trainer of the race-horse "St. Louis;" Thomas Moore,
Benjamin Ames, proprietor of the track ; James Bissell,
Benjamin Payne, the importer of '' Altorf;" Charles
Keemle, of the Reveille; Gen. Bernard Pratte, Charles
L. Hunt, Archibald and William C. Taylor, Matthew
Shaffner, Robert O'Blenis, George Marshall, Dr.
William Hammond, U.S.A., Maj. R. E. Lee, U.S.A.,
Thornton Grimsley, B. W. Alexander, Gen. Ruland,
Basil Duke, Walter Dorset, Thomas J. Payne, Fer-
dinand Kennett, Charles Gilpin, Clay Taylor, Leon-
idas Walker, Col. Samuel B. Churchill, Howard
Christy, Judge Wash, Uriel Wright, Church Black-
burn, Judge James B. Bowlin, and Gen. William
A track was laid out in an inclosure of eighty acres,
three miles from St. Louis, on the macadamized road
to Manchester, and bounded on the south by the Pa-
cific Railroad. The races on this track commenced
on the 8th of October, 1848.
The present St. Louis Jockey Club Company was
organized in 1877, with a capital stock of fifty thou-
sand dollars, the charter having been granted on the
27th of August of that year. The incorporators were
John M. Harney, H. L. Dousman, J. B. McCul-
lough, Julius S. Walsh, William Patrick, Edwin
Harrison, Ellis Wainwright, C. B. Greeley, and
Samuel Ecker. About forty-five thousand dollars of
the stock was promptly subscribed, and the ground
afterwards known as the Cote Brilliante track was
purchased and adapted to the purposes of racing, at
a cost of seventy thousand dollars. The track was
opened to the public on the 4th of June, 1877.
Trotting races were given at intervals, but did not
prove financially successful, the St. Louis public pre-
ferring the running contests. The company was re-
organized in February, 1880, and another charter
was granted in February, 1882. The club is one of
the leading turf organizations of the country, and has
done much to elevate the standard of racing in the
West. Its membership comprises many representa-
tive citizens of St. Louis, and the association is now
in a flourishing condition.
Its rooms are located at No. 18 South Fifth
Street, and the track is situated on Lucas and Hunt's
addition to Cote Brilliante, bounded on the north by
the St. Charles Rock road, on the south by Page
i Avenue, on the west by Union Avenue, and on the
! east by King's Highway. The grounds are within
the city limits, about four and one-half miles west of
the court-house. The race-track is a full mile in cir-
cumference, and is said to be very fast. The grand
stand is capable of seating six thousand persons. The
stables are located both inside and outside of the in-
closure, and contain stalls for the accommodation of
two hundred horses. The grounds and surroundings
are very handsome, and are said to surpass any racing
grounds in the country. Annual meetings are held,
lasting from seven to eight days, in June.
The officers of the association are
John M. Harney, president; H. L. Dousman and J. B. Mc-
Cullough, vice-presidents; Ellis Wainwright, treasurer; and
Lewis A. Clarke, secretary; Directors, John M. Harney, J. B.
McCullough, H. L. Dousman, Julius S. Walsh, William Pat-
rick, Edwin Harrison, Ellis Wainwright, C. B. Greeley, and
; Samuel Ecker.
The Harmonic Club is an association of Hebrews,
; organized in 1857 for the promotion of social inter-
course. Among the founders and promoters were M.
Hellman, Julius Klyman, B. Singer, and L. Hell-
mann. The original membership numbered about
twenty-five, but it comprised the leading men of the
race then living in the city, and the club has always
been a representative Hebrew society. M. Hellman
was the first president, and his successors were L.
Hellmann, L. Steinberger, A. Langsdorf, August
HISTORY OF SAINT LOUIS.
Frank, and Nathan Frank. August Frank was pres-
ident the longest period, six years.
