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and however much it may have succeeded in banishing
thos'^ fiercer vices which naturally accompany igno-
rance and barbarism, still can it be forgotten at how
dear a price the boon was acquired ? In the place of
temporary and remediable evils, which were honoured
in the observance only, and did not seek justification
by any divine sanction, the nation was delivered
captive to the guidance of an unchangeable law, which^
whatever the excellence of some of its precepts, poisons
domestic life, stifles honest inquiry, crushes the right
of private judgment, has hitherto been found, and is
essentially, incompatible with constitutional freedom,
and has been followed by that train of national degra-
dation and evil which the story of the past and the
example of the present show to be the constant, and
it would seem the inevitable, attendants wherever
Islam holds sway. History indeed but too truly
records that the faith of Mahomet is altogether
powerless to ennoble or to regenerate a nation.
The partial and specious reforms which it may
effect are vitiated by the fact that they serve to ex
elude the highest ; ;md as the inner life of families,
the whole tone of society, and the intellectual and
moral standard of a people depend on the principles

which obtained amongst the ancient Moors and Numidians : —
" SinguH pro opibus, quisque quam plurimas uxores ; denas alii
.... Ita animus multiludine distrahitur ; nullam pro socia ob-
tinet : pariter onines viles sunt " (De Bello Jugurth. ).



ISLAM AND ITS FOUNDER. 23 1

diffused by the ruling religion, it seems, from past
experience, hopeless to expect that Islam will ever
cease to be, what it has hitherto proved, the most
formidable obstacle to the dawn of a j^rogress^ve and
enlightened civilization.

The question of the imposture of Mahomet is
one which may best be left to the candid reader,
who, from the records of his life, will judge how far
he has laid himself open to so grave an imputation.
That he was the impostor pictured by some writers is
refuted alike by his unwavering belief in the truth of
his own mission, by the loyalty and unshaken con-
fidence of his companions, who had ample opportuni-
ties of forming a right estimate of his sincerity, and
finally, by the magnitude of the task which he brought
to so successful an issue. No impostor, it may safely
be said, could have accomplished so mighty a work.
No one unsupported by a living faith in the reality of
his commission, in the goodness of his cause, could
have maintained the same consistent attitude through
long years of adverse fortune, alike in the day of
victory and the hour of defeat, in the plenitude of his
power and at the moment of death.

There were indeed times, in his later career at
Medina, when it is impossible to avoid the belief that
his religious enthusiasm degenerated into culpable
self-deception, and the idea of a divine impulse ob-
scured the view of his own substantial imposture.^
His early career at Mecca was eminently pure and

' The affair of Zeinab, of Mary the Copt, and of his especial
marital privileges, detailed in the Koran, are here referred to.
On this subject, conf. " Christianity and the Religions of India '
(Kennedy), pp. 214-218.



232 ISLAM AND ITS FOUNDER.

decorous, and gained him well-deserved esteem ; and
however much his opponents scoffed at the man
" whose conversation was about heaven," none could
cast in his teeth any charge of depravity. That there
was, amidst much that was noble and great, an active
moral declension in his character when tried in the
furnace of success, it would be vain to deny. But
now he has passed away, with all his weakness and
frailties, and all his power, his lofty claims and aspira-
tions, his earth-born passions and the secret motives
which influenced him, and may well be left to the
righteous judgment of that day when the secrets of
all hearts will be revealed, and when it will be known
" who are the Lord's, and who is holy."

Regarding the system which he inaugurated, I
offer the following remarks. The view which we
take of Mahometanism will much depend on our
assurance of the truth of Christianity in its full and
divine meaning. Apply this test to all who have
written on the subject, and it will, I venture to
think, substantially account for their varying estimate
of Islam. Much too, I need hardly say, will depend
on our belief in the Atonement by the death of
Christ, as the means provided by God for the redemp-
tion of mankind ; for in this, as the foundation of
our hope, does Christianity differ essentially from the
scheme devised by the prophet of Mecca.

