A certificate of incorporation was granted to these
gentlemen by Judge Lucas, and the association was
incorporated under the name of the St. Louis Cathe-
dral Building Association. Pending the erection of
the new building, however, the venerable edifice of
1834 continues to rear its massive front, and with
the alterations and repairs which were made in 1876
the Cathedral is still a noble and imposing house of
1 The Cathedral was entered by burglars early on the morn-
ing of Aug. 27, 1845, but they only succeeded in securing the
contents of several charity boxes, amounting in all to abou
On the first Sunday of October, 1855, the first Provincial
Council of St. Louis was opened at the Cathedral with imposing
ceremonies. The bishops composing the Council were Arch-
bishop Kenrick, of St. Louis, and Bishops Miles, of Nashville,
O'Regan, of Chicago, Henni, of Milwaukee, Cretin, of Minne-
sota, and Loras, of Dubuque. After the mass, the music being
HISTORY OF SAINT LOUIS.
In 1876 the Cathedral was repaired and the inte-
rior redecorated under the direction of T. W. Brady,
architect. The exterior, with the exception of the
steeple, which underwent extensive improvements,
was left unchanged. The entire interior was painted
and frescoed by George Couch and Charles F. Krue-
ger, gray being the prevailing tint of the background,
relieved by rich but quiet ornamentation. The spaces
between the windows were adorned with .figures (more-
than life-size) of St. Malachi, St. Boniface, St. Pat-
rick, St. Ignatius, St. Francis de Sales, St. Kevin, St.
Lawrence O'Toole, and St. Bridget. The walls of the
sanctuary were likewise adorned with figures of St.
Louis, St. Vincent de Paul, and other saints. The
old paintings, " The Descent from the Cross," and
" St. Louis at his Devotions," which had been familiar
to frequenters of the church for many years, remained
in their accustomed places, and were brought out in
clearer relief by the added freshness and brightness
of their surroundings. The year 1876 being the
centennial year of the foundation of the parish, a
meeting was held at the parochial residence July
llth, and the following resolution was adopted:
" Whereat, Our country is ringing throughout its length and
breadth with the shouts of our citizens for this, the hundredth
anniversary of our political independence; and, whereas, this
year is the hundredth anniversary of the foundation of the
Cathedral parish; therffore be it Resolved, That in this two-
fold centennial we celebrate with all the pomp we can the feast
of our church on August 27th."
rendered by a choir whose leading members were Miss Julia
Pratte, Mrs. Ringling, Miss Maginnis, Dr. Boisliniere, and Mr.
Young, Rev. Father Murphy, vice-provincial of the Society
of Jesus, preached the sermon.
The promoter of the Council was Very Rev. J. Duggan, V. G. ;
notary, Rev. E. Saulnier; secretary, Rev. J. Banino; master
of ceremony, Rev. P. J. Ryan ; theologians of the archbishop
and bishops, Rev. P. Patschouski, Rev. E. Rolando, Rev. Father
Feehan, Rev. P. O'Brien, Rev. P. J. Ryan, Rev. E. Vignonet,
Rev. J. Iligginbotham, Rev. P. de Sinet, Rev. A. Damen,
Rev. P. Larkin, Rev. J. Heis?, Rev. W. Wheeler, Rev. J. Vil-
lars, Rev. P. R. Donelly.
Very Rev. D. Masenou represented the Lazarist religious
congregation ; Very Rev. Father Murphy, the Jesuits ; Rev. Vin-
cent Smyth, the Trappists; Rev. E. Jarboe, the Dominicans;
and Rev. S. A. Paris, the Sisters of St. Joseph.
On the 3d of May, 1857, the Cathedral was the scene of
another imposing ceremony, the consecration of the Right Rev.
James Duggan, Bishop of Antigone iu partibus iiifiJelium,
to be Coadjutor Bishop of Chicago, with right of succession,
and the Right Rev. Clement Smyth, Bishop of Appanasia in
parlilms, to be coadjutor of the Bishop of Dubuque; and again
in Miiy, 1 859, the occasion being the consecration of Right Rev.
