south of San Francisco, but especially south of San Luis Obispo, and in the
vicinity of Los Angeles. It is frequently seen floating in the Santa Barbara
channel. It is abundant in Tulare county, on the west side of the Tulare val-
WEST OP THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 201
ley, near Buena Vista and Kern lakes, and at this and other localities is associ-
ated with petroleum, (which see.)
Blende occurs sparingly in many of the gold-bearing quartz veins of the
State, especially when lead is present, as, for example, at the Princeton mine,
Mariposa estate; the Adelaide mine, Hay ward & Chamberlain's mine, and in
several of the Grass valley mines in Nevada county ; at Meadow lake, in con-
siderable masses, with galena, iron pyrites, and copper pyrites. It is associated
with yellow copper in the Napoleon mine and the Lancha Plana ; in Sacra-
mento county, at Michigan bar, associated with galena, oxide of iron, and cop-
per ore. (Cabinet of Dr. Erey.) Placer county, fifteen miles from Lincoln,
towards Nevada* with galena and gold; at the Bloom claim, near Angels camp,
Calaveras county ; also in a quartz vein in Coulterville.
Borax. Lake county, in large crystals in the clay of the Borax lake.
Boracic acid. Clear lake, Lake county.
Carbonate of magnesia. (See Magnesite.}
Carbonate of soda. San Bernardino county, at Soda lake, sink of the Mo-
have river ; in Tulare county, along the borders of the smaller lakes, when dry-
ing up ; at the borders of the Santa Anna river, near San Bernardino.
Cassiterite. San Bernardino county, at the " Temescal tin region," about
sixty miles faom Los Angeles. Occurs in many veins associated with schorl (?)
traversing granite. In most of the ores the tin oxide is found only by crushing
and washing. At the "Gun lode" a peculiar drab-colored oxide is found in
considerable quantities. It appears to be liberated by the decomposition of an
arsenical ore, arsenic being abundant in the samples. The oxide, as collected
in that region for examination, is in various degrees of purity, and 'exhibits dif-
ferent colors. Some of the samples obtained by washing are black, others
brown, and some red and drab-colored.
Idaho Territory, on Jordan creek, in placers, in beautiful rounded masses,
from one-eighth to half an inch in diameter, very pure and clean the variety
known as wood tin. (Cabinet of the author, specimens received from Charles
T. Blake, esq., of Idaho City.)
Mexico, State of Durango: wood tin of great purity and beauty occurs
abundantly in this State. It closely resembles the stream tin of Idaho.
Cerusite, (carbonate of lead.) In large crystals resembling those from Siberia,
in the Russ district (1} Great Basin, near the Mojave river ; Arizona, in heavy
iucrusting masses upon the galena of the Castle Dome district.
Chalcedony. Large masses of white chalcedony, delicately veined, and in
mammillary sheets, occur in Monterey county, near the Panache's ; on Walker
river, Washoe; and of a fine pink color near Aurora, Esmeralda. In pear-
shaped nodules in the eruptive rocks between Williamson's Pass and Johnson's
river, Los Angeles county.
Chalcopyrite, (yellow copper ore.} This is the chief ore of the copper mines
of California 1 , as it is likewise of the mines of Cornwall, England. It is there-
fore found at a great number of localities, along the copper-bearing belt which
stretches in a nearly unbroken zone from Mariposa county northwesterly to Del
Norte county, parallel with and on the western side of the chief gold-producing
belt of the State.
