Jacob Hoke.

The great invasion of 1863; or, General Lee in Pennsylvania. Embracing an account of the strength and organization of the armies of the Potomac and northern Virginia; their daily marches with the routes of travel, and general orders issued; the three days of battle; the retreat of the Confederate an online

. (page 1 of 46)
Online LibraryJacob HokeThe great invasion of 1863; or, General Lee in Pennsylvania. Embracing an account of the strength and organization of the armies of the Potomac and northern Virginia; their daily marches with the routes of travel, and general orders issued; the three days of battle; the retreat of the Confederate an → online text (page 1 of 46)
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OF 1863;



bee in V

ei^eral nee ii^ r eipi^svjivai^ia



The Strength and Organization of the Armies of the Potomac and Northern Virginia ; Their

Daily Marches with the Routes of Travel, and General Orders Issued ; The Three

Days of Battle; The Retreat of the Confederates and Pursuit by the

Federals ; Analytical Index, Maps, Portraits, and a large

number of Illustrations of the Battle-field.

WHtlj an ^ppsttbte

Containing an Account of the Burning of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, A Statement of the
General Sickles Controversy, and other Valuable Historic Papers.





51741 A

§; 1922 L

Copyright, 1887,
















The Publisher wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to Brigadier-Gen-
eral M. R. Patrick, Provost-Marshal-General of the Army of the Potomac,
and at present Governor of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer
Soldiers at Dayton, Ohio, who kindly loaned the originals from which
the "gravures" of Generals Meade, Hancock, and Lee were made. The
kindness is all the more appreciated from the fact, that the originals are
souvenirs, presented to General Patrick by the distinguished personages
themselves, and have never before been given to the public. The pen and
ink sketch of General Meade, on page 241, was made by Colonel 0. H. T.
Collis, just before the Wilderness campaign, and was pronounced by Gen-
eral Meade the best likeness of himself yet made.



The Armies of the Potomac, and of Northern J'irginia.


Number of the Army of the Potomac — Testimony of General George
G. Meade — Strength of the Army of Northern Virginia — State-
ment of Hon. Edward Everett, General James Longstreet, Colonel
W. H. Taylor, and the Count of Paris — Confirmatory Testimony of
Eye-Witnesses — Organization of the Army of the Potomac — Of
the Army of Northern Virginia — Purposes and Objects of the Inva-
sion — Statement of Generals A. L. Long, James Longstreet, and
Abner Doubleday — Jefferson Davis' Confidence in Lee's success in
Pennsylvania — Hon. A. H. .Stephens sent to Washington to propose
Peace upon the Recognition of the Southern Confederacy — Copy
of Davis' Letter of Instructions to Stephens — Turned back at Fort-
ress Monroe — -The Victories at Vicksburgaud Gettysburg Interfere
with Davis' Plans — Dee's Strategical Plans and Purposes — Arrival
of Dongstreet's Scout and Change of Plan and Purposes — Harmon-
izing the Contradictory Statements as to the Time of this Scout's
Arrival — Confidence of the Confederates — Lee's Plans and Strat-
egy Foiled by General Hooker — Stuart's Forced March around the
Federal Army — Lee's Ignorance of Hooker's Movements — Depar-
ture of the Confederate Commmander from a "Strategical Offensive
but Tactical Defensive " — Longstreet's Objections to this Change —
Opposed to an Attack upon the Federal Position at Gettysburg —
Counsels a Flank Movement — Remarks of the Count of Paris upon
Lee's alternatives 3^


The A rm its in Motion; Rout of General Milroy at Winchester.

Positions Occupied by the Federal and Confederate Armies — Indica-
tions of an Aggressive Movement by the Confederates — General
Hooker wide awake to the Emergency — Informs the Government
of the Threatened Invasion — Withdrawal of Lee's Army from




Fredericksburg and Concentration at Culpeper — Reconnoissance
in force by the Federal Cavalry under General Pleasanton — Desper-
ate Engagement at Beverly Ford or Brandy Station — Capture of
General Stuart's Head -quarters' Chest containing Lee's Plans —
Prompt Measures by General Hooker to Defeat Dee's Purposes —
Dee Forced to the Shenandoah Valley instead of moving North-
ward and East of the Mountain as he Intended — Daily Marches of
the Two Armies — Exposed Condition of General Milroy at Win-
chester — Warned of his Danger he Declares his Ability to Main-
tain his Position — Reconnoissances made and Skirmishes with the
Advancing Enemy — Arrival of Early's and Johnson's Divisions
before Winchester — Rodes' Division drives Colonel McReynolds
from Berryville — His Wagon -train Flees to the Potomac at Wil-
liamsport — Pursued by Jenkins' Cavalry — Capture of Martinsburg
by General Rodes — Severe Fighting at Winchester — Milroy aban-
dons Winchester in the night and flees toward Harper's Ferry —
Intercepted by the Confederates— His Forces Defeated and many
Slain and Captured — Escape of part of his Force to Maryland
Heights, and others to Everett or Bloody Run in Southern Pennsyl-
vania — Jenkins crosses the Potomac at Williamsport 66


Preparations for the Reception of the Enemy. Advance of General fenkins.