For fifteen years the club had rooms on Market
Street, between Fourth and Fifth, and for ten years
it has occupied quarters on Fourth Street, between
Plum and Myrtle ; but lately the desire for a more
central location has led to the purchase of a lot, eighty
by one hundred and thirty-five feet on the northeast
corner of Eighteenth and Olive Streets, and the club
is now erecting a building which is designed, when
completed, to be one of the finest structures of the
sort in the country outside of New York. It will be
a three-story pressed -brick building, with stone cap-
pings, will cost nearly fifty thousand dollars, and is
intended to be an architectural ornament to the city
and a monument of the enterprise and taste of the
Hebrews of St. Louis.
The present membership of the club numbers about
one hundred and ten. The officers are
President, Nathan Frank; Vice- President, A. Langsdorf;
Secretary, M. Linz ; Treasurer, J. Meyberg; Directors, J. L.
Singer, S. Meyer, W. Hernstien, M. Kahn, M. Michels, J.
Frank, H. Binswanger.
The Concordia Club. When the Harmonic Club
selected its new location in Western St. Louis, it was
seen that the change would inconvenience many of the
members living in the southern part of the city ; con-
sequently in the spring of 1882 a number of its mem-
bers seceded, and on the 26th of May the Concordia
Club was organized with some thirty members and
the following officers :
President, Leopold Steinberger; Vice-President, Albert
Frankenthal ; Secretary, Samuel Steiner ; Treasurer, L. E.
Green ; Directors, Dr. M. Spitz, Frank Block, M. H. Holzman,
S. A. River, R. Weil.
The University Club. In January, 1872, some
twenty college-bred men met and organized " The
University Club." Among the incorporators were
Thomas C. Reynolds, James S. Garland, Charles
Branch. Edward Wyman, John W. Noble, S. Water-
house, Charles H. Goodman, C. C. Whittlesey, Alex-
ander Martin, J. S. Fullerton, Thomas Davidson,
Charles A. Todd, John A. Dillon, E. H. Carvier,
Frank J. Donovan, D. J. Snider, and George S.
The articles of association declare the purpose of
the society to be " to promote literature, science, and
art, and secure a closer union and co-operation of col-
lege and university men and graduates, with a view
to a broader and higher culture," etc. At first the
idea of a large club, with those concomitants which
the word " club" implies, was not suggested, but the
organization prospered to such an extent that a build-
ing was soon felt to be an imperative necessity. In
like manner it was found expedient to abolish the
restriction making a collegiate education the test of
membership. Still the club, while becoming more of
a social institution than was perhaps contemplated,
has always been under the control of former collegians,
and has preserved the traditions of its early life in
the high character of its members. It now em-
braces in its membership the leading professional
and business men of the city. The first officers
were : President, Hon. Thomas Allen ; Vic^-Presi-
dents, Thomas C. Reynolds, Albert Todd, Samuel
Treat, Dr. M. M. Fallen, Dr. J. B. Johnson, Lewis
B. Parsons ; Secretary, James S. Garland ; Treas-
urer, M. Dwight Collier ; Directors, Edward Wy-
man, Charles H. Goodman, Charles Branch, Newton
Crane, Thomas Davidson, J. S. Fullerton, E. T.
Merrick, John W. Noble, Sylvester Waterhouse.
Of the above officers, the Hon. Thomas Allen
served continuously as president until his death at
Washington, March, 1882, while a member of Con-
gress, and Mr. Garland has been secretary for the
whole period, one year excepted.
For three years the club occupied quarters at 911
Olive Street. It then removed to 1125 Washington
Avenue, where it has had a well-arranged, well-
furnished, and very commodious building. For two
or three years past there has been a growing feeling
that the club was too far " out of town" for the con-
venience of the members, and during the winter of
1881-82 these views formally prevailed, and quarters
are being prepared in the large building on the north-
east corner of Fifth and Olive Streets, on a scale
commensurate with the standing and means of the
At the annual meeting in January, 1882, Prof.
