some of whom enjoy a wide celebrity for the supe-
riority and nicety of their work. Among the latter
the well-known establishment of John A. Scholten is
specially worthy of mention. Mr. Scholten was born
in Bees, a town on the Rhine, in Prussia, and at-
tended the schools of his native place until four-
teen years old, when he emigrated with his parents
to America, settling at Hermann, Mo. Here he
remained for three years, and then removed to St.
Louis, where he spent some time in the dry-goods
store of Trueworthy Hoyt, a respected and highly
successful merchant. In 1857, however, he aban-
doned commercial pursuits and turned his attention
to his present calling, in which he soon won an exten-
sive local reputation for the correctness and artistic
beauty of the likenesses which he produced. His
success prompted him to choose a more central loca-
tion, and he removed to Fourth Street, between Olive
and Locust, and subsequently to the northwest corner
of Olive and Fifth Streets. His rooms at the latter
location were models of elegance and good taste.
In 1874 he removed to his present location, near
Olive and Tenth Streets, which he had fitted up es-
pecially for the delicate requirements of his profes-
sion. On New Year's night, 1878, his establishment
was burned, but in May, 1879, he resumed business
at the same location, in a studio erected specially for
him, and combining all the approved features of the
most celebrated Eastern galleries, modified in such par-
ticulars as Mr. Scholten's long and varied experience
had shown to be desirable. He not only built a
structure suitable in every way to his art, but pro-
cured the most costly and perfect apparatus yet in-
Mr. Scholten has applied himself to his calling
with unreserved devotion, and has been an enthusi-
astic laborer, constantly experimenting and perfecting.
Instead of being content with the accepted methods
of others, he has investigated for himself, and in so
doing has been the introducer of improvements hav-
ing a permanent value. He was the first to introduce
into St. Louis the popular carte de visite, and by lib-
eral yet judicious expenditure has contributed materi-
ally to the development of the photographic art in St.
Louis. The estimation in which he is held by lead-
ing citizens appears in the following testimonial :
"MERCHANTS' EXCHANGE OF ST. LOUIS.
" John Wahl, Prest. George H. Morgan, Sec.
"ST. Louis, May 3, 1879.
" MR. JOHN A. SCHOLTEN :
" Dear Sir, The undersigned, president and ex-presidents
of the Merchants' Exchange, desiring to express to you their ap-
preciation of your kindness in contributing to the 'records' of
the Exchange the handsomely framed portraits of the ' presi-
dents,' have had prepared the accompanying medal, which they
beg you to accept as a token of the esteem in which you are
held by them individually, and as a recognition on the part of
the Exchange of your liberality and courtesy. They desire also
to congratulate you on the opening of your new rooms, and trust
you may receive the generous patronage which you so richly
deserve as an artist and a gentleman.
" D. P. ROWLAND. WEB M. SAM TEL.
"GEORGE BAI.V. JOHN A. SCDDDER.
"WILLIAM J. LEWIS. NATHAN COLE.
"THOMAS RICHESON. R. R. TANSEY.
" W. H. ScrDDER. E. 0. STANARD.
"JOHN WAHL, Prest. GEORGE H. MORGAN, Sec,"
TRADE, COMMERCE, AND MANUFACTURES.
Copper and Tin. la 1816, John Dowling com-
menced the business of a copper and tin manufacturer
in St. Louis, in a shop " in the rear of Mr. Robidoux's
store, and near Matthew Kerr's store." Copper and
tinware were made and repaired. In 1817, Reuben
Neal " commenced the manufacturing of copper and
tinware in the house lately owned and occupied by
Mr. Joseph Brazeau, opposite Mr. Hempstead's, in
Church Street, St. Louis," where he made stills, fullers',
hatters', wash-, stew-, and tea-kettles, and copper, tin,
and sheet-iron ware of all descriptions. In 1820,
Neal & Liggett carried on a copper- and tin-shop on
South Main Street, opposite Antoine Dangin, Block
36. According to the census of 1880, the number of
manufactories engaged in the production of tin, cop-
per, and sheet-iron ware was one hundred and twenty,
but it is probable that there are over two hundred
establishments in the city where tinware is manufac-
tured. The value of the business has been estimated
at one million two hundred thousand dollars per an-
Lithographers. There were eleven firms en-
gaged in the lithographing business in 1882, and St.
