John Thomas Scharf.

History of western Maryland : being a history of Frederick, Montgomery, Carroll, Washington, Allegany, and Garrett counties from the earliest period to the present day ; including biographical sketches of their representative men (Volume v.2) online

. (page 1 of 174)
Online LibraryJohn Thomas ScharfHistory of western Maryland : being a history of Frederick, Montgomery, Carroll, Washington, Allegany, and Garrett counties from the earliest period to the present day ; including biographical sketches of their representative men (Volume v.2) → online text (page 1 of 174)
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Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2010 with funding from

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http://www.archive.org/details/historyofwestern02scha



HISTORY

WESTERN lAIARYLAND



I



BKING A HISTORY OF



lULL^ nnuliiumiuii^



COUNTIES

FROM THE EARLIEST PERIOD TO THE PRESENT DAY;



INCLUDIXtJ



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES

OF THUIR

REPRESENTATIVE M E ?|

BY :'''\

J.THOMAS 8CHARF, A.M./"''- -^^-^ •;■■*•;

ITHOn OF "CHROMICI.KS OP BALTIMORE," " HISTORV OF BALTIWOUK CITV AND COUNTY," "HISTORY OF MARYLAND;" MF.MBF.R'uF *rH
MARYLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND ACADEMY OP SCIENCES; MEMBER OF THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OP PENNSYLVAIfRV,* •
HONORARY MEMBER OF THE GEORGIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY; CORRESPONDING MEMBER OP THE HISTORICAL SOCIETIES' ••• •
OF NE\V YORK, WISCONSIN, MINNESOTA, SOUTH CAROLINA, AND VIRGINIA; OP THE HISTORICAL AND PHILO-
SOPHICAL SOCIETY OF OHIO; OF THE NEIY ENGLAND HISTORIC-GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY, ETC., ETC. ..•■•



IN TWO VOLUMES, ILLUSTRATED.



•VOIj. TI.



I'll I LA DE LPH I A:

I.OUIS H. EVERTS.

1882.






PRESS OF

.1. 1!. LIPPINOOTT & CO.,

PHILADELPHIA.






•>



53^



Copvriglit, 1882, by Lours H. Everts.



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II.



CHAPTER XXXVIII.

PAGE

Carroll County : Introductory — First Settlers — Land
Grants — Erection of County — Bench and Bar— Dis-
tinguished Men — County Officers — School Statistics 789

CHAPTER XXXIX.
Taneytown District, No. 1 830

CHAPTER XL.
Washington County : General Character — Agriculture —
Education — Finances — County Created — Soils and Cli-
mate — Land Grants and Surveys — Indian Antiquities. 973

CHAPTER XLL
Public Officials 987

CHAPTER XLIL
Roads — Bridges — Turnpikes — Stage-Coaohes — Mails —
Railroads "S-*

CHAPTER XLIIL
Representative Men and Families of Washington County 1011

CHAPTER XL IV.
Hagerstown — The First Settler, Jonathan Hager —
Cresap's Fort — Incorporation of the Town — The First
Officers — Reminiscences — Prominent Events 1057

CHAPTER XLV.
Religious Denominations 10^6

CHAPTER XLVL
Bench and Bar of Washington County — The Court-House
— Early Trials and Executions — Jails — Early Court
Notes — Distinguished Judges and Lawyers 1105

CHAPTER XLVII.
Medicine and Physicians 1132

CHAPTER XLVII I.
The Press of Hagerstown 1141

CHAPTER XLIX.
Schools and Libraries 1153

CHAPTER L.
Public Institutions of Hagerstown : Marliet-House —
Almshouse — Water- Works — Telegraph — Street-light-
ing — Street-paving 1161



CHAPTER LL

PAOE

Trade and Industries of Hagerstown, and Financial In-
stitutions 1170

CHAPTER LI I.
Miscellaneous Societies and Events 1183

CHAPTER LIII.
Sharpsburg District 1202

CHAPTER LIV.

Allegany County : Introductory — Topography — Geology
— Coal Basin and Iron Ores — Clays — Names of Moun-
tains — Manufactures of Cumberland 1311

CHAPTER LV.

Early Settlements and Education— First Settlers — County
Officers and Public Buildings— Early Courts and Offi-
cials — Executions — Political Statistics 1342

CHAPTER LVI.