M. S. Snow, secretary of the board of directors, gave
an interesting sketch of the history of the club. The
beginnings were modest, ten dollars initiation fee and
ten dollars yearly dues disclose the unambitious char-
acter of the society. Few of the members had any
idea of the nature and functions of a club. But in
spite of various drawbacks and the constant raising of
the fees and dues until they are now about one hun-
dred dollars a year, the active and useful membership
has constantly increased, and now numbers about
three hundred and fifty, with applications constantly
The present officers of the University Club are
President, Samuel M. Breckinridge; Vice-Presidents, William
II. Pulsifer, Charles Speck, Marshall S. Snow, Heber Liver-
more, Allan B. Pendleton, Arthur Lee; Secretary, James S.
Garland ; Treasurer, Huntington Smith ; Directors, Estill Me-
RELIGIOUS, BENEVOLENT, SOCIAL, SECRET, AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS. 1819
Henry, John 0. F. Delaney, N. S. Chouteau, II. S. Brookings,
Joseph S. Fullerton, S. E. Hoffman, D. F. Colville, Newton
Crane, Henry S. Potter.
St. Louis Commercial Club. This club was or-
ganized in October, 1880, and was modeled after the
Boston Commercial Club, which was the first of its
class. Its objects are purely social, the design being
to cultivate a feeling of fraternity among all classes of
business men, and, by affiliating with similar clubs
elsewhere, to promote a feeling of fellowship among
the business men of widely-separated sections. The
membership is limited to sixty persons, who em-
brace the representative men of St. Louis in the
various departments of trade and manufactures, and
meetings are held monthly, at which, with a banquet,
are discussed matters pertaining to the commercial
advancement of the city. In October, 1882, the
club entertained the Commercial Clubs of Boston,
Chicago, and Cincinnati. The following have been
the officers of the club from its foundation :
President, Gerard B. Allen ; Vice- President, E. 0. Stanard;
Treasurer, Joseph Franklin ; Secretary, Newton Crane ; Execu-
tive Committee, Edwin Harrison, E. C. Simmons, S. M. Dodd.
Germania Association. The Germania Associa-
tion was chartered Feb. 16, 1865, by special act of
the Legislature, the incorporators being James Taus-
sig, Charles F. Meyer, Charles Euslin, Julius Con-
rad, Louis Holm, Charles F. Eggers, William D'Oench,
J. F. Zisemann, William Hunicke, August Waldauer,
Charles Balmer, Ignatius A. Day, and Moritz H.
Lemcke. The first directors were Julius Conrad, C.
F. Meyer, Felix Coste, Charles De Greek, William
D'Oench, John L. Fiala, Louis Holm, William J.
Romyn, F. W. Rosenthal, James Taussig, and J. F.
Zisemann. The first officers were : President, Charles
F. Meyer ; Vice-President, Louis Holm ; Secretary,
Charles De Greek ; Treasurer, William Hunicke.
Mr. Meyer has been president uninterruptedly up
to the present time, and there have been few changes
in the rest of the officers, who are now as follows :
President, Charles F. Meyer; Vice-President, Julius Conrad ;
Secretary, Rudolph Fritsch ; Treasurer, E. C. Priber.
In 1865-66 the association built a club-house at
the corner of Eighth and Gratiot Street, and furnished
it elegantly at a total cost, for building, grounds, etc.,
of SI 10, 000. The association has always embraced
the leading Germans of the city, and in intelligence
and refinement has always been recognized as a repre-
sentative German institution. Its objects are social
recreation and esthetic and scientific culture, and these
are prosecuted by singing, lectures, dramatic enter-
tainments, dancing, games, etc. In order more satis-
factorily to accomplish these objects the association in
1881 was remodeled, the old organization retaining
its corporate existence and ownership of the hall, and
the new, the Germania Club and Association (Gesell-
schaft}, having charge of the social and educational
features. The result was immediately seen in a very
large increase of membership. There are now about
four hundred and twenty members. The officers of
the club and association are
President, Charles Speck ; Secretary, E. C. Priber ; Treasurer,
B. T. Eisenhardt; Directors, R. Schulenburg, E. D. Meier, E.
C. Priber, Charles Nagel, Dr. Frerichs, I. G. Kappner, Charles
Schmieding, L. Methudy, N. Eisenhardt, C. R. Fritsch, R.
D'Oench, and W. D. Orthwein.