The Koran, as above explained, however much
its followers may have departed from its teach-
ing, repudiates the idea of any vicarious sacrifice for
sin, teaches expressly that each soul must account
for itself to God, and denying the truth of the Chris-



ISLAM AND ITS FOUNDER. 233

tian redemption, lays upon each individual the task
of atoning for his own sin, of securing pardon, and of
rendering himself meet for admission to Paradise.
Self-righteousness, the merit of good works, and of a
rigid attention to the prescribed formularies and cere-
monies of their faith, with God's mercy to supply any
possible deficiency, these constitute the scheme of
salvation prescribed in Islam. It will be enough to
point out how fundamentally this differs from the
Christian plan, which, repudiating the merit of the
behever's works as in themselves propitiatory, offers
the sacrifice of Christ as at once vindicating the
demands of justice, fulfilling God's gracious intention
towards all mankind, and giving to the sinner, through
faith, the comforting assurance of pardon and recon-
ciliation.^

While recognizing, then, how fundamentally Chris-
tianity and Islam differ in the plan they propose for
the reconciliation of man with God, it will be well to
remember that the one is the eternal purpose of our
merciful and all-wise Creator, the other is the natural
outcome of the human heart, which clings to the
belief that it can do something to help itself and
propitiate an offended judge, to whose mercy it looks
to effect what is lacking, and to secure its admission
to future beatitude.

' In conversation on this subject with a rigid Mahometan, he
assured me that they had a redeemer, — that the martyr Ilosein
died for them at the Kerbela ! The Shias of India represent
the deaths of both Hosein and Hasan as expiatory for the sins
of men. Hasan was poisoned by his wife at the instigation of
Muavia I.



234 ISLAM AND ITS FOUNDER.

That this is the practical religion of all, and
even of some professing Christians, who prefer the
promptings of reason to the teaching of revelation,
few will deny ; nor can the fact be hidden that the
tendency of all spiritual faiths has been thus to
degenerate; for the human heart is naturally prone
to seek, by outward acts, to buy acceptance with the
being it adores.

The merit of good works once admitted, other
aids to faith, and new means of propitiating heaven
are quickly found, and seasons and months and
days, nay, particular spots, are believed to have
their special efficacy in bearing aloft with acceptance
the prayers of the faithful. While the Gospel pre-
scribes for the believer's guidance pure and ennobling
principles of action, the Koran, with retrogressive
legislation, imposes upon those who receive it the
galling fetters of a burdensome ritual ; toilsome pil-
grimages, severe fastings, ablutions, and the mechani-
cal observance of the minutiae of his faith, are sub-
stituted for purity of life ; and the divorce of morality
and religion soon becomes complete.

I need hardly remind the reader how impor-
tant a place certain months and days and places
occupy in Mahomet's scheme, and how necessar}'
they are as adjuncts to the due performance of the
ceremonies. The prophet of Mecca, whose pro-
fessed mission was the extirpation of idolatry, could
recognize its existence only in its grosser forms ; and
so subtle is its poison, has himself hopelessly fallen
into the very sin he so vehemently assails. Thus his
pilgrimage to the " Holy House" has especial efficacy



ISLAM AND ITS FOUNDER. 235

if performed under the light of one particular moon ; ^
the prayers of the faithful, to reach the ear of Allah,
must be directed towards the one Kibla of their faith ;-
and their fasting is then fraught with peculiar merit
if performed during the month in which the Koran
descended from heaven/'

The rapid spread and the permanence of Islam
are appealed to by Mahometans as certain proofs
of its divine origin. While repudiating the vali-
dity of this deduction, it must be conceded that
it presents enough to satisfy some spiritual want, and
clearly points out that its tenets must have been
found congenial to the peoples, who, in rapid succes-
sion adopted, and still hold to the observances it
enjoins, and the licence it allows. "The causes of
this new religion's rapid progress are not difficult
to be discovered ; Mahomet's law itself was admir-
ably adapted to the natural disposition of man,
but especially to the manners, opinions, and vices
prevalent among the people of the East ; for it was
extremely simple, proposing few things to be believed;
nor did it enjoin many and difficult duties to be
performed, or such as laid severe restraints on the
propensities."'*

If to the above causes we add the powerful
argument of the sword, and the wealth and honours
which conquest yielded, we shall have ample reasons
to account for the triumph of the crescent over the
cross in those regions where, in dogma and in practice,
a sensuous idolatry and relic worship called itself by

' Sura ii. 192. ' Sura ii. 139. ^ Sura ii. 118.

