THE GERMAN MEDICAL SOCIETY (" Deutsche Med-
iciuische Gesellschaft") was organized in 1850. The
society subscribes to the leading European medical
journals, and these circulate among the members ac-
cording to a definite plan. The membership is lim-
ited to twenty-five. The society has accumulated a
large library. The present officers are Dr. G. Baum-
garten, president ; Dr. Hugo Kinner, secretary ; Dr.
W. E. Fischel, treasurer ; Dr. George J. Engelmann,
THE ST. Louis MEDICO-CHIRURGICAL SOCIETY
was first organized in 1873 under the name of the
Medical Club, as a result of a state of affairs in the
St. Louis Medical Society, which had led a consider-
able number of members to cease attending its ses-
sions. There is no permanent presiding officer of
this society, some member being chosen at each meet-
ing to preside on that occasion. The secretary, treas-
urer, and librarian each serve one year. The present
officers are George Homan, M.D., secretary ; J. P.
Kingsley, M.D., treasurer; W. A. Hardaway, M.D.,
When first organized the club met in a hall at
Twelfth and Pine Streets, then for several years in
the directors' room of the Mercantile Library Asso-
ciation. Later, when an arrangement was made to
subscribe regularly for the most valuable European
journals, the meetings were held statedly at the office
of the librarian ; but as the membership of the so-
ciety increased and the value of the journal list be-
came more apparent, it was deemed best to secure
permanent quarters for the meetings of the society
and for a reading-room. Accordingly, a convenient
hall was secured in a most desirable location on Wash-
ington Avenue near Jefferson Avenue. This has
been fitted up with comfortable chairs, cases for
books and periodicals, tables for reading and writing,
etc. Already the nucleus of a valuable library has
been collected through gifts of members and by an
arrangement with the Medical Journal and Library
Association, by which the exchanges of the Courier
of Medicine and the books received by that journal
for review are deposited in this room, and are at the
disposal of its members.
The following is an alphabetical list of the mem-
bers of this society: G. Baumgarten, L. Ch. Bois-
iiniere, J. K. Bauduy, John P. Bryson,C. E. Briggs,
N. B. Carson, C. 0. Curtraan, D. V. Dean, J. O'F.
Delaney, George Engelmann, George J. Engelmann,
W. E. Fischel, W. H. Ford, W. A. Frazier, R. M.
Funkhouser, E. H. Gregory, E. C. Gehrung, D. C.
Gamble, W. C. Glasgow, A. A. Henske, B. M.
Hypes, T. E. Holland, W. A. Hardaway, George
Homan, J. B. Johnson, E. W. Jamison, W. C. Ken-
nett, J. P. Kingsley, A. P. Lankford, James M.
Leete, E. S. Lemoine, I. N. Love, E. Montgomery,
J. M. B. Maughs, C. E. Michel, S. G. Moses, G. A.
Moses, H. H. Mudd, M. P. Morrell, E. M. Nelson,
R. J. O'Reilly, T. F. Prewitt, T. L. Papin, S. Pollak,
M. H. Post, P. G. Robinson, E. W. Saunders, P. V.
Schenck, James M. Scott, A. B. Shaw, H. N. Spen-
cer, I. G. W. Steedman, A. J. Steele, F. L. Stuever,
H. Tuholske, C. A. Todd, 0. A. Wall, B. T. Whit-
Applicants for membership must be recommended
by two members. The name is referred to the execu-
tive committee, and posted for two weeks in the hall
of the society. If the executive committee report
favorably upon the application the name comes before
the society, all the members having been notified by
postal card of the election. Two adverse ballots ex-
clude an applicant from membership. No physician
is eligible for membership in this society until after
having practiced medicine in the city for a period of
at least two years. The admission fee is ten dollars,
and the annual dues are the same amount. The
meetings of the society are held on alternate Tuesday
evenings throughout the year, and the discussions are
regularly reported in the St. Loin's Courier of Medi-
cine A paper is read at each meeting by some mem-
ber of the society, the order of reading being deter-
mined by lot.