Religious Denominations — Charitable and Benevolent
Associations — Secret Orders and Societies 1410

CHAPTER LVII.

Railroads — Leading Industries — Coal Companies — Banks
and Financial Institutions — Prominent Citiiens — Ne-
crology 1*^®

CHAPTER LVII I.
Allegany County Districts— Orleans District 1457

CHAPTER LIX.
Garrett County and Districts l^H

Appendix:

Executive Officers 1^47

Barons of Baltimore 1^47

Governors of Maryland 1^47

Senators from Maryland 1^48

Members of Constitutional Conventions 1548

Maryland Judiciary 1^^2

Population of Maryland 1^52

" " " by Counties 1553

" '' Baltimore 1554

Index 1*^*



CONTENTS.



ILIjTJSTI^J^TIOlsrS I3Sr "^OXjTJIMIE II.



PAGE

Allegany County Court-House 1361

Alvey, Richard A 1121

Anders, C. B., Residence and Mills facing 900

Bellevue Asylum 1163

Biggs, Augustin A 1217

Brace, Charles H 1407

Brace, William between 1402, 1403

Braddock's Grave 1473

Browu, Frank facing 874

Brown, George W 1239

Brown, Thomas C facing 870

City Hall and Academy of Music. Cumberland 1376

Combs, H. Wheeler 1542

Confederate Monument 1102

Crawford, Francis J facing 896

Cushwa, William 1246

Cunningham, S. S facing 1233

Deer Park Hotel •' 1443

Dorscy, Frederick 1134

Doyle, F. C 1245

Elliott, Commodore Jesse D 1029

Embrey, Theodore facing 1225

Farrow, J. H " 1227

Federal Monument 1216

Fort Cumberland in 1755 facing 1324

Fountain Inn, Baltimore 1000

Garrett, John W facing 1515

Gist, Gen. Mordecai 920

Gist, Mordecai 922

Greene, A. C facing 1444

Grimes, Wm. H " 1286

Hagerstown Seminary " 1159

Hamilton, William T " 1117

Hayden, William N 956

Hints, William M 877

Hood, J. M facing 1007

Humrichouse, C. W " 1237

Humrichouse Building " 1175

Hamill, P 1521

Keller, Bayard T 1538

Lefever, Samuel facing 1231

Longwell, J. K " 953

Lowndes, Lloyd " 1448

Manro, George W 876

Map of Coal Basin facing 1446

Map of Hagerstown " 1059

Mayer, Charles F " 1443

McKaig, Thomas J " 1398

Moore, Joseph " 967

Negley, Peter " 1145

Newcomer, B. F " 1038

New Windsor College " 910

Nicodemus, John " 1260



PAGE

Oakland Hotel facing 1539

Ohr, C. H 1404

Old Fort Frederick 1298

Parke, Joseph M 944

Paul, Thomas H facing 1488

Peddicord. T. J 1539

Penrose, E. G facing 964

Piper, W. J 1468

Porter, G. Ellis facing 1504

Porter, J. M 1478

Potomac River and Canal at Williamsport 1221

Queen City Hotel facing 1340

Rentch, Andrew " 1308

Rhind, John 1395

Rinehart, Samuel 1257

Ringgold, Maj. Samuel 1024

Roberts, Charles B facing 817

Robinson, William 1340

Rogers, Commodore John 1091

Roop, Samuel, residence of. facing 962

Ryan, John 1505

Sohindel, D. M 1406

Schley, George 1128

Schley, Frederick A 1112

Schley, James M 1402

Shafer, Robert J facing 1267

Sharpe, Governor Horatio " 1204

Shaw. A. B 1467

Slingluff, L. P 905

Smith, Samuel P between 1402, 1403

Stonebraker, D. H 1310

Stonebraker, J. W facing 1179

Stonebreaker, Samuel A " 1310

Stonebraker, Samuel " 1203

Strawbridge's Log Meeting-House 903

Swartz,JohnD facing 1182

Syester, A. K " 1124

Tice, Henry K " 1160

Towson, Gen. Nathan 1029

Turner, Benjamin L 1461

TJpdegratf, William facing 1176

Walsh, William " 1396

Ward, J.T " 933

Ward, William 1475

Watson, Col. William H 1332

Welfley, D. P 1405

Welty, John facing 1275

Whitson, Moses 1294

Williams, Gen. O.H 1232

Williams, J. M 1510

Witmer, P. A 1151

Zeller, Henry facing 1238



HISTORY

OF

WESTEEN MAKYLAND.