Louis enjoys facilities in this respect possessed by few
other cities in the country. One of the pioneer firms
engaged in this industry is that of August Gast & Co.
Its founder, August Gast, was born in Belle, a village
in the princedom of Lippe-Detmold, Germany, March
10, 1819. He was educated at the Gymnasium at
Detmold, and with his brother Leopold learned the
trade of lithography, and worked at this business in
Germany for several years. The disturbances of 1848
prostrated business in that country, and the brothers
determined to emigrate to America. They had very
little money, their chief possession being a press and
a small lithographic outfit which belonged to Leopold.
They spent some months in New York, and about one
and a half years in Pittsburgh, and finally, in 1852,
arrived in St. Louis, and commenced business as lith-
ographers in a little shop on Fourth Street, between
Walnut and Elm Streets, where the " Southern Hotel"
now stands. They started with the small outfit above
mentioned, and the name of the firm was Leopold
Gast & Brother.
Up to that time there had been but one lithographer
in St. Louis, Julius Hutawa, who confined himself
chiefly to the production of maps. His trade was
small, and he soon went out of business, leaving Gast
& Brother in sole possession of the field.
The brothers began on a very modest scale, but
they did good work and soon began to prosper. In
I860', August Gast purchased his brother Leopold's
interest, and from 1866 to 1877 he had two partners.
In the latter year he purchased their interest also,
and admitted E. F. Wittier to this firm. Wittier
had been for some years traveling agent, and had
distinguished himself by his industry and efficiency.
In January, 1878, the firm was further enlarged by
the admission of Louis Wall. Since that time the
business has expanded rapidly, and the house now
employs four color artists, fifteen engravers, fifteen
transferors, ten steam-presses, several compositors,
and hand-press printers, bookbinders, etc., and in
May, 1882, the business of steel-engraving was added,
the whole requiring a force of about one hundred and
ten hands. It is one of the largest establishments of
the kind in the West. It has devoted itself to the
higher class of work, and enjoys a wide-spread reputa-
tion for the beauty and elegance of its manufactures.
Mr. Gast landed in St. Louis without a penny in
his pocket, and when he started in business he did
no small share of the work with his own hands.
What thirty years of industry have accomplished
may be seen by going through his mammoth estab-
lishment in St. Louis and viewing the army of work-
men employed there.
In March, 1853, Mr. Gast was married to Sophie
Von Laer, a native of Schleswig. She died in 1864,
and in November, 1865, Mr. Gast again married, his
wife being Marie Barthel, a native of Leipsic, Sax-
ony. Both are members of the Evangelical Lutheran
Early Trade Notes. From the advertising col-
umns of the newspapers, from pamphlets, and other
sources not directly in the line of historical data
many interesting facts are to be learned. On Aug.
24, 1808, C. Burns advertised for two or three jour-
neyman tailors, " to whom constant employment and
good wages will be given." On September 14th of
the same year F. Hinkle " wanted to hire a negro
woman, one without children will be preferred," and
on September 17th, William "Harris, hatter, respect-
fully informed " his friends and the public in general
that he has commenced the hatting business in all its
different branches on Main Street, next door below
Dr. Saugrain's, where any person may be supplied on
the shortest notice and on moderate terms." On the
14th of the following month a house was to be rented
on application to M. P. Lcduc, and the same day
Samuel Solomon had twelve hundred gallons of good
old whiskey for sale for cash. On Jan. 11, 1801), we
find that "Joseph Coppinger proposes setting off for
New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, and Wash-
ington on the 1st of February, to return in May. He
takes this method of offering his agency to his friends
and the public, and expects reasonable compensation
HISTORY OF SAINT LOUIS.
for any trust undertaken." Aaron Elliott & Son, of
Ste. Genevieve, on the 7th of June, advertised in the
St. Louis papers to the effect that " all those who
have open accounts with Aaron Elliott, or Aaron
Elliott & Son, are requested to call and close the same
prior to the 1st August, 1809. Those who neglect
this call will have their accounts to settle with an
attorney," with a postscript stating that they had
constantly on hand a complete assortment of drugs
and medicines, " which they will sell either wholesale
or retail on as good terms as can be purchased in this
country." On July 5th, Michael Dolan, " tailor
and habit-maker," Main Street, announced that he had
opened a shop at the house then occupied by Mr.