THE ST. Louis OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGI-
CAL SOCIETY was organized in 1877. Meetings are
held on the third Thursday evening of each month,
except July and August. Papers are read by the
members in turn, and discussions follow upon the
paper or verbal reports of cases. The discussions are
taken down by a short-hand reporter, and are pubr
HISTORY OF SAINT LOUIS.
lished in the St. Louis Courier of Medicine, and have
been generally regarded as of very considerable in-
terest and value. . The meetings are held at the houses
of the different members, and one fact that has had a
pronounced influence in sustaining the interest and at-
tendance upon the meetings has been the custom of
adding a social to a scientific interest by the serving
of a supper to the members after the regular busi-
ness meeting has been concluded.
The officers of the society for the current year are
T. L. Papin, M.D., president; W. H. Ford, M.D.,
vice-president ; Walter Coles, M.D., recording secre-
tary ; M. Yarnall, M.D., corresponding secretary ; T.
F. Prewitt, M.D., treasurer.
The following list embraces the present membership
of the society: W. L. Barret, L. Ch. Boisliniere, W.
Coles, George J. Engelmann, W. H. Ford, E. C.
Gehrung, E. H. Gregory, G. M. B. Maughs, E. Mont-
gomery, S. G. Moses, G. A. Moses, William McPhee- <
ters, T. L. Papin, T. F. Prewitt, and M. Yarnall.
Drs. George Engelmann and Adolph Wislizenus are
THE BEAUMONT MEDICAL CLUB was organized in
April, 1879, by a number of the younger men of the
profession, for the purpose of medical discussion and
social intercourse. The meetings were held monthly
for a couple of years, but have been discontinued of
late. The first officers were I. N. Levi, M.D., presi-
dent ; W. H. Frazier, M.D., secretary ; and George
Homan, M.D., treasurer. The officers last elected
were George Homan, M.D., president; E. M. Nelson,
M.D., secretary ; J. R. Lemen, M.D.. treasurer.
THE SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION OP GERMAN
PHYSICIANS (" Wissenschaftliche Verein Deutsche
Aerzte") was organized in the fall of 1881. The so-
ciety meets every other Friday, and at each meeting
an essay is read, followed by discussion, pathological
specimens are shown, cases presented, and the usual
business routine gone through with. Every member
is compelled to read an essay when his name is called
in the alphabetical order. The society has commenced
the formation of a library, for which there is already a
respectable nucleus. The present membership num-
bers twenty-one. There is no permanent president,
the presiding officer being selected at each meeting.
The secretary is Dr. George Richter; Treasurer, Dr.
Joseph Sprigelhalter ; Librarian, Dr. A. Alt.
Medical Schools. The history of medical educa-
tion in St. Louis is an interesting chapter in the his-
tory of the profession.
MISSOURI MEDICAL COLLEGE. In 1840, when
Joseph Nash McDowell came to St. Louis from Cin-
cinnati, there was a literary institution west of the
city, where the old county farm lies just east of the
insane asylum. Some of the original stone buildings
of the college are still standing. This institution was
incorporated with a university charter under the name
of " Kemper College." It was established under the
auspices of the Episcopal Church, and President
Hutchinson was then at its head. Dr. McDowell set
to work with enthusiasm, and organized a faculty of
medicine to work under the charter of this institu-
tion and to be known as the Medical Department of
Kemper College. The first course of lectures was
delivered in the winter of 1840-41 by the following
faculty : Joseph Nash McDowell. Professor of Anat-
omy and Surgery ; John S. Moore, Professor of Obstet-
trics and Diseases of Women and Children ; Josephus
W. Hall, Professor of Theory and Practice of Medicine ;
John De Wolf, Professor of Chemistry ; Hiram L.
Prout, Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeu-
These lectures were delivered in a building erected
for the purpose on the high bank of Chouteau's Pond,
at the corner of Ninth and Cerre Streets, where the
Wainwright brewery now stands.
In 1847, Kemper College having failed, owing to
the lack of financial backing, the Medical Depart-
ment became the Medical Department of the State
University, and was so conducted until the general
organization of the State University, when a separate
charter was procured, under which the college is now
conducted as the Medical Department of the Missouri
Institute of Science, more commonly known, however,
as the Missouri Medical College.