Description of Southern Pennsylvania — Preparations made to Repel
the Threatened Invasion — Departments of the Monongahela and
Susquehanna ordered — The Militia called out — Intense Excite-
ment along the Southern Border — Graphic Description by Rev.
Dr. Philip Schaff — Excitement in Chambersburg, and the contents
of the Bank, stores, and Court House secreted or sent away — Flight
of the Farmers with their Horses and Cattle — McReynolds' Wagon-
train Flees down the Valley — Tremendous Panic of the Teamsters
— Dashes through Chambersburg — Jenkins' Cavalry in Pursuit
enters Chambersburg — Capture of Dieutenant Smith and George
Hawkins in the Public .Square — Perilous Escape of their Captors —
Desperate Strait of Mr. J. S. Brand — Reprisals made upon the
Town for Captured Horses and Accouterments — Shirk's Hill occu-
pied — Scouring the Country for Plunder — Horses and Negroes
taken — Narrow Escape of Hon. Thaddeus Stevens — Jenkins orders
the Stores and Shops to be Opened — Alarm of the Confederates
and Hasty Falling Back — Jenkins Plunders the Southern part of
Franklin County — Fulton and Adams County Visited and Plun-
dered. 89


The Invasion.

Stuart's Cavalry leaves its Encampment on the South bank of the Rap-
pahannock and moves Northward — Precautionary Movements of
the Federal Army — The Safety of the National Capital, General
Hooker's Paramount Object — Magnificent Strategy, and the Ap-
proaches to Washington all Covered — Cavalry Engagement at Aldie
and Upperville — General Stuart'Sealed Up in the Valley — Advance
of General Knipe from Harrisburg — General Lee issues a General
Order at Berryville Relating to the Conduct of his Troops, and the
taking of Supplies— New York Militia in Camp a mile South of
Chambersburg — A Suspicious Person visits the Camp — Rodes'
Division Advances from Williamsport — Jenkins' cavalry Advance
to Marion — Surprised and Fall Back, Pursued by a Company of
Federal Cavalry — First Battle of the War upon Pennsylvania Soil

— Observations from a Tree Top, and the Confederate Advance Re-
ported to General Knipe — Panic Among the New York Militia-men

— Cowardly Plight — A Federal Officer Shoots his Horse — .Slander-
ous Stories told by these Panic-stricken Men — General Order issued
by Lieutenant General Ewell — Johnson and Early cross the Poto-
mac and Advance to Hagerstown — Early Deflects to the East and
passes down the Valley by way of Waynesborough, Quincy, and
Funkstown to Greenwood — Jenkins Re-enters Chambersburg —
Requisition made for Supplies — Requisitions upon Greencastle by
General Ewell — Rodes' Division Enters and Passes Through Cham-
bersburg — Arrival of General Ewell — General Order Relating to
the Disposition of Liquor — Requisition upon Chambersburg for
Supplies — Examination of Stores — Immense Dosses of the Citizens
of Chambersburg — Printing done for the Confederates — Shrewd
Financiering — Occupation of Shirk's Hill and Cannon Planted —
Stewart's Brigade of Infantry marches from Greencastle to McCon-
nellsburg — Battle of North Mountain — Undue Importance Attached
to this Affair — Hill's and Dongstreet's Corps cross the Potomac
and Advance down the Valley — Confederate Court-Martial — Addi-
tional Requisitions for Supplies — Passage of Johnson's Division —
General Early visits Ewell near Chambersburg — Method of Send-
ing Information to the Authorities at Harrisburg — Perilous Escape
of some of our Dispatch Bearers — Arrival of Hill's Corps — De-
scription of General Hill — Dee and his Staff in the Public Square

— Council between Lee and Hill — Immense Importance of this
Council — A Historic Scene — Eagerness to see which way the Con-
federate Commander and his Staff would take — Turns Eastward —



