J. R. (John Ramsay) McCulloch.

Dictionary, practical, theoretical and historical, of commerce and commercial navigation; (Volume 2) online

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DICTIONARY,

PRACTICAL, THEORETICAL, AND HISTORICAL,



OF



COMMERCE



AND



COMMERCIAL NAVIGATION.



BY



J. R. M c CULLOCH, ESQ.



EDITED BY



HENRY VETHAKE, LL.D.



OWE OF THE PROFESSORS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA ; MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN PHI-
LOSOPHICAL SOCIETY; AUTHOR OF A TREATISE ON POLITICAL ECONOMY; ETC.



Tutte le invenzioni le piii benemerite del genere umano, e che hanno svillupato l'ingegno e la
facolta dell' animo nostro, sono quelle che accostano 1' uomo all' uomo, e facilitano la communica-
zione delle idee, dei bisogni, dei sentimenti, e riducano il genere umano a niassa. erri.



IN TWO VOLUMES.
VOL. II.



PHILADELPHIA:
THOMAS WARDLE, 15 MINOR STREET.

STEREOTYPED BY L. JOHNSON.

1841.



FRINTKD BY T. K. St. P. O. COLLINS, PHILA



A

DICTIONARY

OF

COMMERCE

AND

COMMERCIAL NAVIGATION.



1. AND J .

J ALAP, or JALOP (Ger. Jalapp ,■ Fr. Jalap ,■ It. Sciarappa ,■ Sp. Jalapa), the root of
a sort of convolvulus, so named from Xalapa, in Mexico, whence we chiefly import it. The
root, when brought to this country, is in thin transverse slices, solid, hard, weighty, of a
blackish colour on the outside, and internally of a dark grey, with black circular stria;. The
hardest and darkest coloured is the best; that which is light, spongy, and pale coloured,
should be rejected. The odour of jalap, especially when in powder, is very characteristic.
Its taste is exceedingly nauseous, accompanied by a sweetish bitterness. — (Lewis's Mat.
Med. ; Brandos Pharmacy.) The entries of jalap for home consumption amounted, at an
average of 1831 and 1832, to 47,816 lbs. a year.

JAMAICA PEPPER. See Pimento.

JAPANNED WARES (Ger. Japanische ware ,• Du. Japansch lakwerk ,■ Fr. Mar-
chandises de Japori), articles of every description, such as tea-trays, clock-dials, candlesticks,
snuff-boxes, &c. covered with coats of japan, whether plain, or embellished with painting
or gilding. Birmingham is the grand staple of this manufacture, which is there carried on
to a great extent. Pontypool, in Monmouthshire, was formerly famous for japanning; but
it is at present continued there on a very small scale only. It is prosecuted with spirit and
success at Bilston and Wolverhampton.

JASPER (Ger. Jaspiss ,■ Du. Jaspis ,• Yx.Jaspe; It. Diaspro ; Sp. Jaspe ,• Rus. Jaschma).
This stone is an ingredient in the composition of many mountains. It occurs usually in
large amorphous masses, sometimes in round or angular pieces ; its fracture is conchoidal ;
specific gravity from 2 to 2-7. Its colours are various ; when heated it does not decrepitate :
it is usually divided into four species, denominated Egyptian jasper, striped jasper, porcelain
; asper, and common jasper. It is sometimes employed by jewellers in the formation of seals.

JERSEY. See Guernsey.

JET, on PITCH COAL (Du. Git, Zwarte barnsteen ; Fr. Jais, Jayet ,- Ger. Gagat ;
It. Gagala, Lustrino ,■ Lat. Gagus, Gagates), of a black velvet colour, occurs massive, in
plates; sometimes in the shape of branches of trees, but without a regular woody texturp.
Internal lustre shining, resinous, soft ; rather brittle; easily frangible ; specific gravity 1*3.
It is used for fuel, and for making vessels and snuff-boxes. In Prussia it is called black
amber, and is cut into rosaries and necklaces. It is distinguished by its brilliancy, and con-
choidal fracture. — (Thomson's Chemistry.)

JETSAM. See Flotsam.

