TRIES, IN TONS.
Books and printed mutter
China and earthenware
Iron (railroad bars)
" t( metals
" " wool
By rail eastward
By river to New Orleans
The shipments by river for 1881 include, in addition to the
articles in table of shipments by river on through bills of lading,
12,801,124 bushels of grain shipped via New Orleans not on
through bills of lading.
SHIPMENTS OF BULK GRAIN BY KIVER FROM ST. LOUIS
TO NEW ORLEANS FOR TWELVE YEARS FOR EXPORT.
\ ' l t ( ):j ')47
1 114 Mi.S
1 ,876 639
5 4-il tit^J
1 35 9(il
6L ! ,000
BARGE COMPANIES AND CAPACITY IN 1SS1.
ii * =
St. Louis and Mississippi Valley
American Transportation C
Mound City Trunsportati
STATEMENT OF BULK GRAIN EXPORTED FROM NEW
2 042 01 3
1 256 364
835 99 1
7 555 829
Total bushels 1880
9 596 956
ARRIVALS AND DEPARTURES OF STEAMBOATS AND
Cumberland and Ten-
Tons of Freight Re-
232; 88,:" 90
THE most cursory glance at the map of the United
States will satisfy any one that St. Louis is the point
at which the greater part of the vast internal com-
merce of the country passes, whether going from the
Atlantic to the Pacific, or from the frozen regions to
the torrid zone. From the founding of the city, the
great river system of the Mississippi valley, as we have
seen, has been tributary to her wealth and pros-
perity ; and when the era of railroads came with its
rapidity of movement, to satisfy that restless spirit
which characterizes the American, she was among the
first of the cities to recognize the impending change
in commercial transportation, and to take the neces-
sary steps to guard her interests and promote her
The first movement in this direction was the action
of a large number of the enterprising citizens of St.
Louis, calling upon the several counties of the State
to send delegates to an " Internal Improvement Con-
vention" which was to assemble in that city on the
20th of April, 1835. At the time appointed the con-
vention met at the court-house and organized by the
selection of Dr. Samuel Merry as chairman, and G.
K. McGunnegle as secretary. The roll of the con-
vention being called, the following delegates were found
to be present :
St. Louis County. Edward Tracy, Maj. J. B. Brant, Col. John
O'Fallon, Dr. Samuel Merry, Archibald Gamble, M. L. Clark,
Col. Joseph C. Laveille, Thornton Grimsley, II. S. Geyer, Col.
Henry Walton, Lewellyn Brown, Henry Von Phul, George K.
McGunnegle, Col. B. W. Ayres, Pierre Chouteau, Jr., and
Hamilton R. Gamble.
Lincoln County. Col. David Bailey, Hans Smith, Emanuel
Block, Benjamin W. Dudley, and Dr. Bailey.
Washington County. Dr. J. H. Relfe, Philip Cole, John S.
Brickey, Jesse II. Mcllvaine, Myers II. Jones, James Evans,
and W. C. Reed.
Cooper County. Benjamin E. Ferry, N. W. Mack, and Wil-
liam H. Trigg.
Warren County. Carty Wells, Nathaniel Pendleton, and Ir-
vine S. Pitman.
St. Charles County. Edward Bates, Moses Bigelow, William
M. Campbell, and W. L. Overall.
Galloway County. William II. McCullough, William H. Rus-
sell, D. R. Mullen, Dr. N. Kouns, C. Oxley, Jacob G. Lebo, R.
B. Overton, and Moxley.
Montr/ornery County. Dr. M. M. Maughas, S. C. Ruby, and
Boone County. Dr. James W. Moss, John B. Gordon, J. W.
Keiser, D. M. Hickman, J. S. Rollins, William Hunter, R. W.
Morriss, and Granville Branham.
Howard County. Dr. John Bull, Maj. Alphonso Wetmore,
Weston F. Birch, Joseph Davis, Gen. J. B. Clark, T. Y. Stearns,
and John Wilson.
Jefferson County. James S. McCutchen.
HISTORY OF SAINT LOUIS.
After some debate the convention recommended
the construction of two railroads, one from St. Louis
to Fayette, and the other from St. Louis to the iron-
and lead-mines in the southern part of the State.
After the adjournment of the convention the mem-
bers attended a banquet given in their honor by the
merchants of St. Louis at the National Hotel, then
situated at the corner of Third and Market Streets.