Immediate Dispatch of this Fa<5t to Harrisburg — Benjamin S.
Huber, the Heroic Dispatch Bearer — Interesting Account of his
Trip — Closeted with the Governor of Pennsylvania and the Mili-
tary Authorities — Dee's whereabouts known at Washington early
in the day following his Entrance into Chambersburg — Descrip-
tion of General Lee and his Brilliant Staff — British Officers with
the Grand Cavalcade — Lee makes his Head-Ouarters upon the
Eastern Outskirts of Chambersburg — Destruction of Hon. Thad-
deus Stevens' Iron Works by General Early — Early crosses the
South Mountain and marches upon Gettysburg — Requisitions upon
Gettysburg — General Imboden crosses the Potomac and Enters
Pennsylvania — Plundering by the Way — Jenkins' Cavalry pass
through Carlisle — Falling Back of the Federal Troops under Gen-
eral Knipe — Arrival of Longstreet's Corps — General Order by Dee

— Humanity of the Confederate Chieftain — Commendable Behavior
of the Confederates — Lee's Orders generally Observed — A few
Outrages only by Stragglers — Citizens Caught in out of the way
places Robbed — Hats, Boots, and Watches taken — Mr. Strife Mur-
dered and his body Secreted — Scouring the Country for Supplies

— Precautionary Measures in some Localities — Mountain Passes
Fortified by the Farmers to Secure their Horses — Brilliant Dash
by Captain Dahlgreen upon the Confederate Communications at
Greencastle — Prisoners and Confederate Mail Captured and Hur-
ried Across the Mountain to the Union Head-Quarters — Rodes' In-
fantry passes through Carlisle — Requisitions upon Mechanicsburg
by General Jenkins — Early's Division Enters York — Requisitions
made upon the Town — A ransom of One Hundred Thousand Dol-
lars Demanded — Part of this Amount Paid Over — Insolent Order,
or Address to the People — General Gordon with his Brigade Ad-
vances to Wrightsville on the Susquehanna — Object of this Move-
ment — Immense Importance of Preventing the Confederates from
Seizing the Columbia Bridge crossing the River at that place —
Hurried Concentration of Militia under Colonel Frick — Breast-
works thrown up on the Western Bank of the River — Resistance
made at this Place — Threatened to be out-flanked, the small Federal
force Recrosses the River to Columbia — Order from General Couch
to Destroy the Bridge when it could no longer be held — The Torch
Applied — Official Account by Colonel Frick — An Unusual Sun-
day's Occurrence in Chambersburg — Breaking Open of Stores and
Cellars — Colonel Freemantle's Account of this Day's Work —
Disposition of Confederate Scrip — Another Clerical Financier —
Visit to General Lee in his Camp by Mrs. Ellen McClellan — Inter-
esting Account of the Interview — Skirmish at Oyster's Point —



Collision between Federal Cavalry and part of Imboden's force

upon the North Mountain — Defeat of Confederate Cavalry in Mc-
Connellsburg by Captain Jones — Ignominious Flight of Pennsyl-
vania Militia — Heth's Division of Hill's Corps crosses the South
Mountain and Encamps about Cashtown — Advance of the Divis-
ions of Generals Hood and McLaws — Pickett's Division Remains
near Chambersburg and Destroys the Railroad — Visit of Dr. J. L.
Suesserott to General Lee's Head-Quarters — Lee's Nervousness —
Description of the Confederate Army — Manner of Marching — Per-
fect Discipline — Behavior of the Men — Laughable Occurrences —
Depression and Discouragement of Some — Cases of Desertion —
Surprise at our Magnificent Country — Ignorance of what was going
on while under Confederate Rule — Richmond Papers our only
Source of Information — Depressing Stories of Confederate Victories
told us — Patriotic Feelings and Expressions of our People — Im-
nienseness of Lee's Army — Its Probable Length — Observations
from a Church Steeple — Return of Ewell's Great Wagon Train and
its Rapid Passage Eastward — Significance of this Movement and
Report of the same sent to Harrisburg — Perilous Adventures of
Rev. S. W. Pomeroy while bearing this Dispatch — Information of
this Concentration Forwarded to the Head-Quarters of the Army
of the Potomac, and General Meade put in Possession of it Before
Daylight — Cause of this Concentration — Arrival of General Long-
street's Scout — The Federal Army heard from — The Order to
Attack Harrisburg Countermanded, and a Concentration about Cash-
town Ordered — Places Occupied by the Different Corps and Divis-
ions of Lee's Army when this Order for Concentration was issued —
Routes taken by each — Early marches from York by way of East
Berlin, and passes the night near Heidlersburg — Rodes marches
from the Vicinity of Carlisle, and crosses the South Mountain by
Mt. Holly Gap, and unites with Early — Longstreet and Lee ride
together from the vicinity of Chambersburg and Encamp together
over night at Greenwood — Pender's and Anderson's Divisions of
Hill's Corps march from Fayetteville and Greenwood and join
Heth at Cashtown — Johnson's Division of Ewell's Corps Retraces
its Steps from the Vicinity of Shippensburg to Greenvillage, and
passes directly across to Greenwood by way of Scotland, where it
remains over night — Jenkins' Cavalry crosses the South Mountain
by Mt. Holly Gap, and enters into and Plunders Petersburg — Re-
ceives Dispatches and hurries on to Gettysburg — The Cavalry Bri-
gades of Generals Beverly Robertson and William E. Jones cover
the Withdrawal of Rodes from the Valley — Imboden's Cavalry
Occupies Chambersburg — Ordered by Lee they Advance to Green-