IMPORTATION and EXPORTATION, the bringing of commodities from and sending
them to other countries. A very large portion of the revenue of Great Britain being derived
from customs duties, or from duties on commodities imported from abroad ; and drawbacks
being given on many, and bounties on a few articles exported ; the business of importation
and exportation is subjected to various regulations, which must be carefully observed by those
who would avoid incurring penalties, and subjecting their property to confiscation. The
regulations referred to, have been embodied in the act 3 & 4 Will. 4. c. 52., which is subjoined

3



'



4 IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION.

General Regulations.
JVo Goods to be landed nor Bulk broken before Report and Entry. — No goods shall be onladen from any
fhip arriving from parts beyond the seas at any port or place in the United Kingdom or in the Isle of
.Man, nor shall bulk be broken after the arrival of such ship within 4 leagues of the coast thereof,
before due report of such ship and due entry of such- goods shall have been made, and warrant granted,
in manner herein-after directed ; and no goods shall be so unladen except at such times and places,
and in such manner, and by such persons, and under the care of such officers, as is and are herein-
after directed ; and all goods not duly reported, or which shaH be unladen contrary hereto, shall be
fi>rfeited ; and if bulk be broken contrary hereto, the master of such ship shall forfeit the sum of 100/. ;
and if. after the arrival of any ship within 4 leagues of the coast of the United Kingdom or of the Isle
of Man, any alteration be made in the stowage of the cargo of such ship, so as to facilitate the unlading
of any part of such cargo, or if any part be staved, destroyed, or thrown overboard, or any package be
opened, such ship shall be deemed to have broken bulk : provided always, that the several articles
herein-after enumerated may be landed in the United Kingdom without report, entry, or warrant;
(that is to say,) diamonds and bullion, fresh fish of British taking, and imported in British ships,
turbots and lobsters fresh, however taken or imported. — { 2.

Manifest.

Jill British Ships, and all Ships with Tobacco, to have Manifests. — No goods shall be imported into the
United Kingdom, or into the Isle of Man, from parts beyond the seas, in any British ship, nor any
tobacco in any ship, unless the master shall have on board a manifest of such goods or of such tobacco,
made out; dated, and signed by him at the place or respective places where the same or the different
parts of the same was or were taken on board, argl authenticated in the manner herein-after provided ;
and every such manifest shall set forth the name and the tonnage of the ship, the name of the master
and of the place to which the ship belongs, and of the place or places where the goods were taken on
board respectively, and of the place or places for which they are destined respectively, and shall con-
tain a particular account and description of all the packages on board, with the marks and numbers
thereon, and the sorts of goods and different kinds of each sort contained therein, to the best of the
master's knowledge, and of the particulars of such goods as are stowed loose, and the names of the
respective shippers and consignees, as far as the same can be known to the master; and to such par-
ticular account shall be subjoined a general account or recapitulation of the total number of the packages
of each sort, describing the same by their usual names, or by such descriptions as the same can best be
known by, and the different goods therein, and also the total quantities of the different goods stowed
loose : provided always, that every manifest for tobacco shall be a separate manifest distinct from any
manifest for any other goods, and shall, without fail, contain the particular weight of tobacco in each
hogshead, cask, chest, or case, with the tare of the same ; and if such tobacco be the produce of the
dominions of the Grand Seignior, then the number of parcels or bundles within any such hogshead,
cask, chest, or case, shall be stated in such manifest. — } 3.

To be produced to Officers in Colonies, fyc. — Before any ship shall be cleared out or depart from any
place in any of the British possessions abroad, or from any place in China, with any goods for the
United Kingdom or for the Isle of Man, the master of such ship shall produce the manifest to the col-
lector or comptroller of the customs, or other proper officer, who shall certify upon the same the date
of the production thereof to him : provided always, that in all places within the territorial possessions
of the East India Company the servant of the said Company by whom the last despatches of such ship
shall be delivered shall be the proper officer to authenticate the manifest as aforesaid ; and in all places
in China the chief supercargo of the said Company shall be the proper officer for such purpose. — # 4.

To be produced to Consuls. — Before the departure of any ship from any place beyond the seas not
under the British dominions, where any tobacco has been taken on board such ship for the United
Kingdom or for the Isle of Man, the master of such ship shall produce the manifest of such tobacco to
the British consul or other chief British officer, if there be any such resident at or near such place ;
and such consul or other officer shall certify upon the same the date of the production thereof to
him. — {5.