* Mosheim's Eccl. Hist., book ii. chap. iii. p. 73.



236 ISLAM AND ITS FOUNDER.

the name of Christ, and for the extension to distant
lands of the arms and faith of Islam. In the religious
history of man, indeed, nothing is more obvious than
that he has bent his strongest efforts to gain the
sanction of religion for those vices to which he is
naturally addicted ; and this fact will be found to be
the key to the corruption of all true, and to the inven-
tion of all false religions.

Regarding its aggressive action at the present
day, the missionaries of Islam (to whose success in
various parts a recent Amter refers in terms of undis-
guised exultation i) act upon principles, the efficacy
of which should awaken no wonder. Converts are
expected to use only the prescribed formula of the
faith, to acknowledge one God, and Mahomet as
His Prophet ; no examination into the nature and
ground of their belief is held, outward conformity
only is demanded, and time and habit are left to
complete the work. No immediate repudiation of
old prejudices is required, no intelligent knowledge
of their new creed necessary. The worship of visible
idols alone is to be abandoned ; but whether the
convert know anything of his newly-adopted faith, or
whether it serve to produce any practical effect on
the will and character, are questions altogether foreign
to the object m view. Considering that social eleva-
tion follows in the wake of Islam, especially in the
case of converts from the ranks of paganism, and that
no real sacrifice is demanded, it will cause no wonder
that it makes its way where the positive prohibitions
of Christianity, and its stern demands for the fruits
of a holy and religious life fail to win acceptance.
' Bosworth Smith, "Muhammad," p. 40.



ISLAM AND ITS FOUNDER. 237

In proposing self-righteousness as the means of
salvation, Islam is admirably adapted to flatter the
pride of man, and in this particular especially is it
antagonistic to Christianity, which, excluding the
merit of man's works, calls for inward holiness, not
outside form, and summons the humble, contrite
sinner in deep abasement to the foot of the cross as
his only hope of pardon, his only source of peace.
How difficult a task lies before the herald of the
Gospel in proclaiming such an invitation to the self-
righteous follower of the prophet need hardly be told.
To him the reception of Christianity is compatible
alone with the entire repudiation of his revered
Koran ; which, though professing to be a continuation
of the Old and New Testament revelations, utterly
destroys the very foundations of the Christian faith.

As the inner power and meaning of a religion
is dead and barren, in such proportion do outward
forms and ritualistic practices offer themselves as
specious substitutes, and come to take the place of
that inner life which alone represents the fruits ot
true religion. The exact ritual and formal observ-
ances of Islam have carried with them their own
inevitable Nemesis, and thus we find that in the
worship of the Faithful formalism and indifference,
pedantic scrupulosity and positive disbelief flourish
side by side. The minutest change of posture in
prayer, the displacement of a single genuflexion,
would call for much heavier censure than outward
profligacy or absolute neglect.^

In conclusion, it may safely be asserted that Maho-
met had no true conception of the tremendous respon-

' Comp. Farrar, "Life of Christ," i. 374, regarding the Jews.