In Calaveras county, the chief localities (for the massive ore) are : The Union,
Keystone, Empire, Napoleon, Campo Seco, and Lancha Plana mines. In good
crystals, implanted on and among clear quartz crystals, at the Noble copper
claim on Domingo creek. (Collection of Dr. Jones, Murphy's.) In Mariposa
county, the La Victoire mines in Hunter's valley, and Haskell's claims, below
Mariposa town, and claims along the Chowchillas river. Amador county, at
the Newton mine; Eldorado county, at the Cosumnes mine, Hope Valley
mine, at the Bunker Hill mine, El Dorado Excelsior, and other claims at and
near Pilot Hill. Plumas county, at the Genessee and Cosmopolitan mines. It
202 RESOURCES OF STATES AND TERRITORIES
occurs, also, in small quantities in Contra Costa county, in the rocks of Mount
Diablo and in those of the Coast mountains south and north of San Francisco;
in Los Angeles county, at Richmond district, and at Big Meadow district, both
on the interior slope of the mountains at the margin of the Great Basin. ( Vide
Geol. Rec., Cal., p. 290 )
Lower California : a few leagues south of San Diego, at the Winder claims.
Arizona: at the Apache Chief mine, after getting below the "surface" ores.
At the San Pedro mines, near Fort Buchanan. Near Caborca, in northwestern
Chloride of silver. At the mines about Austin, Lander county, Nevada, this
species is abundant in the surface ores, being derived from the decomposition of
the mixed sulphurets of silver below the water level. It was also found in the
decomposed ores of the upper portions of the Comstock lode, and is common to
all the silver 'veins of the Great Basin. Some remarkably fine specimens were
obtained at the mine in Slate Range district, California. - Occurs also in
the Willow Springs district, and in the veins of El Dorado canon, Arizona.
Chrysocolla, , (silicate of copper.} Not 'common in California, where the
sulphurets in decomposing give carbonates and oxides ; but in Arizona, along
the Colorado river, very common at and" near the surface where the veins con-
taining copper glance are decomposed. Fine specimens were taken from the
Great Central claim, about twenty miles from La Paz and at the Blue lode.
Chromic iron. Monterey county, in masses, with green crusts and coatings
of emerald nickel. Santa Clara county, near the North Almaden mine.
Chrysolite. In serpentine, near San Francisco, and at New Almaden, Santa
Cinnabar, (sulphuret of mercury ) This is the characteristic mineral of the
Coast mountains, from Clear lake on the north to San Luis Obispo on the
south. It appears to be connected chiefly with the secondary rocks, though at
San Luis Obispo Prof. B. Silliman collected a group of fossils which appear to
be miocene tertiary. (See a notice by Mr. Gabb, Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci.)
The principal .locality is the well known mine of New Almaden, in Santa Clara
county, and the adjacent mines of the Enriqueta and the Guadalupe. The ore
occurs massive, in large bunches and " strings," and is associated with calc
spar, bitumen, and pyrites. The total production of quicksilver, chiefly from
the New Almaden, up to January, eighteen hundred and sixty-five, was three
hundred and seventy-one thousand eight hundred and eighty-three flasks, valued
at about fifteen million of dollars in gold. At the North Almaden, on the east
side of the San Jose" valley, and nearly opposite the New Almaden, considerable
quantities of cinnabar have been taken out of prospecting pits at this place, at
several different points. A heavy ferruginous outcrop shows the general course
of the metalliferous belt. The rock is hard and flinty, and is frequently beauti-
fully streaked with brilliant red cinnabar, the whole sufficiently compact to give
fine specimens for polishing by the lapidary. It occurs abundantly, and in
very handsome cabinet specimens, at the New Idria mines, in Monterey county,
at which work has recently been resumed. There are many localities in Napa
county, and in the vicinity of Clear lake and the Geysers. In small crystals
in hornstone, at Buckhorn ranch, north of Berreyesa valley.
In Mariposa county, near Coulterville, in finely colored crystals in quartz in
a gold vein. Nevada county, about four miles from Grass valley, washed out of
sluice boxes, and entirely different from the New Almaden ore in appearance.
Arizona, about eighteen mJes from the Colorado river : at Olive City, at the
Alma claim, and the Eugenie, located by Mr. Ehrenberg, associated with silver.
Reported to exist in Idaho, on the Qwyhee river.
Corundum. Los Angeles county, in the drift of the San Francisquito Pass,
in small crystals. (Baron Richthofeu.)