If wanting, Master to forfeit 100/. — If any goods be imported into the United Kingdom or into the Isle
of Man, in any British ship, or any tobacco in any ship, without such a manifest, or if any goods con-
tained in such manifest be not on board, the master of such ship shall forfeit the sum of 100/. — $ 6.

Manifest to be produced within 4 Leagues. — The master of every ship required to have a manifest on
board shall produce such manifest to any officer of the customs who shall come on board his ship after
her arrival within 4 leagues of the coast of the United Kingdom or of the coast of the Isle of Man, and
who shall demand the same, for his inspection ; and such master shall also deliver to any such officer
who shall be the first to demand it, a true copy of such manifest signed by the master; and shall also
deliver another copy to any other officer of the customs who shall be the first to demand the same
within the limits of the port to which such ship is bound; and thereupon such officers respectively
shall notify on such manifest and on such copies the date of the production of such manifest and of the
receipt of such copies, and shall transmit such copies to the collector and comptroller of the port to
which such vessel is first bound, and shall return such manifest to the master ; and if such master shall
not in any case produce such manifest, or deliver such copy, he shall forfeit the sum of 100/. — $ 7.

Report.
Master, within 24 Hours, and before breaking Bulk, shall report. — The master of every ship arriving
fioni parts beyond the seas at any port in the United Kingdom or in the Isle of Man, whether laden
or in ballast, shall, within 24 hours after such arrival, and before bulk be broken, make due report of
such ship, and shall make and subscribe a declaration to the truth of the same, before the collector or
comptroller of such port ; and such report shall contain an account of the particular marks, numbers,
and contents of all the different packages or parcels of the goods on board such ship, and the particu-
lars of such goods as are stowed loose, to the best of his knowledge, and of the place or places where
such goods were respectively taken on board, and of the burden of such ship, and of the country where
such ship was built, or, if British, of the port of registry, and of the country of the people to whom
such ship belongs, and of the name and country of the person who was master during the voyage, and
of the number of the people by whom such ship was navigated, stating how many are subjects of the
country to which such ship belongs, and how many are of some other country; and in such report il
shall be further declared, whether and in what cases such ship has broken bulk in the course of her
voyage, and what part of the cargo, if any, is intended for importation at such port, and what part.
if any, Is intended for importation at another port in the United Kingdom, or at another port in the
Isle of Man respectively, and what part, if any, is prohibited to be imported, except to be warehoused
for exportation only, and what part, If any, is intended for exportation in such ship to parts beyond
the seas, and what surplus stores or stock remain on board such ship, and, if a British ship, what
foreign-made sails or cordage, not I >« - i 1 1 slt standing or running rigging, are in use on board such ship ;
and the master of any ship, who shall fail to make such report, or who shall make a false report, shall
forfeit the sum of 100/. — $ 8.



IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION. 5

Masters of Vessels coming from Africa to report how many Natives they have on board. — The master
cif every vessel coming from the coast of Africa, and having taken on board at any place in Africa any

person or persons being or Appearing to he natives of Africa, shall, in addition to ail other matters,

state, in the report of his vessel, how many such persona have been taken on hoard by linn in Africa;
and any such master failing herein shall forfeit the sum of 1002. : provided also, thai the master or

owner or owners of such vessel, or some one' of them, at the time of making such report, he required
to enter into bond to his Majesty in the sum of 10(1/ . conditioned to keep harmless any parish, or any

extra-parochial or other place maintaining its own poor, against any expense which such parish or

other place may be put to in supporting any such person (luring their stay in the United Kingdom;
and any such master, owner or owners refusing or neglecting to enter into such bund shall forfeit the
sum of" 200/. — i 9.

Packages reported "Contents unknown" may he opened and examined. — If the contents of any packages
so intended as aforesaid for exportation in the same ship to parts beyond the seas shall be reported
by the master as being unknown to him, it shall he lawful for the officers of the customs to open and
examine such package on board, or to bring the same to the king's warehouse for that purpose ; and
if there he found in such package any goods which may not be entered for home use, such goods shall
he forfeited; or if the goods he such as may be entered for home use, the same shall he chargeable
with the duties of importation ; unless in either case the commissioners of his Majesty's customs, in
consideration of the sort or quality of such goods, or the small rate of duty payable thereon, shall see
tit to deliver the same for exportation. — $ 10.