238 ISLAM AND ITS FOUNDER.

sibility he was taking upon himself in arrogating the
title of God's inspired ambassador, and in claiming to
be the successor of those who in ages past had been the
heralds of His will. The Koran claims to be a con-
tinuation of the earlier messages of Heaven, and to
supplement and develop the teaching of the Law and
the Gospel. Assuming such to be the case, we may
fairly look to it to afford us clearer views of the
•Divine will and attributes, of life and death, of the
provision made for man's spiritual and temporal
difficulties ; and in it we should find the way made
more plain for securing to all mankind their inherent
rights of life, liberty, and social and political well-
being. Instead of this, darkness and retrogression
are engraved on every page of the " Preserved Book,"
God's universal fatherhood is ignored, and in place
of the finished sacrifice, the sinner is bid to plunge
into the dark future, trusting in his own righteous-
ness ; in his service of the All-merciful the fetters
of a minute ritual are substituted for that wor-
ship which we are taught is to be in spirit and in
truth. Light and darkness are not more opposed
than the loving dictates of the Gospel and the venge-
ful spirit of the Koran, in which hatred and oppres-
sion take the place of love and forgiveness of injuries,
and the denunciations of the prophet contrast with
the voice of the Good Shepherd, which speaks of
peace and good-will to all mankind.



INDEX.



Albas (A1), 43 (n), 50, 131, 15S,

174, 176, 180, 216, 220.
Abhassides (Cali()h of Baghdad),

99 (n), 184 (n), 198, 213.
Abdullah (Father of iM.), 43,

44. 45-
Abdallah (Son of Abu Bekr),

132.
Abdallah (Chief of Hypocrites),

159.
Abd-al-Dar, 42, 159, 174.
,, Malik (Caliph), 215.
,, Miittalil), 43, 44, 46,

48, 49, 60.
,, Ozza, 42, 57.
,, Rahman (Ibn Avvf), 72.
Abd-Kelal, 24.
,, Menaf, 42.
,, Shams, 42, 43, 78, 126,

213-

Ablution, 117.

Abraha, 23, 43, 92.

Abraham, 34, 39, 44 (n), 56, 62,
135. '37- 154, 189.

Abstinence, 185.

Abu-Ay lib, 148.
„ Bekr, 71, 72, 87, 126, 132,
133. '34. '^3. 200; (Ca-
liph), 208 ; (Death), 209,
2X1.



Abu-Cobeis (Hill), 46, 85.
,, Gabshan, 38 (n).
,, Manila, 19S.
„ Jahl, 77, 83, 124, 156, 159,

'75-

,, Lahab, 43, 73 (n), 76, 79,

124.
,, Obeida, 209.
„ Sofian, 50, 73 (n), 77, 124,
156, 158, 159, 164, 165,
170 (n), 173, 174, 212.
,, Talib, 43, 48, 49, 51, 57,
60, 71, 7S, 82; (Death),
123, 124, 126.
Alnil-Aas, 78.
Abwa, 48, 51.

Abyssinia, 23, 25, 42, 79, 170.
Acaba, 128, 131.
Acacias, 133.
Ad (Beni), 65.
Ada, 83.

Adam, 33 ; (Peak) 34 (n).
Aden (Vide Euai], 6, 12, 24,

5'-
Adler [Dr. Chief Rabbi], 55 (n).
Adliyah (The Shias), 200.
Adnan, 36.
Adrianople, 219.
Adultery (Proof of), 163
Adzan, 117.
.('Elius Gallus, 7, 21.
Afghanistan, 222.



>4o



ISLAM AND ITS FOUNDER.



Afghan Princes, 224.

Africa, 5, li, 169, 1S6, 199 (n),

211, 225.
Afternoon (The), 89.
Agar (liagar), 19.
Ag-ressive (War), 139, 155.
Agony (In Garden), 115.
A.hmed Shah (Emp. of Delhi),

224 (n).
Ahriman, 169.
Aiznadin (Battle of), 209.
Akaba, 8, 51.

Akbar (Emp. of Delhi), 223.
Akhund of Swat, 204.
Al-Amin (Title of Mahomet), 56,
216.

,, Arab-al-Araba, 36.

,, Borac, 140.

,, Caswa, 172, 174.

,, Debaran, 32.

,, Fat i hat, 90.

,, Forkan (Koran), 196 (n).

,, Hajar, in.

,, Kadr (Night of), 69, 96.

,, Katab (Koran), 196 (n).

,, Mamun (Caliph), 198, 216.

