, John 396

Wilson, E. J 397

Wilson, John 397

Wilson, Joseph 397

Williston, J. E 398

Young, A. J . . 398



SUISTTN.



Alden, E. B ■ 399

Barbour, Nathan 399

Bateman, J. K 399

Bafceman, John M. K 400

Bauman, J. H 400

Chrisler, P. J , 400

Clayton, David J 401

Coghlan, O. R 401

Crocker, Asa 402

Davisson, Obediah 402

Davisson, W. G : 402

Downing, M. D., W. G 403

Dunn, Alexander 403

Edwards, James G 403

Fitch, William Wayne 404

Gillespie, Edgar Ferguson 404

Gillespie, George A 405

Goodwin, B. H 408

Gregory, John M 409

Green, George. 409

Haile, Hon.^R. C 4-10

Hale, David 411

Hammond, E. A 411

Hooper, Thomas P 412

Hoyt,W. K 412

Hubbard, Henry 412

Jones, John M 413

Kennedy, W. T 414

Kerns, J. W 414

Kinloch, John G 414

Lamont, George A 414

Le Gro, Richard P 415

Leithead, William 415

Lemon, John B 415

Manka, Christley 416

Marshall, Charles Knox 416

Maxwell, J. C 417



Miller, Allen C 417

Miller, John 4L7

Miles, James L 418

Murray, Alexander 419

McCreary, D 419

McDonald, D. C . 419

Palmer, L. L 419

Palmer, S. G 420

Pangburn, G. H 420

Pearce, John W 421

Perkins, E. D 421

Quick, W 421

Rice, Harvey 422

Richardson, J. B 422

Bobbins, R D 422

Robinson, W. H 423

Rush, B. F 423

Spence, M. D., A. P 424

Staples, Earnest H 424

Staples, F. O . 424

Stockman, D. E. (deceased) 425

Stockman, D. M 425

Swan, Hon. T. M 425

Turner, W. H 426

Taylor, W. H 427

Vance, M. D, James M 427

Vest, John ■. . . 427

Waterman, Robert H 428

Wells, James T 428

Wendell, J. F 428

Wing, Joseph (deceased) 428

Wing, Joseph Jr 429

Wolf, William 429

Wolfskill, Mathias 429

Woods, John 430

Berry, George M 430



Xlll



Biographical. — continued.
GREEN VALLEY.



Page.

Baldwin, J. M 431

Bihler, Henry 431

Hatch, A. T 431.

Humphreys, James H 432

Jewell, W. T 433



Paqk.

Jones, F. S 433

Pittman, C. J 433

Pierce, Lewis 434

Schultz, C. & Co 434

Wilson, Curtis 435



BENICIA.



Bennett, William F 436

Brown, John R ." 436

Burns, James 436

Chisholm, A 436

Clyne, James 437

Cummings, Francis 437

Dalton, Alfred 437

Demming, Captain John 438

Dillon, Patrick W 438

Durner, George Adam 439

Enos, Joseph 441

Fischer, Joseph 441

Gray, Samuel C 441

Hanbrick, Peter 441

Hastings, D. N 442

Hoyt, Joseph 443

Kinstrey, Thomas T 443

Kuhland, William 443

McKay, Thomas 444



McNally, Bernard 444

Mizner, L. B 444

Nichols, J. B 445

Nichols, William H 446

Opperman, Julius 446

O'Donnell, John 446

Peiin, Aaron 447

Preston, William E 447

Quigg, Charles 447

Raum, E. C 447

Riddell, George H 448

Rose, Elisha L 448

Rueger, John 448

Ryerson, A. P 449

Sage, Timothy 449

Spalding, Charles 450

Von Pfister, E. H 450

Walsh, Captain John 452

Westaby, Richard 453



VACAVILLE.