Matter to deliver Manifest, Sec. — The master of every ship shall, at the time of making such report,
deliver to the collector or comptroller the manifest of the cargo of such ship, where a manifest is
required, and, if required by the collector or comptroller, shall produce to him any hill or bills of
lading, or a true copy thereof, for any and every part of the cargo laden on hoard ; and shall answer
all such questions relating to the ship and cargo, and crew and voyage, as shall he put to him by such
collector or comptroller; and in case of failure or refusal to produce such manifest, or to answer such
questions, or to answer them truly, or to produce such bill of lading or copy, or if such manifest, or
bill of lading, or copy, shall be false, or if any hill of lading he uttered by any master, and the goods
expressed therein shall not have been bona fide shipped on hoard such ship, or if any bill of lading
uttered or produced by any master shall not have been signed by him, or any such copy shall not have
been received or made by him previously to his leaving the place where the cods expressed in such
hill of lading or copy were shipped, then and in every such case such master shall forfeit the sum of
100/. — J 11.

Part of Cargo reported for another Port. — If any part of the cargo of any ship for which a manifest
is required be reported for importation at some other port in the United Kingdom, or at some other
port in the Isle of Man, the collector and comptroller of the port at which some part of the cargo has
been delivered shall notify such delivery on the manifest, and return the same to the master of such
ship. — ? 12.

Ship to come quickly to Place of unlading, <yc. — Every ship shall come as quickly up to the proper place
of mooring or unlading as the nature of the port will admit, and without touching at any other place ;
and in proceeding to such place shall bring to at stations appointed by the commissioners of customs
for the boarding of ships by the officers of the customs ; and after arrival at such place of mooring or
Unlading such ship shall not remove from such place except directly to same other proper place, and
with the knowledge of the proper officer of the customs, on penalty of 100/., to be paid by the master
of such ship: provided always, that it shall be lawful for the commissioners of customs to appoint
places to be the proper places for the mooring or unlading of ships importing tobacco, and where such
ships only shall be moored or unladen ; and in case the place so appointed for the unlading of such
ships, shall not be within some dock surrounded with walls, if any such ship after having been dis-
charged shall remain at such place, or if any ship not importing tobacco shall be moored at such place,
the master shall in either case forfeit and pay the sum of 20/. — # 13.

Officers to board Ships. — It shall he lawful for the proper officers of the customs to board any ship
arriving at any port in the United Kingdom or in the Isle of Man, and freely to stay on board until all
the goods laden therein shall have been duly delivered from the same; and such officers shall have
free access to every part of the ship, with power to fasten down hatchways, and to mark any goods
before landing, and to lock up, seal, mark, or otherwise secure any goods on board such ship; and if
any place, or any box or chest, be locked, and the keys be withheld, such officers, if they be of a degree
superior to tidesmen or watermen, may open any such place, box, or chest in the best manner in their
power; and if they be tidesmen or watermen, or only of that degree, they shall send for their superior
officer, who may open or cause to be opened any such place, box, or chest in the best manner in his
power; and if any goods be found concealed on board any such ship, they shall be forfeited; and if
the officers shall place any lock, mark, or seal upon any goods on board, and such lock, mark, or seal
be wilfully opened, altered, or broken before due delivery of such goods, or if any of such goods be
secretly conveyed away, or if the hatchways, after having been fastened down by the officer, be
opened, the master of such ship shall forfeit the sum of 100/. — $ 14.

National Ships, British or Foreign, having Goods on board, Person in charge to deliver an Jlccaunl,
or forfeit 100/.— If any ship (having commission from his Majesty, or from any foreign prince or stale)
arriving as aforesaid at any port in the United Kingdom or in the Isle of Man shall have on board any
goods laden in parts beyond the seas, the captain, master, purser, or other person having the charge
of such ship or of such goods for that voyage, shall, before any part of such goods be taken out of such
ship, or when called upon so to do by any officer of the customs, deliver an account in writing under
his hand, to the best of his knowledge, of the quality and quantity of every package or parcel of such
goods, and of the marks and numbers thereon, and of the names of the respective 'shippers and con-
signees of the same, and shall make and subscribe a declaration at the foot of such account, declaring
to the truth thereof, and shall also truly answer to the collector or comptroller such questions con-
cerning such goods as shall he required of him ; and on failure thereof, such captain, master, purser,
or other person shall forfeit the sum of 100/. ; and all such ships shall he liable to such searches as
merchant ships are liable to ; and the officers of the customs may freely enter and go on board all such
ships, anil bring from thence on shore into the king's warehouse any goods found on board any such
ship as aforesaid ; subject nevertheless to such regulations in respect of ships of war belonging to his
Majesty as shall from time to time be directed in that respect by the commissioners of his Majesty's
treasury of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. — I) 15.