The stone octagonal building on the corner of Eighth
and Gratiot Streets was erected for the use of the
college, and was occupied by it until the war, when
it was confiscated by the United States government
and used as a military prison. After the close of
the war, when the faculty was reorganized, lectures
were again delivered in the same building for three
or four years. In 1874 a joint-stock company was
formed for the purpose of erecting a new college
building. The capital stock of this company amounted
to fifty thousand dollars, most of which was taken by
members of the faculty. The present site was pur-
chased, and an excellent building erected at the north-
east corner of Lucas Avenue and Twenty-third Street,
at a cost of twenty-five thousand dollars. During the
last year the building has been improved and enlarged
at an expense of fifteen thousand dollars.
The college is now in a most flourishing condition,
with classes numbering between two hundred and
three hundred each year. The faculty, as constituted
at present, is as follows :
THE MEDICAL PROFESSION.
William M. McPheeters, M.D., Emeritus Professor of Materia
Medica and Therapeutics; John S. Moore, M.D., Professor of
Principles of Medicine and Hygiene; G. M. B. Maughs, M.D.,
Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women ; P. Gervais
Robinson, M.D., Professor of Practice of Medicine and Clinical
Medicine; J. K. Bauduy, M.D., LL.D., Professor of Psycho-
logical Medicine, Diseases of Nervous System and Clinical Medi-
cine; Charles E. Michel, M.D., Professor of Histology and
Ophthalmology; H. Tuholske, M.D., Professor of Clinical Sur-
gery and Surgical Pathology ; Otto A. Wall, M.D., Ph.G., Pro-
fessor of Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Pharmacy; C. A.
Todd, M.D., Professor of Anatomy and Diseases of the Ear and
Throat ; J. P. Kingsley, M.D., Professor of Physiology and Clin-
ical Professor of Diseases of Children; T. F. Prewitt, M.D.,
Dean, Professor of Principles and Practice of Surgery and
Clinical Surgery; C. 0. Curtinan, M.D., Professor of Chemis-
try; P. V. Schenck, M.D., Clinical Teacher of Gynecology;
C. A. Todd, M.D., Demonstrator of Anatomy and Curator of
Museum; Justin Steer, M.D., Assistant Demonstrator; Ad-
juncts: A. B. Shaw, M.D., Adjunct to Professor of Clinical
Medicine and Lecturer on Physical Diagnosis ; F. Stuever, M.D.,
Adjunct to Professor of Ophthalmology; J. R. Lemen, M.D.,
Clinical Assistant to Chair of Surgery.
Hotel for Invalids. In the summer of 1848 the
upper stories of the large house situated on the cor-
ner of Second and Walnut Streets, previously known
as the Paul House, were fitted up as a " hotel for in-
valids," which was conducted under the supervision
of Drs. W. L. Barret and John S. Moore, of Mis-
souri Medical College, as consulting physicians, and
Drs. Frazier and Johnson, as resident physicians and
Post- Graduate School of the Missouri Medical
College. The object of this school is to give practi-
tioners of medicine and recent graduates facilities and
advantages for special studies and practical instruction
such as cannot be afforded in the ordinary courses of
lectures. The faculty of the Post-Graduate School is
constituted as follows :
Professor P. Gervais Robinson, M.D., Dean of the Faculty,
Physical Diagnosis; Professor John S. Moore, M.D., Malarial
Disuses; Professor A. B. Shaw, M.D., Clinical Medicine; Pro-
fessor A. P. Lankford, M.D., Surgerj' ; Professor H. Tuholske,
.M.D., Diseases of the Genito-Urinary Organs; Professor T. F.
Prewitt, M.D., Surgery; Professor T. L. Papin, M.D., LL.D.,
Diseases of Women ; Professor George J. Engelmann, M.D.,
Secretary of the Faculty, Operative Midwifery ; Professor J. P.
Kingsley, M.D., Diseases of Children ; Professor Charles E.