Ammons, Henry B 454

Baker, Geo. H 454

Bassford, H. A 454

Bassford, J. M 455

Brinck, H. W. . . , 455

Buck L. W 455

Campbell, Robt. G 455

Connelly, James 456

Cummons, John Harbert 456

Davis, W. B 457

Davis, I. F 457

Day, M. D., Edward W 457

Downey, D. M 458

Dutton, David D 458

Esquivel, A. M 459

Eversole, H 459

Elliott, J. M 459



Getchins, W. W 460

Johnson, W 460

Kidd, W. B. R 461

Korns, Levi 461

Long, S. W 461

Marshall, R C 462

Morton, Henry 462

Pena, Demetrio 462

Pleasants, W. J 462

Rogers, J. R 463

Scarlett, J. E 463

Seaman, H 463

Smith, W. W 464

Stahl, J 464

Thissell, G. W 464

Troutman, G. W 465

Wooderson, G. F 465



Elliot, G. T.



MAINE PRAIRIE.
466 | Tuck, J .



467



XIV



Biographical. — continued.
RIO VISTA.



Page.

Beguhl, H 468

Brown, D. B 468

Bruning, J 469

Butler, N. C 469

Carter, R. C 470

Currie, A 470

Dozier, W. G 470

Enrigh, T. P 471

Ferguson, Wni 471

Fiscus, J. B 472

Gardiner, J. H 472



Page

Gurnee, J 473

Johnson Capt. J 474

Menzies, T 474

Pietrzycki, M. D., Marcel 475

Pond, D. A 475

Sickal, M. T 475

Sidwell, J. M 476

Smyth, Hon. Michael 477

Squires, W. K 477

Stoll, C. M 478



ELMIRA.



Barrett, J. H 479

March, R. B 479

Melbourn, T 479



McMurtry, J 480

Wells, J. C 480

Wight, F. M 481



DENVERTON

Arnold, O. D 482

Barkway, R H 482

Buckley, T 482

Fotheringham, J 483

MONTEZUMA



Kerby, C 483

Nurse, S. K 484

Prevost, L 4*5



Arnold, J. W 486

Bird, J 486

Bond, J. C 486

Donell, W 487

Hooper, T. T 487



Hosking, W 488

Meins, R 488

Page, W 48*

Upham, E. J 488

Winter, H. E 489



TREMONT.



Asee, C. C.



490

Cloutman, J. F 490

Foster, Geo. W 491

Guthrie, B. J 491



Hyde, S. F 492

Hyland, W 492

Snead, S. M 493



SILYEYVILLE.



Brown, C. P 494

Coleman, N. B. S 494

Cotten, J. W 495

Currey, R. J 495

Dashiell, W. A 495

Dickson, T 496

Dinsmore, Rev. J. M 496

Dudley, J. M 496

Ellis, J. A 49"/

Frahm, G 497

Hall, R 498

Mack, D 498

Mayes, J. S 499



Merryfield, J. C 499

McKinley, G. C 499

McPherson, A 500

Nye, A. B 500

Reddick, H 500

Rohwer, H 501

Silvey, E. S 501

Simmons, Jr., Rev. J. C 501

Smythe, P \ 502

Timm, P 502

Udel, Dr. O. C 503

Weihe, E 503



XV



LITHOGRAPHIC PORTRAITS.



Paoe.

Brownlee, Robert 96

Brownlie, John 208

Dudley, J. M 240

Dutton, D. D 80

Frisbie, Gen'l John B 48

Frisbie, M. D., L. C 160

Gillespie, George A 192

Hastings, D. N 272

Hilborn, S. G 64

Hobbs, Isaac 304



Page.

Hunter, James. . .' 416

McKinley, George C 176

McPike, A. J : 288

Mizner, L. B 144

Nurse, S. K 352

Palmer, L. L 336

Pearson, G. C 256

Powell, A 224

Sheehy, Robert 320

Vallejo, M. G 32



HISTORY OF SOLANO COUNTY.



GEOGRAPHICAL SITUATION AND AREA— DERIVATION OF NAME
OF COUNTY — ITS TOPOGRAPHY — GEOLOGY— SOIL,
SPRINGS— MINES— QUARRIES— VALLE YS,
WATER-COURSES, Etc., Etc.