The Mercantile Club. During 1881 it began to
be apparent that the existing club-houses were not
situated at points convenient for the numerous busi-
ness men who might otherwise be disposed to patron-
ize their facilities, and a " down-town" club was
advocated. With this in view the Mercantile Club
was organized, the incorporators being A. G. Peterson,
T. B. Boyd, C. M. Adams, W. B. Dean, D. M.
Houser, William McMillan, W. H. Gardner, Melville
Sawyer, 0. L. Brigham, S. G. Scarritt. George T.
Parker, George B. Thomson, Charles A. Fowle,
E. Hayden, A. A. Paton, S. M. Kennard, Jr., J. R.
Holmes, and I. R. Trask, well-known and enterprising
business men of the city. The officers were
President, Edwin Hayden ; Vice-President, George B. Thomp-
son; Secretary, S. G. Scarritt; Treasurer, A. G. Peterson; Di-
rectors, Edwin Hayden, G. B. Thompson, S. G. Scarritt, T. B.
Boyd, S. M. Kennard, William McMillan, C. M. Adams, M.
Sawyer, A. G. Peterson.
During the succeeding winter the club secured
quarters in the " Sumner Building," on Locust Street,
between Seventh and Eighth Streets, and after ex-
pending about eighteen thousand dollars in remodeling
the edifice and furnishing it, held an informal " open-
ing" on the evening of May 12, 1882. The rooms
embrace gentlemen's and ladies' parlors, dining-rooms,
reading-rooms, a billiard hall, etc., and are decorated
and furnished in the most elegant and attractive man-
ner. A novel feature of the club is the admission of
the wives of members to its privileges, a departure
from the ordinary usage of clubs that has already be-
come very popular. Although scarcely six months
had elapsed from the organization of the club to the
opening of the house, the membership limitation to
four hundred residents of St. Louis had been reached, .
a rapidity of growth that has seldom, if ever, been
equaled in the history of similar organizations. The
officers for 1882-83 are-
President, S. M. Kennard ; Vice-President, George B. Thomp-
son : Secretary, S. G. Soarritt; Treasurer, William McMillan;
Directors, S. M. Kennard, G. B. Thompson, S. G. Scarritt, Wil-
HISTORY OF SAINT LOUIS.
liam McMillan, Ewing Hill, W. C. Steigers, E. S. AVarner, A.
G. Peterson, I. R. Trask.
St. Louis Club. In 1878 some enterprising young
business men of St. Louis conceived the idea of estab-
lishing another club, and in the fall of that year or-
ganized the St. Louis Club. The first officers were
as follows: President, George H. Rae; Vice-Presi-
dent, Gen. John \V. Noble ; Secretary, A. B. Chever;
Treasurer, Thomas A. Stoddard. The club secured
as its quarters the " old Finney mansion," at 1532
Washington Avenue, and fitted up one of the finest
club-houses in the country, the building being spa-
cious and conveniently arranged, and the grounds
roomy and attractive. The appointments of the house
were and continue to be of the most elaborate and
elegant character. The establishment was opened
Sept. 23, 1879, with a public reception and an ad-
dress by the Hon. J. W. Noble. The subsequent
career of the club has been prosperous, and the mem-
bership numbers over three hundred. The present
officers are as follows :
President, John T. Davis ; Vice-President, E. C. Simmons ;
Secretary, E. S. Scranton; Treasurer, A. B. Thompson; Di-
rectors, John T. Davis, E. C. Simmons, Joseph Franklin, Geo.
B. Hopkins, Dwight Tredway, Daniel Catlin, G. J. Plant.
Spanish-American Club. El Club Comercial
Hispano- Americano was organized in February, 1882,
the inspiring mind being John F. Cahill, editor of El
Comercio del Valle, the Spanish-American paper.
Mr. Cahill was the first president, but soon resigned.
The officers of the club for 1882 are
President, Thomas Howard ; Secretary, J. L. Corrigan ;
Treasurer, E. C. Smith ; Executive Committee, Pedro Leon,
Frank Trayer, Richard Smith, Emilio Guignon, E. R. Quarles.