WEST OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 203
Copper, native This species is common in small quantities in the surface
ores of the principal copper mines of the State, but is not found below the
permanent water level. No veins of this metal like those of Lake Superior ar^
known upon the Pacific coast, but the abundance of large drifted masses of solid
copper in one or more streams upon the northwest coast, (Russ. Poss.,) leave
little doubt that such veins do exist in that high latitude. Calaveras county,
at the Union mine, some very fine masses of dendritic or moss copper have been
taken out. (Cabinet of J. B. Header.) The Keystone mine, adjoining the
Union, also produced some good specimens in 186 1. Found also at the Na-
poleon and the Lancha Plana mines ; and in Sacramento county, at the
Cosumnes mine. In Santa Barbara county, occurs disseminated in grains in
the midst of serpentine rock. Arizona, on the Gila river, about ninety miles
from Fort Yuma, at the Arizona Copper Company's mine ; associated with red
oxide of copper and green carbonate, and spread in crystalline masses through
a gangue of calc spar. Cabinet of the author.) For the ores of copper, see
C/ialcopyrite, Red copper, Vitreous copper, Sfc.
Copper glance. Los Angeles county, at the Maris mine, Soledad district, in
grains and irregular masses in a sienitic granite. It contains suver. The de-
composition of this ore at and near the surface gives metallic copper, and metallic
silver, incrusting the surfaces of the granite where fissured. This locality was
known and worked as early as 1853. In Arizona this is the most common ore
of copper, especially in Weaver district, near La Paz, or Olive City. It is
usually argentiferous, and is there associated with gold in quartz veins. Found
also in the Chahuabi valley, the Tajo, and the San Pedro mines, and near
Caborca, in northwestern Sonora.
Derbyshire spar. Castle Dome district. (See Fluor spar)
Diamond. Butte county, Cherokee Flat, ten miles from OroviHe. In well
formed, highly modified crystals, from one-eighth to three-sixteenths of an inch
in diameter, and generally of a pale straw yellow color. Crystallization tetra-
hedral, like figure 267, page 24, Dana's System of Mineralogy.
Idaho. Reported to exist on the Owyhee river.
Diallogite, (carbonate of manganese) Occurs abundantly in the silver -
bearing veins about Austin, Nevada. By decomposition it becomes black, and
discolors the upper parts of the vein, but at and below the water-line, with the
unchanged ores of silver, it has a delicate flesh-red or pink color.
Dolomite. Amador county, in narrow, snow-white reins, traversing a talcose
chloritic rock, and bearing coarse free- gold. (Cabinet of the author, specimen
presented by Mr. James.) Calaveras county, Angels Camp, in the Winter,
Hill's and other mines, massive, with the quartz veins, and bears gold. Some-
times in fine crystals, lining cavities. San Bernardino county, at the Armagosa
mine, bearing coarse gold.
Embohte. Is believed to occur in the surface ores of Lander county, Nevada,
near Austin, and of Washington district, further south, but has not been cer-
Emerald nickel. Monterey county, with chrome ore.
Feldspar. San Diego county, in crystals. (See Orthoclase.)
Fluor spar. In crystals and large cleavable masses of various tints. white,
pink, and purple and green, like the specimens from Derbyshire, England, in
the veins of galena and blende, Castle Dome district, Colorado river, Arizona.
Sparingly, in small white cubes, with the copper ore, at Mount Diablo.