The mayor, John F. Darby, presided, assisted by
Charles Keemle, secretary, and the following vice-
presidents : Gen. John Ruland, Hon. H. O'Neil,
Thomas Cohen, Maj. William Milburn, Beverly
Allen, Col. J. W. Johnson, and William G. Pettus.
To defray the expenses attending the survey of the
routes of the two railroads recommended by the In-
ternal Improvement Convention, the judges of the
St. Louis County court, in May, 1836, appropriated
two thousand dollars.
On the 18th of June, 1836, another internal im-
provement meeting was held in St. Louis, to devise
means for the furtherance of the Boston Railroad
design, which contemplated a direct communication
between Boston and St. Louis, and connections with
the improvements leading to the other cities of the
Atlantic seaboard. On motion of T. Grimsley, John
F. Darby was called to the chair, and on motion of
A. B. Chambers, William Milburn was appointed
The chairman stated what he understood to be
the object of the meeting, and urged its importance
to the city of St. Louis, the whole State of Missouri,
and the entire valley of the Mississippi.
A. B. Chambers gave his views more at length,
and concluded by stating that Mr. Walker, of Boston,
who was one of the projectors of the scheme and its
warm advocate, was present, and that many were de-
sirous of hearing him on the subject, but, to bring the
matter directly before the meeting, he would first ask
the reading of a preamble and resolutions which had
been prepared for the occasion. They were accord-
ingly read as follows :
" WHEREAS, The citizens of St. Louis have seen with pleasure
the proposition in Boston and other portions of the East for
the connection of Boston with the Western country by means
of an uninterrupted line of railroads;
"AND WHEREAS, The measure is one of advantage to the
East and the West, and to no portion of the West more than to
St. Louis, which will, if it is ever completed, be the termination
of the line;
"AND WHEREAS, the accomplishment of the undertaking ap-
pears to be probable and within the means of the States
interested, and requiring but a small addition of road to what
is already built or in the progress of erection ; therefore,
''Resulted, That we cordially approve of the proposition to
connect Boston with the Western country by means of a rail-
road as a work of easy accomplishment, and which deserves the
support of all the States through which it may pass.
" 2. Kesolced, That the citizens of St. Louis will lend their
assistance and hearty co-operation, so far as their ability ex-
tends, in furtherance of the proposition.
"3. Resolved, That a committee of be appointed, who
shall constitute a committee of correspondence, and shall gen-
erally have authority to do whatever may be in their power to
aid in carrying out the contemplated work."
The preamble and resolutions having been read,
there was a unanimous call for Mr. Walker, who de-
livered a very interesting discourse, in which he dem-
onstrated the practicability of the plan and its great
importance to both the East and the West.
The resolutions were then read separately and
unanimously adopted, the blank in the third resolu-
tion ordered to be filled with the number " five," and
the chair authorized to appoint the committee.
The chair accordingly appointed William Carr
Lane, mayor of the city, Thornton Grimsley, Andrew
J. Davis. William Milburn, and Gustavus A. Bird,
and by resolution of the meeting the chairman, John
F. Darby, was added to the committee.
The same meeting further resolved that a commit-
tee should be appointed " to draft a memorial to the
Legislature asking the aid of the State government
to the amount of five hundred thousand dollars for
the construction of a railroad to the mining region ;
also to draft a memorial to the mayor and aldermen
of this city asking their aid in the same amount for
the same object ; also to draft a memorial to Con-
gress asking a donation of every section and frac-
tional section thereof of public lands over which the
road should pass ; also to draft a memorial to the
Legislature asking for a geological survey of the
Under this resolution the following committee was
appointed: B. W. Ayres, A. Wetmore, G. Morton,
Dr. King, J. C. Abbot, A. J. Davis, Charles Collins,
John Kingsland, John Simonds, William Smith, and
At the same meeting it was resolved that a com-
mittee be appointed " to collect facts relating to the
general subject of internal improvement, and to the
particular object embraced in the first-mentioned reso-
lutions." To this committee were appointed J. C.
Dinnies, Dr. Englemann, Dr. Merry, Maj. Anderson,
Edward Tracy, Rene Paul, and D. D. Page.
In January following two charters were granted by
the State, one incorporating the St. Louis and Belle-
vue Mineral Railroad Company, and the other the
Louisiana and Columbia Railroad Company. The
charters were similar in their enactments, and were
very liberal in their terms. The legislators of that
day were in doubt whether railroads should be worked
by horse- or steam-power, and whether the vehicles
and motive-power should be owned by the company or
by other parties. They also had very vague concep-
tions of the profits likely to accrue to the stockholders.