CARROLL COUNTY.

CHAPTER XXXVIII.

INTRODUCTORY.

First Settlers — Land Grants — Erection of Carroll County —
Elections — Bench and Bar — Distinguished Men — County
Ofiicers — School Statistics.

The territory embraced within the limits of Car-
roll County was settled at an early period in the his-
tory of Maryland. The first settlers were Scotch-Irish,
Germans, and the descendants of the English from
Southern Maryland. The Indians, before the advent
of the whites, had retired across the South Mountain
into the Cumberland Valley. A remnant of the " Sus-
quehannocks,'" numbering between sixty and seventy,
lived within less than a mile of Manchester (then a part
of Baltimore County) until 1750 or 1751, and were
probably the last aborigines residing in the county.
About that period, without any stir or apparent prep-
aration, with the exception of two, they all disappeared
in a single night. The exceptions were a chief named
Macanappy and his wife, both old and infirm, and
they survived the departure of their race but a few
days. The similarity of names has given rise to the
impression that this tribe found its way to Florida,
and that Miconopy, the celebrated chief, who after-
wards gave the United States so much trouble, was
one of the descendants of the old Indian left to die
near Manchester. In the Land Office at Annapolis
patents are recorded for land grants in this portion of
the State as early as 1727. In that year " Park
Hall," a tract of land containing two thousand six
hundred and eighty acres, was surveyed for James
Carroll. This land .was then situated in Prince
George's County, between New Windsor and Sam's
Creek. In 1729 " Kilfadda" was irranted to John



Tredane, and subsequently sold to Allan Farquhar.
It now embraces a part of the town of Union Bridge
and the farm of E. J. Penrose. " Brierwood" was
surveyed for Dr. Charles Carroll in 1731. " White's
Level," on which the original town of Westminster
was built, was granted to John White in 1733.
" Fanny's Meadow," embracing the " West End" of
the present town of Westminster, was granted to
James Walls in 1741. "Fell's Retirement," lying
on Pipe Creek, and containing 475 acres, was granted
to Edward Fell in 1742. " Arnold's Chance," 600
acres, was granted to Arnold Levers in 1743.
" Brown's Delight," 350 acres, situated on Cobb's
Branch, near Westminster, was granted to George
Brown in 1743. " Neighborly Kindness," 100 acres,
to Charles Carroll in 1743. " Cornwell," 666 acres,
on Little Pipe Creek was patented in 1749, and after-
wards purchased by Joseph Haines and his brother.
"Terra Rubra" was patented to Philip Key in 1752,
for 1865 acres; "Ross' Range" to John Ross in
1752, for 3400 acres; " Spring Garden," on part of
which Hempstead is built, to Dunstan Dane in 1748;
" Brothers' Agreement," near Taneytown, to Edward
Diggs and Raphael Taney in 1754, for 7900 acres;
" Foster's Hunting Ground" to John Foster, 1439
acres ; " German Church" to Jacob Schilling and
others in 1758, for a German Reformed and Lutheran
church at Manchester; "Five Daughters" to Car-
roll's daughter, 1759, for 1500 acres; "New Mar-
ket,'' on which Manchester is built, to Richard
Richards in 1754 ; " Rattlesnake Ridge" to Edward
Richards in 1738; " Caledonia" to William Lux and
others in 1764, for 11,638 acres; " Bond's Meadow"
to John Ridgely in 1753, for 1915 acres (Westmin-
ster is partly situated on this tract) ; " Brother's In-
heritance" to Michael Swope in 1761, for 3124 acres ;
" Ohio," north of Union Mills, to Samuel Owings
in 1763, for 9250 acres ; " New Bedford," near Mid-
dlebury, to Daniel McKenzie and John Logsden in



790



HISTORY OF WESTERN MARYLAND.