Galena, (sulphuret of lead.) This common ore of lead has not yet been
found in finely crystallized cabinet specimens on the Pacific coast. The locali-
ties of the massive or granular ore are numerous, it being found in small quanti-
ties in many of the gold-bearing veins of the State, especially at the following :
Mariposa county, at Marble Springs mine ; Priceton mine ; Adelaide. Cala-
veras county, at the Barnes and Silver Elephant claims, at Murphy's ; at the
204 RESOURCES OF STATES AND TERRITORIES
Star of the West, Blue Mountain district, and the Good Hunter claims, with
gold. In Sacramento county, at Michigan bar, with blende and pyrites/ Nevada
county, at Meadow lake, with blende. Tuolumne county, at the Soulsby mine,
with blende and iron pyrites and gold. In Nevada county, in several of the
veins at Grass valley, with free gold. In Tehama county, on Cow creek ; and
abundantly in veins on the island of Santa Catalina. In Arizona it is abun-
dant in the veins of the Castle Dome district, twenty-five miles from Fort Yuma,
and in the Eureka district on the same river, about twenty-five miles further
north ; also in the Piccacho district, and in the Weaver district, near La Paz ;
at the Santa Rita mine, with gray copper ore ; in the Tajo. vein, with copper
glance, blende, tetrahedrite, and gold ; in the Santa Cruz mountains, south of
Fort Buchanan ; at the Mowry and Patagonia mines ; at San Xavier, on the
Santa Cruz, (Pumpelly.) In Nevada it is abundant on Walker's river, north of
Esmeralda, and at Steamboat Springs, Galena district. It is also found in por-
tions of the Comstock lode, Washoe, associated with the silver sulphurets ; but
where it is associated in that vein with much blende and copper pyrites, it is not
rich in silver forming the ore commonly known there as " base rnetal."
Garnet. Iifl Dorado county, at Fairmount mine, three miles from Pilot Hill,
in large blocks and masses two feet thick or more. Associated with specular
iron, calc spar, iron pyrites, and copper pyrites, with actinolite in steatite, near
Petaluma, Sonoma county ; in large semi-crystalline masses, weighing ten to
twenty pounds, and of a light color, from the Coso mining district. (Specimens of
this were brought to San Francisco under the supposition that it was tin ore.)
A beautiful green garnet, grossular, is found with the copper ore of the Rogers
claim, Hope valley, El Dorado county, and similarly in copper ore at the
Mountain Meadows, Los Angeles county. In Russian America, Stickeen river,
in finely formed trapezohedral and dodecahedral crystals imbedded in mica slate,
and much resembling specimens from Monroe, Connecticut.
Gold, (crystalline.) Placer county, at Irish creek, three miles from Colo-
ma, in arborescent and crystalline masses covered with octahedrons. (Eighteen
hundred and fifty-four, cabinet of author.) At Forrest Hill, in the same county,
in the placer claims of the Messrs. Deidesheimer, in flattened and distorted
octahedra. One crystal is a partially formed octahedron, with a rectangular
base one inch long by seven-eighths of an inch wide. At Mameluke Hill, near
Georgetown, in ragged crystalline masses, in a quartz vein. In El Dorado
county, at Spanish Dry Diggings, in large masses of irregular dendritic crystal-
lizations. One mass recently obtained weighed about sixteen pounds, and was
purchased by Mr. Dickinson, of New York, for preservation. Calaveras county,
a large partly formed crystal with octahedral edges ; if perfect would be two
inches in diameter. Tuolumne county, flattened, distorted octahedrons from
the Whiskey Hill mine. Mariposa county, octahedrons from the placers near
Coulterville, but very rare. At the Priceton mine, rarely, in nests and bunches
of octahedrons, with brilliant faces.
Small delicate microscopic prisms of gold have been found in the vicinity of
Sonora. They appear to be terminated with crystalline planes at both ends,
and probably are elongated octahedrons. (From the collection of Doctor Snell.)
Crystals of sporjgiforrn gold, from one-eighth to one-quarter of an inch in di-
ameter, and as light almost as cork, were washed out by Doctor Hill from a
claim near Angels. This- is a condition of native gold which, it is believed,
has not been hitherto noticed.
In Plumas county, Sherman lode, Light canon, on coatings of green and blue
carbonates of copper, proceeding from the decomposition of variegated copper
pyrites or vitreous copper in part. This gold was apparently deposited after
the deposition of the carbonate of copper. The specimens are beautiful'. (Cabi-
net of Mr. Waters, Sacramento.) Mariposa county, in a narrow vein of calcite
or dolomite, two inches wide, cutting slates ; precise locality not known. The
WEST OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN* 205
gold was in coarse masses and strings in the middle of the vein. Amador
county, near Dry town, in a vein of pearl spar, which is very pure and white,
and without admixture with quartz or pyrites. The gold is in coarse masses in
the midst of the pearl spar. (Specimens collected by Mr. James, and presented
to the author.)