Dr. AVhelan as coadjutor to the Bishop of Nashville, and Right
Rev. Dr. O'Gorman as Vicar Apostolic of Nebraska. The cere-
mony was performed by Archbishop Kenri'ck, assisted by
Bishops Miege, of Kansas, and Junker, of Alton. Bishop Smyth,
of Dubuque, preached the sermon. Bishop Duggan, of Chicago,
also participated in the services.
A committee consisting of Rev. David J. Doherty
and John H. O'Neill was appointed at the same meet-
ing for the purpose of preparing from such data as
were procurable an address to the parishioners and
people of St. Louis, which should embody a history
of the Cathedral parish, and which should be pub-
lished in pamphlet form. In accordance with these
instructions the address was prepared and published,
and the centennial services at the Cathedral were
held Aug. 27, 1876. The front of the building was
trimmed with evergreens in honor of the occasion,
and an immense assemblage was attracted to the
scene. Among those present inside the building, to
which entrance was only to be obtained by means of
cards of admission, were Judge Wilson Primm, who
many years before had been leader of the Cathedral
choir, Senator Bogy, Col. J. 0. Broadhead, Hon.
Thomas E. Reynolds, Capt. Thorwegen, John F.
Gibbons, and Col. A. W. Slayback. The altars were
ablaze with light, and the decorations unusually rich
and brilliant. High above the altar, in letters formed
by gas-jets, was the inscription, Gloria in Excekis
Deo. The orchestra opened the services with the
prelude to a mass by Giorza, and the procession of
clergy marched into the sanctuary. It was composed
of three acolytes, twenty-five priests and monks, and
three bishops. The grand high mass was celebrated by
Right Rev. Bishop Ryan, with Very Rev. H. Muehl-
siepen, V. G., as archdeacon of honor; Rev. Joseph
Henry, of St. Lawrence O'Toole's, as deacon; Rev.
j P. L. McEvoy, of St. Kevin's, as sub-deacon ; and
Rev. C. Smith as master of ceremonies.
In the sanctuary were the following clergymen :
Right Rev. Bishop Hennessy, of Dubuque, attended
by Rev. Andrew Eustace, of St. Michael's ; Right
Rev. Bishop Hogan, of St. Joseph, attended by Rev.
William Walsh, of St. Bridget's; Very Rev. P. J.
O'Halloran, V. G., of East St. Louis; Rev. T. M.
Keilty, of the Holy Angels ; Rev. P. P. Brady, of the
Annunciation ; Rev. M. Reilly, of St. Columbkill's ;
Rev. R. Hayes, of St. Lawrence ; Rev. T. Hanlon, of
St. Michael's ; Rev. M. W. Tobyn, pastor of Cathedral
parish; Rev. George Watson, Rev. D. S. Phelan, of
St. Aloysius ; Rev. Father Maurice ; Rev. Fathers
Rosenbauer, Murphy, and Luytelaar, of St.Alphonsus';
Rev. E. Fenlon, of St. Bridget's ; Rev. H. Kelly, of
Cheltenham ; Rev. T. Burke, of St. Vincent's ; Rev.
G. Powers, of St. John's; Rev. M. Brennan, of St.
Malachi's ; Rev. P. Morrissey, of the Annunciation ;
Rev. F. Ward, S.J., College Church ; Rev. Father
Servatius, O.S.F. ; Brother Virgil, of the Christian
The music, under the direction of Professor Campi,
was very fine, the choir being composed of the fol-
lowing : Misses Peake, Pomarede, Overstolz, Whip-
pie, E. Schumacher, B. Schumacher, De Kalb, Mul-
holland, De Campi, and Keller, Mrs. Coester, Mrs.
Kreiter, and Mrs. Johnson, and Messrs. Allman,
Diehm, A. Wiseman, J. Wiseman, Singer, Dierkes,
Schraubstadter, Sexton, Overstolz, and Field.
Just before the delivery of the sermon, Father
Doherty read a statement of the cost of the repairs
to the Cathedral, which had just been completed.