The ruling idea, however, seems to have been the con-
struction of improved highways, free to all, and sub-
ject only to such restrictions as the public good and
the interest of those who had invested capital in them
Both of these projected railroad lines were surveyed,
but neither was built. The charter of the Louisiana
and Columbia road was incorporated ten years after-
wards in that granted to the Hannibal and St. Jo
Company, and that of the Bellevue road in the Iron
Mountain Railroad charter fourteen years afterwards. 2
1 The two charters contain the following provisions :
"SEC. 13. It shall be lawful for said corporation to place on
or prescribe the kind of carriages that may be used on said
road, and by whom used, and whether propelled by steam or
other power, for the transportation of passengers, -goods, wares,
and merchandise of all kinds, and also all kinds of produce.
For this purpose the company may construct such turnouts
and other things or devices as may be considered necessary or
to the interest of the company. All cars, carriages, or other
vehicles on said road shall be subject to the direction of the
company, and no person shall put any carriage or other vehicle
on said road without the permission of said company.
" SEC. 14. The company may charge and receive such tolls
and freights for the transportation of persons, commodities, or
carriages as shall be to the interest of the same. Such tolls
shall be established by the directors, and may from time to time
be altered. They may charge tolls and freights on any part of
the road that may be in a state for traveling on, whether the
rails be laid or not.
" SEC. 15. Semi-annual dividends of so much profits as the
directors may deem expedient shall be made to the stockholders,
but no dividends shall be made to a greater amount than the
net profits after deducting all expenses, and no dividend shall
be more than twenty per cent, per annum on the capital stock
2 "At the railroad convention," said the Republican of July
28, 1836, " the following-named gentlemen constituted the com-
mittee to raise by subscription the necessary means to pay the
expenses of a complete reconnoissance and survey of the routes
of the two proposed roads, to secure the services of skillful
and competent engineers, etc., and cause the work to be done
with as little delay as possible: Messrs. George Collier, J. B.
Brant, John Smith, John W. Reel, J. II. Gay, of St. Louis ; D.
M. Hickman, of Boone; Uriah Sebree, of Howard; Jacob C.
Lebo, of Galloway, Andrew Monroe, of Montgomery; David
Bailey, of Lincoln; Myers F. Jones and John C. Bricky, of
Washington; Samuel Massey, of Crawford; Thomas M. Dough-
erty and Jacob R. Stine, of St. Louis County."
On the 17th of December the same paper added,
" All of us remember that we made such ado at the time the
railroad convention was held in this town, but that spirit died
with the disappearance of the members of that body. Several
committees were appointed to perform certain specified duties;
all of them were competent, and had abundant time and a deep
interest at stake, and yet not one of them has attended as he
Thus ended the first effort at railroad construction
in Missouri. 3
Notwithstanding their temporary want of success,
however, the citizens of St. Louis continued to mani-
fest a lively interest in railroad development, and
looked forward with confidence to the day when their
cherished desires should be consummated. 4
In June, 1839, another town-meeting was held at
the court-house for the purpose of devising means
to connect St. Louis with Boston by railroad. Noth-
ing resulted from a discussion of the subject, as
the people still relied too confidently upon the splen-
did geographical position of St. Louis to, sooner
or later, attract the needed capital and enterprise
for the construction of railroads. At this period
(1839) a railroad had been completed to Buffalo, and
the route from the West to the East by way of the
lakes had besnin to attract attention. 6
ought to have done, punctually and assiduously, to the duties of
his appointment. These gentlemen are the largest property-
holders in the city, are all of them wealthy, and it was right to
expect that they would feel some little interest in the important
matters intrusted to them."
3 In August, 18.30, a miniature railroad was exhibited at the
old Baptist Church situated at Third and Market Streets. It
consisted of a small circular track, fastened to a stage, on which
moved a miniature locomotive attached to a car just large
enough to hold one person. The speed attained was at the rate
of seven miles an hour. A small admission fee was charged,
and persons were required to pay " an extra picayune" for the
privilege of riding round the track. In its notice of the ex-
hibition at the time (Aug. 24, 1830) a local journal said, " The
public will be much gratified by a visit to the miniature rail-
road exhibited at the old Baptist Church. This combination of
art and science, although in miniature, is complete in all its parts,
and exhibits in one view all the apparatus necessary for railway
traveling. With a few ounces of coal, and a small measure of
water, it winds its way round on a circular track of one hun-
dred feet at the rate of seven miles per hour, carrying a person
of the largest size in the car."
4 In 1S32 the bill incorporating the Cincinnati and St. Louis
Railway Company passed the Legislature of Ohio.