Gold in small quantities occurs at many places in the Coast mountains, and
associated with cinnabar. Some specimens of coarse' gold have been found in
the cinnabar veins of Colusa county. In Excelsior district gold occurs with
molybdenite. In San Bernardino counjby, at the Armagosa mine, in feldspar
and in calc spar, in a granitic rock, associated also with arsenolite.
Many large masses of gold have been taken from the placers of California at
various times, of which no authentic record or description has been kept. In
1864, a large mass, one hundred and eighty-seven ounces, (fifteen and seven -
twelfths pounds,) was taken from the middle fork of the American river, about
two miles from Michigan bluffs, Placer county.
The Carson Hill quartz claim, in Calaveras county, is celebrated for the size
and weight of the masses of gold taken from it, some of which weighed six and
seven pounds. (For further observations upon gold, its geology and distribution,
see an article at the end.)
Gold and tellurium. (See Tellurium.)
Gray copper ore. With gold in the Pine Tree mine, Mariposa grant, and
similarly at the lona Company's claim, and others upon the same belt near
Coulterville. (See Tetrahedrite)
Graphite. About twenty miles above the Big Tree Grove, in crystalline
scales ; also at the mine of the Eureka Plumbago Company, (locality not known.)
Gypsum. Los Angeles county, in the Great Basin, near the entrance to the
Soledad or "New Pass." San Diego county, along the banks of Carizzo creek,
and on the slope of the desert. Tuiare county, at the vein of stibnite, in crys-
tals. Nevada county, near the Truckee Pass, in beautiful stellar radiations,
from o^e half of an inch to three inches in diameter. (Cabinet of C. W. Smith,
Hematite, (specular iron ore.) This is a very abundant ore in California,
and Arizona, on the Colorado river, near Williams's Fork. Some of the dry
arroyos or canons in that region are crowded with blocks of the pure ore, from
one to two feet in diameter. It is broken from beds and seams in an impure
metamorphic limestone. The structure is granular, passing into micaceous, and
freshly broken surfaces are extremely brilliant. Specimens of similar ore were
brought in by Jules Marcou, in eighteen hundred and fifty-three, from the val-
ley of Williams's Fork, further north. This ore occurs also in Humboldt valley,
and abundantly on the coast of Mexico, south of Acapulco,
Hessite. Eldorado county. (See Tefiuret of silver ?f
Hornblende. At San Pablo. At Soledad, in sienite. At Yallecito, near
Hyalite. Associated with semi-opal, in the Mount Diablo range, about thUty
miles south of Mount Diablo. (In cabinet of J. B. Meader, Stockton.)
Jdocrase. Siegel lode, Eldorado county. (?)
Iodide of mercury.' Santa Barbara county. (?)
Hmenite. Eldorado county, near Georgetown, from the golcl washings; a
very fine crystal, about an inch in diameter, with brilliant planes.
Iron ores. (See Magnetite and Hematite.)
Iridosmine. With platinum and gold in the beach sands of the northern coun-
ties. An analysis by C. Kurlbaum, jr., in Pr. Genth's laboratory, of a sample
of the residue from gold washing and amalgamation, obtained by the author in
eighteen hundred and fifty-four, gave 48.77 per cent, of iridosmine. Found also
as a residue in melting large lots of placer dust.
Iron pyrites. Found in most of the gold-bearing quartz veins, either crystal-
206 RESOURCES OF STATES AND TERRITORIES
line or massive; usually from one to five per cent, of trie whole weight of the
ore. The value for gold varies greatly. At Grass valley the concentrated sul-
phurets are worth from one hundred dollars to three hundred dollars per ton.