The renovation of the roof and steeple, he said, had
cost $2618, the remodeling and repair of the win-
dows $1100, the renovation and fresco-work in the
interior $2600, making a total of $6318. The amount
already paid on this score, together with the cash still
on hand for that purpose, was $3300, leaving the con-
siderable sum of $3000 still to be raised. It was
this fact which led to the adoption of the plan of
selling seats for the celebration, and it was this which
also determined the finance committee to take up a
collection. They did this, added Father Doherty,
with a full realization of the fact that there were few
St. Louisans, either Catholic or Protestant, who did
not love the very stones of which the old Cathedral
Rev. G. Powers, of St. John's Church, then deliv-
ered the sermon, his text being taken from the twenty-
first chapter of St. John's Apocalypse, in which occur
the words, Ecce tabernaculum Dei cum hominibus,
et h<ili!t<it cum eis (" Behold the tabernacle of God
with men, and He will dwell with them"), inscribed on
the mural slab over the main entrance to the church.
After the sermon the collection referred to by Father
Doherty was taken up.
At the close of the mass the altar was rearranged
and the service of the benediction followed, Bishop
Ryan still officiating. After the benediction the or-
ohrstra and chorus rendered with grand effect Haydn's
" Te Deum Laudamus," with which the exercises
PASTORS OP CATHEDRAL PARISH. On a pre-
vious page we have given the succession of early
pastors a'nd priests who officiated in the Cathedral
parish, but for purposes of reference we recapitulate
List of priests who officiated in St. Louis from the
foundation of the city up to about the time of Bishop
Dubourg's arrival :
Fathers Meurin, from May, 1766, to Feb. 7, 1769; Gibault,
June, 1770, to January, 177-'; Valentin, May, 1772, to June,
1775; Meurin, Oct. 4 and 5, 1776; Hilaire, March 19, 1776;
Bernard, Mny, 1776, to 1789; Ledru, November, 1789, to Sep-
tember, 1793; Didier, December, 1793, to April, 1799 ; Lusson
and Maxwell, July, 1798, to May, 1799; Lusson, March 23,
1799, to March 23,1800; Janin, April 6, 1800, to Nov. 12, 1804;
Maxwell, March 2 to May 29, 1806; Olivier, Sept. 14 and 15,
1806; Flynn, Nov. 9, 1806, to June 2, 1808; Maxwell, June 5
and 8, 1808 ; Guillet, July 20 to Aug. 26, 1808; Dunand, Dec.
23, 1808, to Jan. 18, 1809; Guillet, Dec. 24 to 31, 1809; Ber-
nard, Feb. 6 to July 13, 1810; Maxwell, July 30, 1810; Du-
nand, Aug. 5, 1810; Maxwell, Aug. 12 to 15, 1810; Guillet,
Nov. 2, 1810, to June 23,1811; Dunand, July 30, 1811, to Aug.
2, 1811; Guillet, Aug. 9, 1811, to Dec. 1, 1811; Savigne, Dec.
11, 1811, to Sept. 15, 1812; Dunand, Nov. 10, 1812; Savigne,
Feb. 11,1813; Dunand and Savigne, March 14, 1813; Dunand,
March 17, 1813; Savigne, May 12, 1813, to Oct. 3, 1817.
In January, 1818, there arrived, in company with
Bishop Dubourg, Rev. Fathers De Andreis, Rosatti
(afterwards Bishop of St. Louis), Acqueroni, Ferrari,
and Carretti, and these priests officiated at the Cathe-
dral and labored in the parish. Up to 1826 the fol-
lowing additional clergymen officiated from time to
time at the Cathedral : Fathers Pratte, De Neckere
(afterwards Bishop of New Orleans), Cellini, Saulnier,
Neil, Damen, Titchitoli, and Jean-Jean. During
the administration of Father Rosatti, from 1824
to 1843, many priests officiated at the Cathedral,
among them being Fathers Timon (afterwards Bishop
of Buffalo), Lutz, Loisel, Verhaegen, S.J., Doutre.
i lingue, Paguin (afterwards sent to the mission of
Texas, where he died of yellow fever), Roux, Conda-
mine, Borgua, Lefevre (afterwards Bishop of Detroit),
1 Tucker, St. Cyr (now over seventy-two years of age,
blind, and an inmate of the Convent of St. Joseph,
J in South St. Louis), Fontbonne, Jamison, Fischer,
! Odin (later Archbishop of New Orleans), P. R. Don-
elly, Hamilton, and others.