Michel, M.D., Diseases of the Eye; Professor H. N. Spencer,
M.I>., Diseases of the Ear; Professor W. A. Hardaway, M.D.,
Direases of the Skin; Professor 0. A. Wall, M.D., Ph.G.,
The school was organized in 1880 under the charter
of the Missouri Medical College, and its classes are
held in the building of that college.
ST. Louis MEDICAL COLLEGE. In 1836, after
frequent consultations between the trustees of the St.
Louis University on the one hand and the St. Louis
Medical Society on the other, an agreement was entered
into for the appointment of a medical faculty in connec-
tion with the university. A constitution was prepared
and ratified by both parties, and the Medical Society
selected as the first faculty Drs C. J. Carpenter, J.
Johnson, William Beaumont, E. H. McCabe, H.
Lane, and H. King. A prospectus of the medical
lectures was published annually with that of the literary
department of the university, but the medical depart-
ment was not actually put into operation until the
fall of L842. In the mean time (in 1841) the St.
Louis Medical College had been organized, and in
1842 it was chartered as the Medical Department of
the St. Louis University. In 1855 it became inde-
pendent, and was incorporated under its present name,
incorporators being John O'Fallon, James H. Lucas,
Luther M. Kennett, James Clemens, A. L. Mills,
Trusten Polk, G. Penn, W. G. Eliot, James E.
Yeatman, J. Laughton, Thomas Allen, and H. D.
It was originally located on Washington Avenue
facing Tenth Street, where the building still stands,
on the grounds of the St. Louis University. The
present building is located on the northeast corner of
Seventh and Myrtle Streets. It is a large, well-con-
structed, and substantial building, which was erected
for the use of the college in 1850 by the late Col. John
O'Fallon. The whole building was remodeled and
renovated some three years ago, and an addition built at
the rear for the chemical laboratory. There are three
lecture-rooms and two dissecting-rooms and a library,
besides the museum and smaller rooms set apart for
the faculty and other uses.
Last year a building was erected upon the adjoin-
ing lot especially for dispensary purposes. On the
first floor area drug-room, waiting-rooms for male and
female patients, consultation-room, and amphitheatre
for clinical lectures. On the second floor are the
rooms for the gynecological clinic of Professor Bois-
li nitre, and those for the dental college, laboratory, and
operating-room. Several thousand patients have been
treated in the year and a half since the dispensary was
The faculty own the buildings, and supply the neces-
sary appliances for teaching and illustration from the
income derived from tuition fees. There is no en-
dowment. The course of study in this school is a
graded one, extending over three years, the first being
devoted to theoretical and demonstrative branches, and
the practical subjects and specialties being taken up
in the second and third years.
The first dean of the faculty was James V. Prather,
M.D., the second was Charles A. Pope, M.D., the
third John T. Hodgen, M.D., and the fourth and
HISTORY OF SAINT LOUIS.
present dean is J. S. B. Alleyne, M.D. The faculty
is composed of the following physicians and surgeons :
A. Litton, M.D., Professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy; J.
B. Johnson, M.D., Professor of the Principles and Practice of
Medicine; E. H. Gregory, M.D., Professor of the Principles and
Practice of Surgery and Clinical Surgery; J. T. Hodgen, M.D., 1
Professor of Surgical Anatomy, Special Fractures and Disloca-
tions, and Clinical Surgery at the City Hospital; J. S. B. Al-
leyne, M.D., Dean. Professor of Therapeutics and Materia I
Medica and Diseases of Children ; E. F. Smith, M.D., Profes- j
sor of Clinical Medicine and Pathological Anatomy; L. Ch.
Boisliniere, M.D., Professor of Obstetrics; G. Baumgarten, M.D.,
Professor of Physiology; H. H. Mudd, M.D., Professor of An-
atomy and Clinical Surgery at the City Hospital : H. H. Mudd,
M.D., Demonstrator of Anatomy; John Green, M.D., Lecturer
on Ophthalmology ; W. L. Barret, M.D., Lecturer on Diseases
of Women; J. M. Scott, M.D., Lecturer on Clinical Medicine;
G. A. Moses, M.D., Lecturer on Clinical Gynecology ; N. B.
Carson, M.D., Assistant to the Chair of Surgery; W. C. Glas-
gow, M.D., Clinical Lecturer on Physical Diagnosis; W. E.