Cabinet specimens of this mineral may be had in very large crystals, cubes, at
the Fairmount claim, three miles from Pilot Hill, Eldorado county. It is there
associated with garnets, .brown spar, and specular iron. Found in brilliant
druses lining fissures in the rocks of the E Pluribus Unum tunnel, three miles
from Murphy's, Calaveras county. In brilliant but small cubical crystals in
the gold ore of the Mameluke claim, near Georgetown, Eldorado county. Mari-
posa county, in large and perfect crystals in the slates near the Deville mine,
south of Princeton Hill. Placer county, in large crystals, near the Grizzly Bear
House, between Auburn and Forrest Hill.
Jasper. Very fine masses of brown and yellow jasper are abundant near
Murphy's, Calaveras county, in the quartz veins, and in the debris from them.
Kcrargyrite. (See Chloride of silver.)
Lignite. San Francisco county, Contra Costa county, Monterey county; in
Amador county, in thick beds at the base of the Sierra Nevada; used in lone
City for steam boilers ; Santa Barbara county, Humboldt county, along the Eel
river ; Klamath county, at Gold Bluff, four hundred feet below the surface.
(Lieutenant Tuttle, U. S. army.) Del Norte county, at Point St. George. (Pro-
fessor Sherman Day.) In Nevada, "Washoe county, along the Truekee river;
in Lyon county, at the "Whitman mines."
Limonite. Mariposa county, at Burns's creek, near the old road to Fort
Miller, in a heavy outcrop of quartz ; solid blocks of limonite, from two to four
feet thick, are found there. (See Geol. Rec. Cal., p. 290.) Oregon, sixteen
miles from Portland, in an extensive bed ; specimens were sent by Governor
Gibbs to the Mechanics' Fair exhibition in 1864.
Made. Mariposa county. (See Andalucite.)
Magnecite, (carbonate of magnesia.) Tulare county, near Visalia, between
Four creeks and Moor's creek, in the foot-hills, in solid beds of pure white,
massive carbonate of magnesia, hard, fine grained, and like unglazed porcelain
in texture. The beds are from one to six feet thick, and are interstratified with
talcose slates and serpentine. Similar beds are described to me as existing in
the Diablo range. Alameda county, about thirty miles south of the mountain.
Mariposa county and Tuolumne county: a heavy bed of magnesian rock,
chiefly magnesite, charged with crystals of iron pyrites, accompanies the chief
gold-bearing quartz vein of thoso counties. This rock is charged also with
nickel and chrome talc in green films, like the magnesite of Canada.
Magnetite. In large beds, massive, and of superior quality, in Sierra county ;
also in octahedral crystals, forming beautiful cabinet specimens. In Plumas
county, near the line, fin groups of octahedrons associated with garnet (?) and
epidote. (?) Mariposa county, just east of the Mariposa estate, on the trail to
Yosemite. Placer county, at Utt's ranch, six miles from Auburn. At the
Caiiada de las Uvas, Los Angeles county, in a vein about three feet thick, in
limestone ; in the sienitic granite of the mountains between the Great Basin
and Los Angeles; seen in drift fragments in the valley of Soledad, or "Wil-
liamson's Pass." Eldorado county, at Volcanoville, on the middle fork of the
American river, near the great quartz vein. This locality was noted by the
writer in eighteen hundred and fifty-three. Thia ore is, perhaps, titaniferous,
but specimens are not at hand for examination. Trinity county, near Weaver-
ville, in small veins. (Trask, 3d report, 1865, p. 56.) Nevada county, three
miles from Grass valley. Eldorado county, fine octahedral crystals, in slate,
near the Boston copper mine ; in small brilliant crystals, with quartz, pyrites!
and calc spar; at the Eldorado Excelsior copper claim.
Malachite, (green carbonate of copper.) In remarkably fine specimens,
WEST OF THE EOCKY MOUNTAINS, 207
associated with crystalline blue carbonate, at Hnghes's mine, Calaveras county,
Manganese, oxide. (See Pyrolusite.)
Manganese, carbonate of. (See Dialogite.)
Mercury. Native quicksilver is found in Napa (?) county, near the Geysers,