In 1847 the Cathedral received its crowning honor
by being made a metropolitan church, Bishop Kenrick
being raised to the archiepiscopacy. Under him,
during the earlier days, served Fathers Lutz, Saulnier,
Carroll, Cotter (who was killed while attending a sick
call in Washington County), Paris, and Heim. The
epitaph on the grave of Father Heim in Calvary Cem-
etery tells that he was " The Priest of the Poor."
In 1861 the Redemptorist Fathers arrived in St. Louis
on invitation of the archbishop, and had charge of
the Cathedral until 1868, when they removed to their
own beautiful St. Alphonsus Church.
In addition to those already mentioned who have
: left the Cathedral to become bishops are Fathers
Feehan, Hennessy, Duggan, Hogan, and Ryan.
The first St. Vincent de Paul Society on the banks
j of the Mississippi, and perhaps the first in America,
was organized Nov. 20, 1845, the first meeting being
held in the little school-house on Second Street, at-
tached to the Cathedral, a building afterwards de-
stroyed by the great fire of 1849. The second meet-
ing was held on the 27th of the same month. Among
HISTORY OF SAINT LOUIS.
the first members were Bryan Mullanphy, Father
Heim, Father John O'Neil, John Haverty, John
Everhart, John Ennis, John Dorack, Robert Mitchell,
Joseph O'Neil, Michael O'Keefe, Dr. Linton, Dr.
O'Loughlin, James Maguire, John Byrne, Jr., Dennis
Galvin, John Amend, Francis Saler, and Joseph
Murphy. Prominent among these were the venerable
Father Heim and Judge Mullanphy, who were prac-
tically the founders of the organization. John Hav-
erty and Robert Mitchell also became very active in
the subsequent work of the society.
St. Francis Xavier Church, otherwise known as
the " College Church," was the sixth in the series of
structures erected by the Jesuits in charge of St. Louis
University. It was located on the lot originally given
by Jeremiah Conner to Bishop Rosatti for college
purposes, and made over by the bishop to the Jesuits
in 1828. The corner-stone was laid in the spring of
1840, Rev. G. A. Carrell, afterwards president of the
university, addressing the people from the eastern
balcony of the college, and the building was dedicated
and occupied on Palm Sunday, 1843. It is a sub-
stantial brick structure, Romanesque in style, with
sixty -seven feet front on Ninth Street by one hundred
and twenty-seven feet on Christy Avenue, extending
back to the eastern end of the old college building.
It has a large basement, in which the parochial school
was conducted until its removal, in 1846, to a house
built expressly for it. On the 19th of May, 1851,
the church was transferred by the vice-provincial of
the Society of Jesus in Missouri to the control of
the St. Louis University, which assumed an uncan-
celed debt on the building of thirty-eight thousand
seven hundred and fifty dollars. The church has a
seating capacity of three thousand, and is often filled
to its utmost capacity, people from all parts of the city
making up the congregations. The interior is impo-
sing and richly decorated, and its walls are hung with
paintings, many of which are considered to be of great
value. Among the interesting incidents connected
with the history of this church were the consecration,
Feb. 11, 1849, of Father J. Van de Velde, Bishop of
Chicago, on which occasion the officiating clergy were
Archbishop Kenrick, Bishop Loras, of Dubuque ;
Bishop Mills, of Nashville ; and Bishop De St. Palais,
of Vincennes, and the consecration, March 25, 1851,
of Father Meige, Bishop of Kansas. At the latter
ceremony Archbishop Kenrick and the Bishops of
Vincennes and Chicago officiated.
The services in commemoration of the Golden Ju-
bilee of the university on the 26th of June, 1879,
were also conspicuous among the imposing ceremonies
which have been held from time to time in this church.
The rectors or presidents of the university have
always been ex officio pastors of the church. They
have had for assistants, since 1843, Fathers George A.