The objects of the club are the promotion of good-
fellowship and sociability among those interested in the
trade with Mexico, Central America, and other Span-
ish-speaking countries of America, and to encourage
intercourse with those lands in every legitimate way.
The Century Club is the principal literary associa-
tion of St. Louis. Among the prominent members are
Hon. Henry L. Rogers, Mrs. Virginia L. Minor, J.
R. Meeker, W. G. Eliot, D.D., Albert Todd, A. C.
Bernays, M.D., Mrs. E. P. Johnson, Louis C. Haynes,
Professor E. L. McDowell, J. C. Learned, D.D., Mrs.
N. E. A. Rogers, C. W. Stevens, M.D., Miss Fannie
Isabella Sherrick, D. "W. Blount, M.D., and Francis
Minor. The executive officers for the season of
1882-83 are F. F. Hilder, president ;' Miss Ida E.
Dyer, vice-president ; Hannibal Loevy, treasurer ; and
E. W. Banister, secretary. The board of directors is
composed of these officers, and Misses Thekla M.
Bernays and Mary E. Thorn, and Messrs. C. M.
Whitney, George W. Lewis, George C. Hackstaff, F.
E. Cook, J. M. Jordan, D. F. Hulburt, and F. W.
Ruckstuhl. The direct management of the club is en-
trusted to the programme committee, which consists "of
Hannibal Loevy, chairman, in charge of essays and
readings, and Miss Julia F. Lynch and F. W. Ruck-
stuhl, in charge of music. Among those who have
| delivered essays before the club are Hon. Henry L.
Rogers, Hon. C. M. Whitney, Rev. John Snyder,
Mrs. Virginia L. Minor, Professor John H. Tice,
Rev. S. H. Sonneschein, J. M. Jordan, Rev. W. W.
Boyd, Rev. P. G. Robert, Mrs. E. P. Johnson, Pro-
fessor Denton J. Snider, Hon. Nathaniel Holmes,
Professor H. H. Morgan, Rev. C. E. Felton, Pro-
fessor B. B. Minor, F. E. Cook, Rev. M. W. Willis,
J. R. Meeker, Francis Minor, James Richardson, Dr.
I Charles 0. Curtman, F. F. Hilder, Hon. A. W. Alex-
ander, and Professor C. M. Woodward.
Deaf Mute Club. In the summer of 1882 the
Deaf Mute Social Club was organized, with D. A.
Simpson, president; W. E. Guss, vice-president; J.
J. Smith, secretary ; A. H. Kohinetz, treasurer ; J.
H. Wolf, sergeant-at-arms. Its rooms are located at
420 Market Street.
PROMINENT EVENTS MOBS AND RIOTS DUELS-
MILITARY THE TOWNS OF CARONDELET, HER-
CULANEUM, AND EAST ST. LOUIS.
IN September, 1806, St. Louis was excited by the
return of Lewis and Clark, who had traced the Mis-
souri to its source, passed through a defile of the
Rocky Mountains, and followed the Columbia to the
Pacific Ocean. They had been absent two years and
a half, and their arrival at St. Louis, on their return
to Washington, was an important event. The Indian
chiefs who accompanied them were fe'ted by the chief
inhabitants of the city, and so well were Lewis and
Clark pleased with the people that they both became
residents of St. Louis, and filled high public offices.
The first execution that ever took place in the Ter-
ritory of Louisiana was on Sept. 16, 1808, when a
young man. was hung for the murder of his stepfather.
At that time hanging was very simple. Two posts
were planted a short distance apart, with a fork at the
uppermost ends, and on the forks a stout beam rested,
over which was swung a rope. The convict was
driven to the gallows in a cart, seated in a chair, upon
which he stood when the rope was adjusted to his
neck. When all was ready the cart was driven away,
and the condemned was left to die by strangulation.
In the Missouri Gazette mention is made of a
Fourth of July celebration at St. Charles in 1808.
Timothy Kirby was president of the day, and Francis
Saucier vice-president. In the following year (1809)
a similar celebration was held at Harrisonville, St.
Clair Co., at the house of Capt. Tabor Washburn.