Fischel, M.D., Lecturer on Therapeutics; J. Friedman, M.D.,
Demonstrator on Chemistry; Edward Evers, M.D., Lecturer on
Histology; R. Luedeking, M.D., Lecturer on Pathological An-
atomy ; J. P. Bryson, M.D., Lecturer on Diseases of the Genito-
Urinary Organs; W. A. McCandless, M.D., Frank R. Fry,
M.D., Assistant Demonstrators of Anatomy.
HUMBOLDT INSTITUT ODER DEUTSCHE. This in-
stitution was organized as a German medical college
in 1859. Lectures were delivered regularly, and two
classes were graduated. It was discontinued during
the war, and in 1866 was reorganized as the Hum-
boldt Medical College. The faculty included the
following : Dr. F. J. Bernays, Professor of Chemistry
and Pharmacy ; Dr. G. Bernays, Professor of Materia
Medica and Midwifery ; Dr. D. Goebel, Professor of
Physics and Higher Mathematics ; Dr. A. Hammer.
Professor of Anatomy, Surgery, and Diseases of the
Eye ; Dr. F. M. Hauck, Professor of Physiology ;
Dr. T. C. Hilgard, Professor of Botany, Zoology, and
Comparative Anatomy ; Dr. C. Roesch, Professor of
General and Special Pathology and Therapeutics and
Clinical Medicine; Dr. E. Schmidt, Professor of
Pathological Anatomy, gerichtlichen Medicine, and
The first course of lectures was given during the
winter of 1866-67. The organization of the college
was effected with a view to promoting a higher stan-
dard of medical education. In their prospectus the
faculty announced the purpose of having a longer
term than that of any other medical college in the
country, of arranging a graded course, and of afford-
ing facilities for instruction in the different special-
The faculty at that time consisted of the following
gentlemen : D. Goebel, Ph.D., Professor of Natural
Philosophy; A. Wadgymar, M.D., Professor of Chem-
istry and Botany ; H. S. Leffingwell, M.D., Professor
of General and Descriptive Anatomy; D. V. Dean,
M.D., Professor of Physiology, Histology, and Toxi-
cology ; G. M. B. Maughs, M.D., Professor of Ob-
stetrics and Diseases of Women and Children, and
Acting Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeu-
tics ; I. P. Vaughan, M.D., Professor of Theory and
Practice of Medicine ; A. Hammer, M.D., Professor
of Principles and Practice of Surgery, Ophthalmol-
ogy, and Clinical Surgery, and Acting Professor of
Pathological Anatomy ; Hon. James J. Lindley, Pro-
fessor of Legal Medicine; A. J. Steele, M.D., Pro-
sector and Demonstrator of Anatomy ; Charles Heyer,
Assistant to Chair of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cu-
rator of Museum ; P. J. Lingenfelder, Assistant to
Chair of Clinical Medicine.
The building of the Humboldt College stood and
still stands on the lot directly fronting the City Hos-
pital, extending from Linn to Closey Street, upon the
south side of Soulard Street. It was an admirable
location, and the building was convenient and well
arranged for the purpose.
Lectures were delivered for three successive winters,
but after the close of the session of 1868-69 most of
the members of the faculty resigned, and the college
was given up.
ST. Louis COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SUR-
GEONS. After the abandonment of the Humboldt
Medical College in 1869, an organization was effected
under the name of the College of Physicians and
Surgeons, under the leadership of Professor Louis
Bauer, who had then recently come to St. Louis from
Brooklyn. The faculty consisted of
Louis Bauer, M.D., M.R.C.S., Professor of Surgery ; Mon-
trose A. Fallen, M.D., Professor of Gynecology ; Augustus F.
Barnes, M.D., Professor of Obstetrics; T. F. Prewitt, M.D.,
Professor of Surgical Anatomy and Diseases of the Skin ; J.