,, Manzor (Caliph), 216.

,, Moshaf (Koran), 196 (n).

,, Moshtari, 32.

„ Motassem (Caliph), 216.

,, Muttalib, 42, 43.

,, Ozza, 32, 80, 175.

,, Sadiq, 71, 203.

,, Shafei, 198.

,, Shira, 32.

,, Sirat (Bridge), 207.

,, Zobier, 43, 49.

., Zohirah, 32.
Albania, 219.
Alcoran (Koran), 63.
Aleppo, 57, 209.
Alexandria and Alexander, 169,

210.
Algeciras, 215.

Ali (Caliph), 71, 79, 156, 158,
159, iJZ, 178, 184 (n), i88(n),



199, 200, 203, 208, 211, 212,

213, 217.
Alilat (Idd), 31.
Allah, 118, 129, 192.
Allat. VideZ^f/.
AIla-ul-Din (Emp. of Delhi),

223 (n).
All-Merciful, 166.
Alms, 144, 186, 194, 197.
Alumgir II. (Emp. of Delhi),

224 (n).
Amalekites, 34, 35.
Amaziah, 29.

Amina (Mother of Mahomet),

44, 45, 46, 47, 72.
Amru, 172, 173, 210, 212.
Amulets, 167 (n).
AmurathI.(SultanofTurks),2i9.
Amurath II. (Sultan of Turks),

219.
Anchorites, 25.
Ancyra, 219.
Andalusia, 211.
Angel (of Death), 114.
Angels, 32, 113 ; (Koran), 115 ;

(Bible), 143, 206, 207.
Annunciation, 143.
Ansars, 131, 208.
Antioch, 25, 209.
Apes (Men changed into), 137.
Apostles, 139, 142, 144, 162,

167, 174, 181, 228.
Arabia(Legends),io7; (Conquest

of), 177:
Arabia, 6, 10, 19, 199 (n).
Arabice Emporium (Aden), 6.
Arabian Nights, 216.
Arafat (Hill of), 34 (n), 39, 44,

62 (n), i8r, 187.
Archangels, 113.
Arcam (House of), 75) 84.
Arians, 52.
Aryat, 23.
Arungzebe (Emp. of Delhi),

200 (n), 223.
Asabi, 15.



ISLAM AND ITS FOUNDER.



241



Asad, 57.
Ascanius, 54 (n).
Ashura (Yom), iSS.
Assassination, 167, 210,211.

(n).
Asturias, 215.
Aswad, 183 (n).
Atonement, 60, 232, 233 (n
Atonement (Great day of),
Augustus (Emp. ), 7-
Autas, 175.
Aval, 15.

Aws (15eni), 128, 165.
Axum, 25, 170.
Ayesha (Wife of Mahomet),

126, 149, 163, 177, 184,

212.
Ayr (Jebel), 134.
Azazil (Angel), 114.
Azdites, 36.
Azrael (Angel), 114.



B

Bab-el-Max DEK, 5.

Baber (Emperor), 223.

Babylonia, 213.

Bacchus, 31.

Badr (Battle of). Si&q Bedr.

I'adsan, 170.

Baghdad, 180, 199 (n), 213

218.
Bahira, 54 ; Bahrein, 10, I
Bajazet, 219.
Bakia (El), 180, 183.
Balance (The), 207.
Balearic (Isles), 215.
Balkh, 211.
Bara-Wafat, iSS (n).
]5araka, 45, 48.
Barrier (The), 206.
]3asilidians (Christian Sect

(n).
Baln-Marr, 36.



224



187,



72,



I 216,
5.20.



), 146



Bavaria, 219.

Bayard (Ali), 212.

I'eatific Vision, 106.

liecca, 102.

Bedouin, 10, 11, 40, 46, 165,

209.
Bedr (Battle of), 77 (n), 78,

157, 159-
Beersheba, 17.
Bejapore, 223 (n).
Belgrade, 219.
Beni-Kedar, 19, 21.

,, Khatan, 16.

,, Khozaa, 37.