1762, for 5301 acres; " Gilboa" to Thomas Rutland,
1762, for 2772 acres ; " Runnynieade," between
UnioDtown and Taneytown, to Francis Key and Upton
Scott in 1767, for 3677 acres; " Hale's Venture" to
Nicholas Hale in 1770, for 2886 acres; "Windsor
Forest" to John Dorsey in 1772, for 2886 acres;
" Rochester" to Charles Carroll of Carrollton in 1773,
for 4706 acres ; and " Lookabout," near Roop's mill,
to Leigh Master in 1774, for 1443 acres.

Amons; the earliest settlers in this section of Mary-
land was William Farquhar, whose enerfry, thrift, and
wisdom aided materially in the development of the
country. His ancestors emigrated from Scotland to
Ireland, where he was born July 29, 1705. When
sixteen years of age he left Ireland with his father,
Allen Farquhar, and settled in Pennsylvania. Allen
Farquhar, as was mentioned above, acquired from
John Tredane a large tract of land on Little Pipe
Creek ; but there is no evidence that he actually re-
sided there. In 1735 he conveyed this tract, known
as " Kilfadda," to his son William, one of the condi-
tions of the gift being that he should remove from
Pennsylvania to " ye" province of Maryland. In
compliance with the terms of the deed, William Far-
quhar, with his wife Add, came to Maryland and en-
tered into possession of his estate. The country wa.s
then a wilderness and destitute of roads, except such
paths as were made by wild beasts and Indians, and no
little intrepidity was required for such a journey,
clogged with a helpless family. Farquhar had learned
the trade of a tailor, and by his skill and industry in
making buckskin breeches, the garments then most
in vogue, he prospered. He invested his savings in
land, and in 1768 he was the possessor of two thou-
sand acres, in which was included ail the ground upon
which the present town of Union Bridge is built.
He was a counselor and peace-maker, and it is related
of him that upon one occasion he rode home in the
evening and found his house surrounded with emi-
grant-wagons belonging to settlers who had been
driven from their homes by the Indians and had fled
to him for protection. They had their stock and
movable property with them, and were afraid to go
back to their lands. Farquhar visited the Indians
and soon pacified them, and the settlers returned to
their homes and were never afterwards molested.
Between the years 1730 and 1740 great advances
were made in the settlement of what is now known
as Carroll County. " The Marsh Creek settlement,"
in the western section of York County, Pa., in-
cluding the region around Gettysburg, composed
almost exclusively of Scotch-Irish, furnished a num-
ber of industrious and enterprising immigrants, and



Hanover and Conewago, in the same county, settled
entirely by Germans, provided a large contingent.
The latter located principally in the Manchester and
Myers Districts, where many of their descendants now
live.

Many were attracted thither also from St. Mary's,
Prince George's, Anne Arundel, and Baltimore Coun-
ties, on the Western Shore of Maryland. The dispute
concerning the boundary line between the provinces of
Pennsylvania and Maryland was a fruitful source of
trouble to those who possessed interests in the de-
batable ground. A strip of land six or eight miles
wide was claimed both by the province of Pennsylvania
and the proprietary of Maryland. John Digges ob-
tained a Maryland grant of six thousand eight hun-
dred acres in the vicinity of Hanover, and Charles
Carroll procured a similar grant in the neighborhood
of Fairfield or Millerstown, and the latter now goes
by the name of the Carroll Tract. Hanover, at that
time known as McAllisterstown, or Kallisterstown,
was within the disputed territory, and became a
refuge for disorderly characters, and hence was called
" Rogues' Harbor."

This vexatious boundary question, which had agi-
tated the two colonies since the arrival of William
Penn in America in 1682, was decided, as we have
shown elsewhere, in favor of the province of Penn-
sylvania in 1709 by Mason and Dixon, two sur-
veyors sent out from London for that purpose, and
Mason and Dixon's line has ever since remained
the unquestioned boundary between the two com-
monwealths. The dispute having reached a definite
conclusion, an impetus was given to development.
Settlers multiplied, the country was cleared up, and
convenient farm-buildings were erected. The inhab-
itants soon learned to appreciate the fine water-powers
so abundant in this portion of Maryland, and in 1760
David Sliriver, the grandfather of the older members
of the family of that name now living in Western
Maryland, purchased a tract of land on Little Pipe
Creek and erected a mill and tannery. Mr. Shriver
was a prominent and useful citizen. He represented
Frederick County in the convention called in 1776 to
frame a constitution for the State of Maryland, and
for a number of years he was the representative of
that county in the Senate and House of Delegates.
In May, 1765, a bateau loaded with iron was success-
fully navigated from the Hampton furnace on Pipe
Creek to the mouth of the Monocacy River, in Freder-
ick County. There is no record of the establishment
of this furnace, but that it must have been in operation
for some time prior to the date given above is evident
from the advertisement which appeared May 28, 1767,



CARROLL COUNTY.