Hampton, " breeches-maker." Cornelius Burns, also
a tailor, begged leave, on November 2d, to acquaint
his friends and the public that he had commenced
business on his own account at the house formerly i
occupied by Wilson & Price. On the 16th of the
same month, Bernard Lalende made it known that
he manufactured gentlemen's coats for $4.50, and
pantaloons at $1.75, " well made and in the newest
fashion." In 1811, Norman McKenzie wanted a few
carpenters, and Robert Wash announced himself as
administrator of James A. Graham, and offered a re-
ward of $20 for a fine cloak that had been stolen. J.
Septlivres, on the 2d of June, 1812, published his
card as house and sign painter. In an advertise-
ment dated Aug. 5, 1813, we find that there " ar-
rived a few days ago from the mouth of the Columbia
River, Robert Steuart, Ramsey Crooks, Joseph Mil- .
ler, and Robert McClellan, and three hunters,'' whose
narrative would appear the following week. In 1815,
William Sullivan kept a livery-stable in St. Louis,
and his terms were ten dollars per month, with no de-
duction for any horse taken out unless he remained
out a week or more, $3 per week, 75 cents for twenty-
four hours. Auguste Chouteau advertised at private
sale, May 18, 1816, his lots lately laid out on the hill
west of town, a plot of which might be seen at the
printing-office. On the 8th of June of the same
year, John Keesacker informed the " gentlemen of
St. Louis that he has opened a barber-shop in Front
Street, near Mr. Paul's store building, and pledges
himself he will give satisfaction in his line of business.
Price of shaving per month, $1." On the 18th of
June, Mrs. Baker started the millinery business in
the brick building opposite Mr. Savage's auction-
room. In 1829 the announcement was made that
" the new bathing establishment of Mr. J. Sparks &
Co. has about thirty-five visitors, and of that number
not one has experienced an hour's sickness since the
bathing commenced ; we should, for the benefit of the '
health of the city, be glad there were more encourage-
ment, and as the season is partly over, tickets have been
reduced to one dollar the season."
Miscellaneous Trades and Industries. In ad-
dition to the foregoing there is an immense variety of
trades and industries in St. Louis, of which it is im-
possible to give a particular account within the limits
of this work. Among the more important may be
mentioned the trade in wall-paper, carpets, etc., in
which thirty-one houses were engaged in 1881, their
business aggregating one million nine hundred thou-
sand dollars ; books and stationery, in which five
wholesale and seventy-five retail houses were employed
in 1881, the aggregate business being estimated at
six million nine hundred thousand dollars ; news
and book paper, etc., represented in 1881 by nine
wholesale dealers, transacting a business of three mil-
lion nine hundred thousand dollars ; J music aud musi-
cal instruments, transacted by eleven houses, whose
business was estimated in 1881 at one million six hun-
dred thousand dollars ; produce, seventy-nine houses,
with annual sales estimated in 1881 of two million
dollars, besides four firms engaged in the sale of seeds
of various kinds ; powder, guns, and sporting goods,
five wholesale firms, who confine their business to gun,
rifle, and blasting powder and similar goods, and three
firms who deal in guns, pistols, fishing-tackle, and
sporting goods; aggregate value of business in 1881,
six hundred thousand dollars.
In addition to the manufactures already described
there were in 1881 the following among other indus-
tries in active and successful operation : Agricultural
implements, seven firms, 500 hands employed, $900,-
000 value of annual product ; artificial feathers and
flowers, three firms, 79 hands, $150,000 annual sales ;
awnings and tents, ten firms, 250 hands employed,
$400,000 annual sales ; bags, paper, flax, hemp, and
jute, seven firms, 500 hands employed, $1,100,000
annual sales ; box manufactures, twelve firms, 250
hands employed, $400,000 annual sales ; brass foun-
dries, fourteen firms, 157 hands employed, $580,000
1 " At a meeting of the directors and stockholders of the ' Mis-
souri Paper Manufacturing Company,' held at their office, No.
46 Chestnut Street, St. Louis, Tuesday, Oct. 30, 1860, the or-
ganization of the company, under the laws of the State of Mis-
souri, was completed, and the following-named gentlemen con-
firmed as directors of the company for the first year from the
7th of July last, and the persons named in connection with the
same elected officers for the same term.
" Directors, as named in the license from the State, R. II. Hut
bell, E. Stafford, Bernard Poepping, George Spear, V. B. S.
Reber; President, Hon. Bernard Poepping; Vice-President
Thomas H. Paschall, Esq. ; Secretary, Edward Stafford, Esq."-
Misaouri Republican, Nov. 2, 1860.