K. Bauduy, M.D., Professor of Diseases of the Mind and Ner-
vous System ; John Green, M.D., Professor of Ophthalmology ;
G. Baumgarten, M.D., Professor of General Pathology and
Pathological Anatomy ; I. G. W. Steedman, M.D., Professor
of Clinical Surgery and Diseases of the Genito-Urinary Organs;
W. B. Outten, M.D., Professor of Descriptive Anatomy: A. J.
Steele, M.D., Professor of Military and Minor Surgery, Frac-
tures and Dislocations; F. H. McArdle, M.D., Professor of
Chemistry ; J. M. Leete, M.D., Professor of Physical Diagnosis
and Diseases of the Chest; J. M. Scott, M.D., Professor of
Practice of Medicine ; Charles E. Briggs, M.D., Professor of
Physiology ; William L. Barret, M.D., Professor of Diseases
of Children ; James F. Johnson, M.D., Professor of Materia
Medica and Toxicology ; William T. Mason, LL.B., Professor
of Medical Jurisprudence : A. G. Jackes, M.D., Demonstrator
of Anatomy, and Curator of the Museum.
The second year Dr. Barret withdrew from the
faculty. Dr. Briggs took the Professorship of Dis-
THE MEDICAL PROFESSION.
eases of Children, and LeGrand Atwood, M.D., be-
came Professor of Physiology. In the course of this
second year dissensions sprang up between members
of the faculty, and the scheme was abandoned at the
close of the year. The building in which the two
years' lectures were delivered stands on Locust Street,
between Tenth and Eleventh Streets.
It is believed that the first endeavor in the way of
a " practitioners' course," with reference to which so
much has been said and done within the last few
years, was made in connection with the College of
Physicians and Surgeons. Special courses of lectures
were delivered on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday
evenings at eight o'clock, commencing Monday, Nov.
1, 1869 ; gynecology, Mondays, by Professor Pallen ;
ophthalmology, Wednesdays, by Professor Green ; or-
thopedic surgery, Fridays, by Professor Bauer. Phy-
sicians and advanced students of medicine were cor-
dially invited to attend.
The present St. Louis College of Physicians and
Surgeons 1 was incorporated in 1879 by James 0.
Broadhead, William Hyde, Louis Bauer, M.D.. Isaac
Cook, Gustav Woltman, Charles P. Warner, L. M.
Rumsey, A. A. Millier, Ellis Wainwright, and A. S.
Barnes, M.D., and a faculty was chosen. A building
was procured on the southwest corner of North Market
and Eleventh Streets, which had been previously used
for similar purposes. This was fitted up conveniently,
a dispensary was organized, and material was thus se-
cured for illustration by clinical lectures. The regular
work of the college was commenced in the autumn of
1879, a class of five members being graduated in the
spring of 1880. Each succeeding class has increased
This college demands of its students a certain amount
of knowledge and mental training as preliminary to
admission, and requires a three years' graded course of
The present faculty is composed of
Louis Bauer, M.D., M.R.C.S., Eng., Dean; William B. Haz-
ard, M.D., Secretary and Registrar. General Departments:
Louis Bauer, M.D., M.R.C.S., Eng., Professor of Principles and
Practice of Surgery and Clinical Surgery; Algernon S. Barnes,
M.D., Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women; Robert
M. King, A.M., M.D., Professor of Physiology, Histology, and
Clinical Medicine; William G. Moore, M.D., Professor of Materia
Medica, Therapeutics, and Clinical Medicine; G. Wiley Broome,
M.D., Professor of Anatomy; George AV. Hall, M.D., Professor
of Practice of Medicine and Clinical Professor of Infantile Dis-
eases; Frank L. James, M.D., Professor of Chemistry and
Toxicology. Special Departments: William B. Hazard, M.D.,
Professor of General Pathology and of Nervous and Mental
1 This institution, though having the same name, is entirely
distinct from and independent of that just mentioned, which
still has a legal though not an actual existence.
Diseases; L. H. Laidley, M.D., Professor of the Theory and
Practice of Gynecology; R. A. Vaughan, M.D., Professor of
Diseases of Children, with Clinic; Joseph G. Lodge, Esq., Pro-
fessor of Medical Jurisprudence ; John T. Larew, M.D., Pro-
fessor of Minor Surgery ; A. D. Williams, M.D., Professor of