791



in which Benedict Calvert, Edward Digges, Normand
Bruce, William Digges, Jr., and James Canady offer
for sale the " Hampton Furnace, in Frederick County,
together with upwards of three thousand acres of land.
The furnace (with casting-bellows) and bridge-houses
were built of stone, also grist-mill and two stores, the
whole situated on a branch of Monocacy River."

The entire stock of negroes, servants, horses,
wagons, and implements belonging to the works were
offered for sale. There was on hand at the time coal
for six months, fourteen hundred cords of wood, five
hundred tons of ore at the side of the furnace and
four hundred tons raised at the banks. The adver-
tisement concludes with the announcement that
Normand Bruce lived near the works.

Solomon Shepherd, grandfather of Thomas, Solo-
mon, and James F. Shepherd, married Susanna Far-
quhar, the youngest child of William Farquhar, Oct.
27, 1779, and settled on a portion of the Farquhar
estate, about three-quarters of a mile east of Union
Bridge. Mr. Shepherd was a wool-comber and fuller,
and established a fulling-mill where the factory now
stands. For some time after the construction of his
mill he was without a house of his own, and boarded
with his father-in-law, at some distance down Pipe's
Creek ; and it is related of him that in walking back
and forth along the banks of the stream from the
mill to the house at night he was wont to burn the
ends of a bunch of hickory sticks before he would
set out on his hazardous journey, and when the wolves
(which were savage and ravenous) approached too near
he would whirl his firebrand about him to drive them
away. He afterwards moved into a log house, which
is still standing, and in 1790 built the brick house in
which Shepherd Wood now resides. Tiie latter was
at that time considered a palatial extravagance, and
the neighbors dubbed it " Solomon's Folly." In 1810
he built the present factory, and put in carding and
spinning-machines and looms for the manufacture of
cloths, blankets, and other fabrics. In 1815 he pur-
chased land of Peter Benedune, and removed to the
place now owned and occupied by E. G. Penrose, where
he lived until his death in 188-1:.

In 1783, David Rhinehart and Martin Wolfe
walked from Lancaster County, Pa., to Sam's Creek,
where they purchased a tract of land and soon after-
wards settled on it. Wolfe was the grandfather of
Joseph, Samuel, and Daniel Wolfe. He was some-
what eccentric after a very unusual fashion, and is
said to have been unwilling to dispose of property for
a price which he believed to exceed its real value.
David Rhinehart was the grandfather of David,
Daniel, William H., E. Thomas, J. C, and E. F.



Rhinehart. William H. Rhinehart, the great Amer-
ican sculptor, received his first le.s8ons on the farm
now owned and occupied by Daniel Rhinehart, twelve
miles southeast of Union Bridge.

Joel Wright, of Pennsylvania, married Elizabeth
Farquhar, daughter of William Farquhar, and settled
on a part of the land acquired by his father-in-law.
He was a surveyor and school-teacher, and superin-
tended a school under the care of Pipe Creek Monthly
Meeting, at that time one of the best educational in-
stitutions in the State. His pupils came from all
parts of the surrounding country, and many were sent
to him from Frederick City and its vicinity. It was
common in those days for ladies to make long jour-
neys on horseback to attend religious meetings or to
visit friends. Mrs. Wright traveled in this way to
Brownsville, then called " Red Stone," in Pennsyl-
vania, to attend meeting and to visit her relatives.
She brought back with her, on her return, two small
sugar-trees and planted them, and from these have
sprung tlie many beautiful shade-trees of that species
which adorn the vicinity of Union Bridge.

Francis Scott Key, whose name the " Star-Spangled
Banner" has made immortal, was born at Terra
Rubra, near the Monocacy, in what is now the Mid-
dleburg District of Carroll County, Aug. 9, 1780.
In his day he was well known as an able lawyer and
Christian gentleman, but with the lapse of time his
reputation as a poet has overshadowed his n)any other
excellent qualities.