The Republican of Aug. 13, 1836, published tho report of the
engineers appointed to survey the route of a railroad from
Marion City to the interior of the country. " It will be seen,"
added that paper, " that the rails on a part of this road have
already been laid, and many miles more are under contract."
8 " A gentleman and his family left here a few days since in a
boat for Peoria. There he took another boat to Peru, and from
Peru was carried overland by stages to Chicago, making the
whole trip in three days. At Chicago he took a boat the same
evening for Buff.ilo. Judging from the speed of the lake boats,
he would reach Buffalo in about four or five days from the time
he left thit> place, and if he traveled from Buffalo to New York
at the rate stated by a traveler in a late number of the Journal
of Commerce, he would reach the latter place in less than three
days more, making the whole distance from St. Louis to New
York in about eight or nine days. The ordinary trip from
New York to St. Louis, by the Ohio River, requires between
ten and twelve days." Republican, July 11, 1839.
HISTORY OF SAINT LOUIS.
A board of improvements was created by the State
in 1840, but nothing was done further than to make
a survey for a railroad from St. Louis to the Iron
Mountain by the way of Big River, and some surveys
of the Osage River with a view of improving its nav-
Missouri Pacific Railway. As already indi-
cated, the commercial sagacity of the people of St.
Louis recognized the fact that the capital of the east-
ern section of the country would ultimately come to
their city in order to construct the railroads which her
expanding trade demanded ; that the self-interest of
the East would seek the mart where were collected
the vast productions of the West ; and that being the
most distant city from the East, she was the nearest
to the West, the greatest producing as well as the
greatest consuming section of the country.
These considerations induced her merchants to
pivot, as it were, their great Pacific Railroad on the
Mississippi River, with that already great feeder and
carrier as the base and eastern terminus, and to " go
west" for greater conquests and grander results. 1
The successful termination of the Mexican war
had added large areas to the territory of the Union
and expanded its boundaries to the Pacific, and it was
soon seen that the discovery of gold in California (in
1848) would in a few years open up that country to
a trade more valuable even than the gold of her mines,
and people the Pacific slope with an energetic and
enterprising race. 2
1 " Passing by Smith's foundry yesterday, corner of Pine
Street and Post-Office Alley, we there observed certain compo-
nents of a species of machinery which will be a new sight to
many hereabouts, as it was to us. This was the wheels and
axles for a train of railroad freight cars, intended for the con-
veyance of coal from the mine to some point on the Cumber-
land River which we could not ascertain. The proprietor has
taken a contract for furnishing the running apparatus for
thirty-six cars, together with the castings of a crane of stupen-
dous power for swinging the entire car, with its load, from the
track to the boat." Kepitblican, Aug. 7, 1847.
*" Seven young gentlemen, citizens of this city," said a
St. Louis newspnper of Jan. 21, 18-19, "left last evening on
the steamer ' Rowena' for the gold regions, via New Orleans,
Chagres, and Panama, their final destination being San Fran-
cisco. The party consists of Messrs. D. S. Ford, C. II. Fran-
cher, William Barlow, T. B. Walker, A. H. Gould, Hoi-
brook, and John S. Robb.
"In addition to this company, another consisting of Capt.
William Craine, J. M. Julics, James Anthony, Murray,
and Piper leaves this morning on the steamer ' St.
Joseph,' destined for the same point. These parties, the first
regularly organized in this city, go, as we learn, fully prepared
to encounter all the hardships and dangers of so long a journey,
and, what is better, carry with them means sufficient to enter into
any suitable or profitable business alter their arrival, should
they not find that of gold-digging as lucrative as they expect." I
From time to time, previous to the year 1849,
various propositions were suggested by Whitney,
Maury, Degrand. and others for the construction of
a railroad from St. Louis to some point on the Pacific
coast, and in December, 1848, the Western Journal
commenced the publication of a series of articles on
Eastern commerce, by J. Loughborough, which were
designed to direct attention to the importance of
a railroad from the Mississippi valley to the Pacific ;
the route favored being that by the mouth of the
Kansas and the South Pass. In January of 1849
the editor of the Western Journal advocated the same
About this time, in February of 1849, Col. Benton
brought before the United States Senate his project
for a Pacific railroad, advocating it in a powerful
speech, that seemed to have the effect of giving life
to the movement, which the public mind had already
been prepared for. 3
On the 20th of February following a large meeting
of the citizens of St. Louis was held, upon a call of
the mayor, to take action upon the subject. Judge