,, Nabat, 20.

,, Saad, 46.

,, Safa, 37.

,, Sheyba, 59.

,, Thackif, 125.
Berbers (The), 195.
Berzakh (The Barrier), 206.
Birds, 122 ; (Language of), 137.
Bir Osfan, 134.
Bismillah, &c., 197.
Black Stone, 33, 35, 38, 40, 59,

172, 174.
Blood (Forbidden), 140.
Bohemia (King of), 219.
Book (The Law), 112.
Booty (Distribution), 157, 176.
Borac (Al), 140.
Bosnia, 219.

Bosphorus (Bosporus), 129, 218.
Bostra, 8, 52, 53, 54, 172.
Bridge (The, Al Sirat), 207.
Brussa, 219.
Buddha, 34 (n).
Burckhardt, 20 (n), 190, &c.
lUirial, 205.

Burton (Capt.), " El Mecca and
El Medinah," 38 (n), 145 (n),
148 (n), iSo (n).
Byzantine (Monarchs, &C.), 169

(4), 209.



R 2



242



ISLAM AND ITS FOUNDER.



Cadesia (l-iattle oO, 210.

Cadi (Qa/i), 118 (n).

Cafur (water of), 105.

Cainucaa (Beni), 158.

Cairo, 188, 199 (n), 214 (n), 220.

Caliph, 71, 83, 99 (n), 180, 195,

198, 199, 208, 209, 211, 212,

213, 215, 217, 220.
Caliphate, 22, 87, 183 (n), 184

(n), 210, 213, 216, 222.
Calvary, 147.
Camels, li, 51, 134.
Camuss, 171.
Canaan, 137.
Canneh, 12.
Canopus, 32.

Captives, 103, 163, 192, 193.
Caravan trade, II, 12, 41, 51,

154.
Carpocratians, 146 (n).
Casim (son of Mahomet), 57,

71, 78.
Caspian Sea, 210, 217.
Cave of Thaur, 132, 134, 172.

,, Hira, 62, 69.
Celebes, 224.

Ceremonies (of Pilgrimage), 181.
Cerinthians, 146 (n).
Ceuta, 215.
Charity, 138.
Charms, 166 (n).
Chersonese (of Arabia), 5.
Children (Duty to parents), 13S.
China, 217, 225.
Chosroes (King of Persia), 129,

169.
Christ Jesus, 122, 143, 232.

Christian (Church), 60; Heaven,

105 (n); Doctrine, 142.

,, Sects, 146.

Christians, 23, 25, 26, 52, 53 ; in

Syria, 54, 90 (n), 98, lOO,

103, 155, 179; Treatment of,



191. 193 (Christianity), 237,

238.
Chronicles, ig.
Chuzestan, 15.
Circuit of Kaaba, 140.
Circumcision, 195.
City (near the Sea), 137
Cleavirig (the), 91.
Cleopatris (Suez), 7.
Climax (Mons), 7 (n).
Coba, 134, 1 48.
Cod red, 134.

Collyridians (Christian sect), 52.
Companions (of right and left

hand), 103, 104.
Conception (of Mary), 143.
Concubines, 103, 166, 170, 193.
Confucius, 138.
Constantine IX. (Paleologus),

219.
Constantinople, 61, 148 (n),

169, 202, 204, 214, 218, 219.
Constantius (Emp. ), 24.
Converts, 76, 128, 130, 236.
Copt, 170, 176.
Cordova, 213, 216, 220 (n).
Coreish, 21, 36, 37, 43. 44, 5°.

56, 74, 84, 131, 160, 168, 173.
Coreitza (Beni), 165, 166.
Cornelius Palma, 8.
Coss (Bishop), 55.
Cross, 129, 237.
Ctesiphon, 210.
Cufa (Kufa), 214.
Cussai (Cosa), 37, 38, 41, 44, 57,

71.
Cyprus, 211.

D

Dadena (Dedan), 15.
Dahir Billah (Caliph), 220.
Damascus (El Sham), 57, 209,

213, 214 (n), 215, 222.
DanubL-. 218, 219.
Larayeb, 202.