TRADE, COMMERCE, AND MANUFACTURES.
annual sales; carriages and wagons, forty firms, 1100
men and boys employed, nearly $2,000,000 annual
Bales ; confectionery, three hundred dealers, value of
business $1,200,000 per annum; cooperage, eighty
establishments, 900 hands employed, $500,000 capital
invested, total annual sales $1,500,000 ; cordage and
twine, fourteen firms, 77 hands employed, $75,000
estimated value of business ; corsets, three firms,
$10,000 annual sales; cutlery and tools, four firms,
20 hands employed, $24,000 annual sales ; engraving,
die-sinking, etc., seventeen firms, 65 hands employed,
$151,000 annual sales; wood-engraving, three firms,
24 hands employed, $40,000 annual sales ; files, six
firms, 35 hands employed, $42,000 annual sales;
glass, six firms, 400 hands employed, $600,000 an-
nual sales ; glue, five firms, 30 hands employed,
$75,000 annual sales ; machinery, forty-six firms,
1600 hands employed, $2,500,000 annual sales;
marble- and stone-work, fifty-six firms, 475 hands em-
ployed, $800,000 annual sales ; mattresses and spring-
beds, nine firms, 55 hands employed, $150,000 an-
nual sales ; mineral and soda waters, ten firms, 100
hands employed, $175,000 annual sales; paints and
varnishes, total capital invested $2,000,000, 532
hands employed, 82,700,000 annual sales ; refrigera-
tors, three firms, 101 hands employed, $309,000 an-
nual sales ; roofing and roofing materials, five firms,
75 hands employed, $177,000 annual sales; show-
cases, four firms, 79 hands employed, $90,000 annual
sales ; shirts, seventeen firms, 274 women and 52 men
employed, $280,000 annual sales ; stone and earth-
enware, five firms, forty-one hands employed, $50,000
annual sales ; tin, copper, and sheet-iron, about 200
firms, with an estimated business of $1,200,000 per
annum ; vinegar, fourteen firms, 120 hands employed,
$575,000 value of annual product; wheelwrighting,
fifty-two firms, 130 hands employed, $155,000 annual
sales ; whips, four firms, annual business $20,000 ;
wire- work, 600 hands employed, $1,300,000 annual
COMPARATIVE BUSINESS IN LEADING ARTICLES AT ST. LOUIS FOR 1878, 1879, 1880, AND 1881.
Flour, amount manufactured bbls.
" handled bbls.
Wheat, total receipts ... bush.
1 1 :;''j,431
Corn, " " bush.
Oats, " " bush.
Rye, " " bush.
Barley, " " bush.
Cotton, receipts bales.
Hemp, " bales.
Bagging, manufactured. . .. yards.
Hay, receipts, bales of 400 Ibs ....bales.
Tobacco, receipts hhds.
Lead, receipts in pigs, 80 Ibs. average P'S 8 -
Hog product, total exports Ibs.
1 96,827, 'J'JS
Cattle, receipts head.
Sheep, " head.
Hogs, " head.
Horses and mules, receipts head.
Lumber, " feet.
Shingles, " pcs.
Lath, " pcs.
Wool, total receipts Ibs.
Hides, " " Ibs.
20, 079, S| I
Sugar, received Ibs.
Molasses, shipped galls.
Coffee, received bags.
Rice, receipts bbls.
Coal. " bush.
Nails, " . ke^s
Potatoes, receipts . . bush
Salt. " . bbls.
" bush, in bulk.
In 1871 a carefully prepared statement by William
A. Johnson showed the increase in manufactures in
twenty of the leading articles to have been nineteen
per cent, in the capital employed, and thirty per cent,
in the value of the products.
Mr. Charles W. Knapp, from whose very able paper
on St. Louis, read before the " Round Table" in Oc-
tober, 1882, we have frequently had occasion to quote,
thus groups the manufacturing cities, according to the
census of 1860, 1870, and 1880 :
HISTORY OF SAINT LOUIS.
MANUFACTURING OF LEADING CITIES IN 1860.
Cost of Material.
MANUFACTURING OF LEADING CITIES IN 1870.
Cost of Material.
4 539 065
54 303 474
MANUFACTURING OF LEADING CITIES IN 1880.
Cost of Material.
23 715 140
19 583 013
170 495 191