Carrell (afterwards Bishop of Covington,Ky.), Arnold
Damen, Cornelius F. Smarius, 1 John O'Neil, Michael
Corbett, Edward Higgins, Patrick J. Ward, the pres-
ent assistant pastor. The principal societies connected
with the church are the Young Men's, St. Joseph's,
Young Ladies', and St. Anne's Sodalities. There are
two Sunday-schools, attended, in the aggregate, by
twenty-eight teachers and eight hundred scholars.
THE YOUNG MEN'S SODALITY was instituted by
Rev. Arnold Damen, S. J.. in 1846. under the protec-
tion of the Virgin. The first sodality, after which
all the others are patterned, was organized in Rome in
1563, by Father John Leonius, S.J., then a teacher
in the Roman College. It consisted at first of youths,
who were placed under the special protection of the
Blessed Virgin, but it found favor with Pope Gregory
XIII., who by an encyclical letter in 1584 gave it the
papal sanction, and commended its example to the
Catholic world, vesting powers of direction and indul-
gences in the Jesuits who should establish branches.
From this beginning sodalities have been organized
wherever the Society of Jesus has colleges or churches,
while the mother or Roman Sodality has numbered
in its membership popes, cardinals, bishops, priests,
and saints, as well as temporal princes, magistrates,
and distinguished men in every class of society. The
sodality attached to St. Francis Xavier's Church has
for its object the promotion of sociability and broth-
erly love, and the practice of virtuous principles among
its members. It meets every Sunday morning at a
quarter past nine, except on the last Sunday in the
1 Father Cornelius F. Smarius was born on the 3d of March,
1823, in Tilburg, province of North Brabant, Holland. When
yet a child hi* parents died, and his education was undertaken
by his relative?, who at the proper time placed him in the
smaller seminary of St. Michael's, Gestel, where he pursued hit
classical studies with zeal and industry. He early gave token
of his wonderful oratorical powers, which appear to have been
hereditary, his father having been an eminent speaker. The
young student was even more distinguished for his piety and
missionary zeal than for his genius. He was at the head of
every pious association, and often gathered his fellow-students
around him and exhorted them to the practice of virtue.
Having completed his classical studies, he came to this country
in 1841 to devote his life to missionary labor. After the cus-
tomary trials of the Jesuit novitiate, he filled the office of a col-
lege professor in Cincinnati, and at the St. Louis University.
Between these duties and the completion of the longer course
of studies usually performed by the Jesuits he spent his time
up to 1858, when he was made pastor of St. Xavier's (College)
Church. In 1860 he was sent to the missionary house of the
Society of Jesus at Chicago, and died on the 1st of March,
month, when it meets at seven o'clock and proceeds in
a body to St. Xavier's Church to partake of the
Communion. Frequent social gatherings are held at
stated times. Sodality Hall, on the southeast corner
of Ninth Street and Christy Avenue, was erected by
St. Louis University in 1855, and besides rooms for
meetings, contains a library of two thousand volumes
and a reading-room supplied with local and Catholic
periodicals. In 1880 a new class of members, known
as the Veteran Corps, was organized within the sodal-
ity, its object being to recall such of its earlier mem-
bers as had withdrawn from active fellowship. Fif-
teen years' membership constitutes eligibility to the
corps, and it has now about two hundred names on its
roll. The total present active and honorary member-
ship of the sodality numbers six hundred and thirty-
four, and its officers are a spiritual director, prefects
(first and second), secretary, treasurer, librarian,
and twelve consultors, all of whom form the council
of the sodality.
ST. JOSEPH'S SODALITY, for married men, was or-
ganized by Father O'Neil about fifteen years ago.
It meets in Sodality Hall at two o'clock on Sunday
THE YOUNG LADIES' SODALITY of the Blessed
Virgin Mary was organized by Rev. A. Damen, S. J.,
Aug. 15, 1848, with twenty-eight members. Since
then fifteen hundred names have been enrolled, and
the present active membership numbers five hundred.