ISLAM AND ITS FOUNDER.



243



Dar-ul-Harb, 226.

,, ialain, 226.

,, Nadwa, 3S.
Darve^hes, 204.
Date-pal in, 10.
Daughters (of God), 100.
David, 121.
Dead Sea, 19.
Death, 205 ; of Christ, 232.
Death of Christ (denied), 145 ;

(is to die), 145.
Decalogue, 55 (n).
Deccaii, 22j (n).
Defensive War, 139.
De jure, 212.
Delhi, 223.
Deliverer, 127.

Descendants (of Prophet), 212.
Devils composed Koran, no,

III.
D'Herbelot, 33 (n), 63, 99 (n),

141 (n), et fassim.
Dhurra, 11.
Din, 197.

Disaffected (at Medina), 153.
Divorce, 150, 161, 164.
Drowning, 163.
Dryad, 108.
Dzul-Caada (Month), 168, 171,

193-

Dzul-Halifa, 159.

Dzul Hijja, 39, 181, 1S7, 193.

Dzu-Novvas, 23, 25, 103.



Earthquake (The), 90.
Eber, 36.
Ebionitcs, 52.
Eblis (Devil), 45, 114, 196.
Ecclesiastes, S9.
Eden (Aden), 34.
Edom (Ras), 17; (Jezeret), 17,
20, 29.



Edessa, 169.
Eed al Fitr, 186.
,, al Zoha, 186.
Efreet (Jinn), 137.
Egypt, 7, 12, 18, 21, 137, 163,
170, 202, 206 (n), 212, 213,.
216, 219, 225.
Egyptian's Wile, 137.
El l>akia, I So.
El llaura, 7 (n).
Elephant (The), 23, 44, 92.
Embassies (from Mahomet), 169.
Enchantments, 166.
English (The), 224.
Epirus, 219.
Erythrsean Sea, 17.
Esau, 15, 17.

Euphrates, 5, 16, 25, 214, 2l8.
Eutychians, 52.
live, 33.

Evil Eye, 166 (n).
Exarch, 169.
Ezekiel, 12, 15 (n).



Fables (in Koran), 136, 137.
Faithful. Vide A/ahoineiafis or

AIosleDis.
Fall of Man, 91.
Farokshir (Emperor), 224 (n).
Fairar (The Rev. ; '■ Life of

Christ"), Z2, (n), 55 (n), 237

(n).
Fasting, 185, 197.
Fate (Vide FrcJesthtation), 96,

221.
Fatihat (Al), 90.
Fatima (Daughter of Mahomet),

57, 79. 177. 199. 20S (n).
Fatima (Wile of Said), 72,83.
I'^aiimite (Caliphs), 214 (n).
Faqir, 203.

Feeding (the Multitude), 144.
Fchr Coreish, 36, 37.



244



ISLAM AND ITS FOUNDER.



Festival (Greater), 187.

Fines, 193.

Fitr (Fed al), 186.

Flij^ht (of Mahomet), 132, 134.

Food (Lawful), 140.

Formula (of Belief), 19S.

Fornication, 164.

Forster(the Rev.), "Geography

of Arabia," 7, 17 (n), 20 (n),

21 (n), &c.
Freeman, "The Saracens," 64

(n), 129 (n), 150 (n), 170 (n),

192 (n), 200 (n), 214 (n), 215

(n), 220 (n).
Friday (Moslem Sunday), iiS,

149.
Funeral (Ceremonies), 206.



Gabriel, 35, 69, 70, 94, 96,

ii3> 143-
Galatia and Galatians, 19, 215.
Games (of chance), 190.
Gaul, 216.

Gaza, 12, 20 (n), 43, 45.
Genesis, 16, 18.
Genii (Jinn), 70, 107, 108, 126,

137, 196.
Genuflexions, 117.
Ghassan (Prince of), 170.
Ghengiz Khan, 218.
Ghorian Princes, 223.


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