Solano County has a position about midway between the northern and
southern extremities of the State of California, lying between thirty-eight
degrees, and thirty-eight degrees and thirty minutes north latitude, and
between one hundred and twenty-one degrees thirty minutes, and one hun-
dred and twenty -two degrees thirty minutes longitude west from Green-
wich. It is bounded on the north by the Rio de Los Putos, commonly
called Putah Creek — this stream beina; the dividing line between Yolo and
Solano counties ; on the east, for twenty miles, by the fresh water tules, or
marsh lands, adjacent to the Sacramento river, and in Yolo county. The
remainder of its eastern, and the whole of its southern boundary, is an un-
interrupted navigable water-front for the space of sixty-one miles — twenty-
five miles of which are on the Sacramento river, eighteen on Suisun bay,
six on the Carquinez straits, and twelve on Napa bay and creek. The
dividing ridges of the Napa mountains bound Solano on the west, and
separate it from Napa county.

The origin of the name of the county is thus described in a report to the
Legislature of California, in the year 1850, by General M. G. Vallejo, on the
derivation and definition of the various counties of the State. He thus
alludes to Solano: " This is the second name of the celebrated missionary,
Francis Solano, and was borne by the great chief of the tribes originally
denominated Suisuns, and scattered over the western side of the river Jesus
Maria, now Sacramento. The residence of this chief was the valley of the
Suisun, which is bounded by the hill near Suscol. Before receiving the
baptismal name of Solano, the chief was called Sem-Yeto, which signifies
the brave, or fierce hand. In 1817 a military expedition (under command
of Lieutenant Jose Sanchez, and by order of the commandant of San Fran-
cisco Jose Arguello), crossed the straits of Carquinez (on rafts made of
rushes, as there were no regular ferries in those days), for the double pur-
pose of exploring the country and reducing it to Christianity. On crossing
the river they were attacked by the Suisun tribe, then headed by their
chief, Malica, who caused them considerable loss. The Indians fought



18 THE HISTOKY OF SOLANO COUNTY.

bravely and to the utmost extreme, but they were in turn attacked with
such force and perseverance as to oblige them to retreat to their rancheria
(somewhere in the present Suisun valley), where, being still hotly pursued
and believing their fate sealed, these unfortunate people, incited by their
chief, set fire to their rush-built houses and perished in the flames with
their families. The soldiers endeavored to stay their desperate resolution,
in order to save the women and children ; but even those preferred this
doom to that which awaited. them from the hands of their enemies. Thus
perished the chief, and thus was the hearth and the home of his people
destroyed."

We are indebted to Mr. William Wayne Fitch, County Surveyor, for the
following able remarks on the Topography, Geology, and other knowledge
of Solano County.

The Townships are twelve in number, and range as under:

VALLEJO.

Fraction of Township 3 North, Range 4 West.

South-east of Township 4 North, Range 5 West.

South-east of Township 4 North, Range 4 West.

South of Township 4 North, Range 3 West.

West part of Township 3 North, Range 3 West.

BENICIA.

Fraction of North-east corner of . . Township 2 North, Range 3 West.

Fraction of Township 2 North, Range 2 West.

Eastern part of Township 3 North, Range 3 West.

West part of Township 3 North, Range 2 West.

South-west corner of Township 4 North, Range 2 West.

South-east corner of Township 4 North, Range 3 West.

GREEN VALLEY.

Eastern part of Township 4 North, Range 3 West.

West part of Township 4 North, Range 2 West.

West part of Township 5 North, Range 2 West.

Eastern part of Township 5 North, Range 3 West.

SUISUN.

Small part of North-east corner of . Township 3 North, Range 2 West.

Fractional Township 3 North, Range 1 West.

Fractional Township 4 North, Range 1 West.

Most of Township 5 North, Range 1 West.

East part of Township 4 North, Range 2 West.

East part of Township 5 North, Range 2 West.

Small part of Township 6 North, Range 2 West.



THE HISTORY OF SOLANO COUNTY. 19

VACAVILLE.

West part of Township 6 North, Range 1 West.

East part of Township 6 North, Range 2 West.

Most of Township 7 North, Range 1 West.