Col. Joshua Gist was an early settler in the sec-
tion of Maryland now embraced within the limits of
Carroll County. He was an active partisan in the
Revolutionary war, and during the administration of
President John Adams, near the close of the last cen-
tury, was marked in his disapproval of the riotous and
insurrectionary proceedings of those opposed to the
excise duty laid upon stills. The disturbance, known
in history as the " Whisky Insurrection," became so
formidable, especially in Western Pennsylvania, that
Mr. Adams appointed Gen. Washington commander
of the forces raised to suppress it. The excitement
extended to this region, and the Whisky Boys in a
band marched into Westminster and .set up a liberty-
pole. The inhabitants of the town becoming alarmed
sent out for Col. Gist, who then commanded a militia
regiment. The colonel, a very courageous man,
mounted his horse, rode into town, drew his sword,
and ordered the pole to be cut down, which was at
once done, and placing his foot on it, he thus re-
mained until it was hewn in pieces. The Boys, con-
cluding discretion to be the better part of valor, stole
out of.town, and the incipient revolution was stayed



792



HISTORY OF WESTERN MARYLAND.



by the coolness and judgment of a single individual.
In 1748, Frederick County was created by the Colo-
nial Legislature, and that portion of the present
county of Carroll which had previously belonged to
Prince George's was embraced within its limits, as
was almost the whole of Western Maryland. Col.
Gist and Henry Warfield were elected to the House
of Delegates of Maryland towards the close of the
eighteenth century, for the express purpose of secur-
ing a division of the county into election districts
for the convenience of the inhabitants, who were at
that time compelled to cross the Monocacy and go all
the way to Frederick City to vote.

Joseph Elgar, in the latter part of the last century,
established a factory at Union Bridge for the manu-
facture of wrought nails, — that is, the nails were so
designated, but in reality they were cut from the
bar of iron, lengthwise with the fibre of the bar,
which gave them ductility and clinching qualities
equivalent to wrought nails. Elgar subsequently re-
moved to Washington and entered the service of the
United States, where his genius was duly appreciated.
About the year 1809, Jacob R. Thomas, a neighbor
of Elgar, conceived the idea that the very hard' labor
of cutting grain in the harvest-field could be done by
machinery driven by horse-power. Prior to this time,
and for some years afterwards, the old system of
cradling grain was the only process generally known
for harvesting, and the reaping-machine may be truth-
fully said to have been invented by him. Thomas
worked at his machine with great assiduity, and added
to it an automatic attachment to gather the cut grain
into sheaves, it being substantially the self-raker of
the present day. During the harvest in the summer
of 1811 his machine was so far perfected as to admit
of a trial. It had not been furnished with a tongue
and other appurtenances for attaching horses, and was
therefore pushed into the harvest-field and over the
grain by a sufficient number of men. Thomas Shep-
herd, recently deceased, and William Shepherd, his
brother, and father of Thomas F. Shepherd and Sol-
omon Shepherd, and Rudolph Stern, father of Reuben
W. Stern, of Westminster, were three of the men
who aided in the trial, and their testimony is unani-
mous that it cut the grain well and perfectly, but that
its delivery was defective and did not make a good
sheaf. There is no evidence on record as to the man-
ner in which the gathering attachment was con-
structed, whether it was like or unlike any of the
automatic rakes of the present day, but the cutting
apparatus was the same in principle as those now in
use on the best reapers, mowing in the same shears-
like manner, which has been universally approved



and adopted as the best method of cutting grain,
and diifering only in the manner of attaching the
knives to the sickle-bar. In modern machines the
knives are short and broad and riveted fast to the
sickle-bar, while in Thomas' machine the knives were
longer and pivoted in the middle, and attached to
the sickle-bar by a pivot at the rear end. Thomas
was extremely sensitive, and unable to bear"up against
and overcome the incredulity and ridicule consequent
upon the partial failure of the machine, and it was
never finished by him. He afterwards built a factory



Online LibraryJohn Thomas ScharfHistory of western Maryland : being a history of Frederick, Montgomery, Carroll, Washington, Allegany, and Garrett counties from the earliest period to the present day ; including biographical sketches of their representative men (Volume v.2) → online text (page 1 of 174)