Master to deliver List of Crew of Ships from West Indies. — The master of every British ship arriving
at any port in the United Kingdom, on her return from any British possessions in the West Indies,
shall, within 10 days of such arrival, deliver to the collector or comptroller a list, containing the names
and descriptions of the crew which was on board at the time of clearing from the United Kingdom,
and of the crew on board at the time of arrival in any of the said possessions, and of every seaman
who has deserted or died during the voyage, and also the amount of wages due at the time of his death
to each seaman so dying, and shall make and subscribe a declaration at the foot of such list, declaring
to the truth thereof; and every master omitting so to do, shall forfeit the sum of 50/. ; and such list
shall be kept by the collector for the inspection of all persons interested therein. — i 16.
A 2



6 IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION.

Entry.
After 14 Days, Officer may land Goods not entered, S;c. — Every importer of any goods shall, within 14
days after the arrival of the ship importing the same, make perfect entry inwards of such goods, or
entry by bill of sight, in manner herein-after provided, and shall within such time land the same ; and
in default of such entry and landing it shall be lawful for the officers of the customs to convey such
goods to the king's warehouse ; and whenever the cargo of any ship shall have been discharged, with
the exception only of a small quantity of goods, it shall be lawful for the officers of the customs to
convey such remaining goods, and at any time to convey any small packages or parcels of goods, to
the king's warehouse, although such 14 days shall not have expired, there to be kept waiting the due
entry thereof during the remainder of such 14 days ; and if the duties due upon any goods so conveyed
to the king's warehouse shall not be paid within 3 months after such 14 days shall have expired,
together with all charges of removal and warehouse rent, the same shall be sold, and the produce
thereof shall be applied, first to the payment of freight and charges, next of duties, and the overplus,
if any, shall be paid to the proprietor of the goods. — J 17.

Bill of Entry to be delivered — The person entering any goods inwards (whether for payment of duty,
or to be warehoused upon the first perfect entry thereof, or for payment of duty upon the taking
out of the warehouse, or whether such goods be free of duty,) shall deliver to the collector or comp-
troller a bill of the entry of such goods, fairly written in words at length, expressing the name of the
ship, and of the master of the ship in which the goods were imported, and of the place from whence
they were brought, and the description and situation of the warehouse, if they are to be warehoused,
and the name of the person in whose name the goods are to be entered, and the quantity and descrip-
tion of the goods, and the number and denomination or description of the respective packages con-
taining the goods, and in the margin of such bill shall delineate the respective marks and numbers of
such packages, and shall pay down any duties which may be payable upon the goods mentioned in
such entry ; and such person shall also deliver at the same time 2 or more duplicates, as the case may
require, of such bill, in which all sums and numbers may be expressed in figures, and the particulars
to be contained in such bill shall be written and arranged in such form and manner, and the number
of such duplicates shall be such as the collector and comptroller shall require ; and such bill being
duly signed by the collector and comptroller, and transmitted to the landing waiter, shall be the war-
rant to him for the landing or delivering of such goods. — } 18.

Unauthorised Persons not permitted to make Entries. — Every person who shall make or cause to be
made any such entry inwards of any goods, not being duly authorised thereto by the proprietor or con-
signee of such goods, shall for every such offence forfeit the sum of 100/. : provided always, that no
such penalty shall extend or be deemed to extend to any person acting under the direction of the
several dock companies or other corporate bodies authorised by law to pass entries. — # 19.



Online LibraryJ. R. (John Ramsay) McCullochDictionary, practical, theoretical and historical, of commerce and commercial navigation; (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 221)