On the first Sunday of every month the members
approach the Holy Communion in a body, their average
attendance being three hundred and fifty. On other
Sundays they meet to recite the offices of the Blessed
Virgin Mary, with an average attendance of three
hundred. The sodality occupies one story of Sodal-
ity Hall, and possesses a fine library of over eighteen
hundred volumes. It also has a burial lot in Calvary
Cemetery. A Mutual Benevolent Association, which
is very flourishing and productive of great good, is
sustained by its members. Rev. F. J. Boudreaux is
the present director.
ST. ANNE'S SODALITY for married women was
organized under the title of the Immaculate Concep-
tion Sodality, Dec. 8, 1875, by Rev. P. J. Ward, S.J.,
who was chosen at the time, and has since remained
its spiritual director. St. Anne was selected as sec-
ondary patron, hence the name afterwards adopted.
The officers at first consisted of prefect, first and sec-
ond assistants, secretary,, sacristan, treasurer, and
twelve consultors ; but the growth of the sodality
rendering others necessary, there are now in addition
to the above three assistant secretaries, an assistant
sacristan, assistant treasurer, two medal-bearers, and
six regulators. These officers are elected by the vote
of the whole sodality at the annual meeting in April.
The regular meeting takes place every Sunday after-
noon (except the third Sunday) for reciting the offices
of the Blessed Virgin and instruction. On every
third Sunday the sodality attends the Holy Commu-
nion. An annual retreat of one week is also given, and
all who attend it are admitted to membership, dis-
pensing with the three months' probation usually
required of postulants. The retreat is closed by mass
and Communion, followed by the act of consecration
for postulates, and its renewal for old members, with
closing instruction and benediction. High masses of
requiem for deceased members are said both during
retreat and as soon as possible after the death of any
member. The average monthly number of commu-
nicants during the past year has been three hundred
and five. The sodality began in 1875 with ninety-
six members, and on the 1st of January, 1882, num-
bered five hundred and sixty-five members. Several,
however, have since been dropped for non-attendance,
leaving the actual membership four hundred and fifty.
Since the beginning there have been twenty-seven
St. Joseph's Church., at the northeast corner of
Eleventh and Biddle Streets, Rev. Lambert Etten,
S.J., pastor, was established for the use of German
Catholics by the members of the Society of Jesus
attached to the St. Louis University. The congrega-
tion first met for worship in 1840, in St. Aloysius
Chapel, on the grounds of the university on Washing-
ton Avenue, and when St. Francis Xavier Church
was finished this chapel was given up to them. The
ground for St. Joseph's Church was given by Mrs.
Ann Biddle, and work was begun March 1, 1844.
The corner-stone was laid in April, 1844, and the
building, which was eighty by one hundred and
twenty feet, was finished and dedicated Aug. 2, 1846.
The building was in the Ionic style of architecture,
and was surmounted by a spire one hundred and fifty
feet in height. The interior was divided into a nave
and two aisles, and was finished after the Corinthian
order. George Purves was the architect. The parish
grew very rapidly, and under the pastorate of Father
Weber, S.J., the church was greatly enlarged and
improved. The corner-stone of a new building was
laid in the latter part of June, 1865, and the com-
pleted structure was dedicated Dec. 30, 1866. In
1880 the present front with the steeples was added,
making the dimensions of the whole edifice one hun-
dred and twelve by one hundred and eighty feet. As
it now stands, with its massive proportions and lofty
towers, it is one of the most spacious and imposing
HISTORY OF SAINT LOUIS.
church edifices in the country. It will seat two thou-
sand six hundred persons, but as many as four thou-
sand five hundred have been contained within its
walls. The exterior is in the Romanesque style of
architecture, and the interior is magnificently deco-
rated, the grand altar having cost ten thousand dollars.
In the semi-dome are five panels, each of which con-
tains colossal figures in natural colors, representing
the Virgin Mary, SS. Ann and Joachim, Abraham
and David, surrounded by appropriate emblems.
These are again crowned by another composition, as
is seen through the eye of the first dome, representing
the Holy Trinity. The diffused light produced by
mechanical combinations reflected on these figures
has a magnificent effect.
The nave is separated from the aisles by a range