Shadrack Bond presided, and Abijah Ward was vice-
president. Peter Darling and other citizens fired a
salute at daybreak, and at one o'clock u Mr. Murphy
sang a hymn and delivered an appropriate prayer,"
after which Jacob Boyes made an address. A dinner
followed with seventeen regular toasts and " a number
of volunteer sentiments, beginning with the ladies."
Among the latter who were toasted were Mrs. Mc-
Clure, Miss Jane McClure, Mrs. Coats, and Mrs.
Blair. Jabez Warner, afterwards constable of St.
Louis, was at this celebration. He lost an arm (pre-
sumably by an explosion) on a similar occasion. At
St. Louis, in the same year, the Fourth of July was
celebrated by a dinner given by Capt. Webster in
Lee's orchard (block No. 37), and a ball at night in
the Masons Hall.
1810. The Fourth of July was observed with a
dinner at Maj. Christy's tavern. On Monday, the
24th of September, a public dinner was given by the
citizens of St. Louis to Governor Howard. There
was a ball in the evening at the Assembly Room.
1811. Fourth of July dinner at Christy's tavern,
Governor Howard presiding. August 3d, William
H. Ashley's presence in Ste. Genevieve is mentioned.
On the 19th of September announcement was made
of the reappointment of Gen. William Clark as brig-
adier-general of the Territorial militia.
On the 14th of December mention is made of the
arrival in St. Louis of " Governor Howard and lady
in good health." On the following Monday, Decem-
ber 16th, St. Louis and the surrounding country were
visited by a violent earthquake. The first shock was
felt about 2.30 A.M., and lasted about one and three-
fourths minutes. Windows, doors, and furniture were
in tremulous motion, and there was a distant rumbling
noise resembling that made by "a number of carriages
passing over a pavement." The sky was obscured by
a thick fog, and there was not a breath of air. The
temperature was about thirty-five or forty degrees
Fahrenheit. At 2.47 A.M. another shock occurred,
unaccompanied by any rumbling noise and much less
violent than the first. It lasted about two minutes.
At 3.34 A.M. a third shock, nearly as violent as the
first, but without as much noise, was felt. It lasted
about fifty seconds, and a slight trembling continued
for some time afterwards. There was a fourth shock
shortly after daylight, less violent than any of the
others, and lasting nearly one minute, and about eight
o'clock there was a fifth shock, almost as violent as
the first. It was accompanied by the usual noise, and
lasted about half a minute. The morning was very
hazy, and unusually warm for the season. " The
houses and fences were covered with a white froth,
but on examination it was found to be vapor, not pos-
sessing the chilling cold of frost. Indeed, the moon
was enshrouded in awful gloom." At 11.30 A.M.
another slight shock was observed, and about the
same hour on the following day " a smart shock" oc-
curred. No lives were lost, and the houses did not
sustain much injury. A few chimneys were thrown
down and a few stone houses split. The earthquake
appears to have covered an extensive area in South-
east Missouri, " seaming the face of the country with
yawning gulfs and submerging it with new lakes."
The destruction was especially severe at New Madrid.
There was a volcanic eruption, and gulfs or fissures
from four to ten feet deep, and running north and
south parallel with one another, were opened for
miles, in some instances for five of them. Oa the
night of Jan. 7, 1812, there was another earthquake,
which inflicted much greater damage. Until the 17th
of February slight shocks were felt from time to time.
On the 17th occurred another terrible convulsion,
which exceeded in fury all the previous ones. Gulfs
and fissures broader and deeper were opened, "until
high land was sunk into hollows, hollows made high
land," lakes emptied into the fissures, and where there
had previously been dry land " broad, sheeted lakes"
created. The residents were panic-stricken, and,
abandoning nearly all their cattle and household
property, fled from the scene of desolation. " Wreck-
ers" flocked to the deserted town and surrounding
country, and carrying off the abandoned property in
flat-boats, conveyed it to Natchez and New Orleans
and sold it. The extent of country visited by the
earthquake embraced a circumference of about one
hundred and fifty miles, taking the Indian town of
Little Prairie, near Carruthersville, as the centre.