wood to Prevent his Communications from being Interrupted by

any Federal Advance by way of the Pine Grove Road — The Cav-
alry Brigades of Robertson and Jones Return from down the Valley
and passing through Chambersburg go on to Gettysburg — Con-
federate Advance from Cashtown under General Pettigrew upon a
Reconnoissance to near Gettysburg — They Fall Back to Marsh
Creek, where they Remain over night — Arrival of the Divisions of
Hood and McEaws at Marsh Creek — Location of each Corps and
Division of the Confederate Army during the Night Before the
First Day's Engagement 114


The Advance of the Federal Army.

General Hooker, advised of the whereabouts of the Confederate Army,
crosses the Potomac and marches Northward — Daily Movements
of each Corps of the Federal Army — Deft Wing thrown across the
Potomac — Crampton's and Turner's Passes Covered — Thorough-
fare Gap Uncovered and Stuart emerges from the Valley — Com-
pelled to pass around to the East of the Federal Army — Right
Wing crosses the Potomac — The Twelfth Corps moves to the Point
of Rocks to unite with General French at Maryland Heights with
the view to fall upon Dee's rear — Disagreement of General Halleck
with this Plan — Correspondence between Generals Halleck and
Hooker — Hooker Resigns the Command and General Meade put
in his place — A Dark Sabbath-day in the Nation's History — Com-
munications with Washington cut by Stuart — His Cavalry ad-
vance Creates Intense Excitement in Baltimore and Washington —
Supreme Patriotism of the Army and Willing Acceptance of the
Change of Commanders — Meade and Reynolds in Council — Gen-
eral Kilpatrick Supersedes General Stahl in Command of his
Cavalry Division — Custer, Merritt, and Farnsworth made Brigadier
Generals of Cavalry — The Army passes through Frederick City —
That place its point of divergence — Erratic Movements of General
Stuart — Intercepted by Kilpatrick at Hanover, a Severe Engagement
is the Result — Ignorant of Early's Departure from York, Stuart
continues on toward that place — Crosses Early's and White's routes,
but ignorant of the course they went — Deceived by a False Report
he crosses over to Carlisle — Steady and Cautious Advance of the
Federal Army — Explorations of the Country made, and the I.ine
of Pipe Creek chosen for the expected Battle — Instructions Issued
to the Corps Commanders, and an Order or Address to the Army —
Reynolds sent by way of Emmittsburg toward Gettysburg — Buford's
Cavalry passes through Gettysburg, and encamps over night tw©



miles west of the town — Positions occupied by the various Corps

of the Army during the night before the Opening Engagement —
The Two Armies almost Face to Face — The Distance of each Corps
and Division of each Army from the Field of Strife 234


The First Day's Engagement.

Buford's Cavalry engages Heth's Division of Hill's Corps — Buford
sends word of the Presence of the Enemy to Reynolds — Reynolds
leaves Doubleday to bring up the balance of his Corps and presses
forward with Wadsworth's Division — Reynolds in advance of his
men dashes into and through Gettysburg — Forms his Lines and is
Killed by a Sharp-shooter — Desperate Fighting — Howard reaches
the Field and takes Observations from the College Cupola —
Cemetery Hill Chosen as the Place to make a Stand, and Stein-
wehr's Division Ordered into Position there — Contradictory Claims
to the Discovery and Selection of Cemetery Hill — The Body of
Reynolds borne from the Field and sent to Lancaster, Pennsyl-
vania — Capture of Archer's Brigade — Arrival of Howard's Corps
and the Federal Line extended to the Right — Arrival of Rodes'
and Early's Divisions from Heidlersburg — Slocum, who was at
Two Taverns, but Five Miles away, repeatedly Solicited to come
to the Rescue, but Refuses — Meade's Order to Concentrate at Pipe
Creek in the way — Sickles receives Howard's Dispatch, and with
part of his Corps rushes to the Rescue — Buford's Dispatch to Gen-
eral Meade — General Hancock sent to take Command and report
as to the Advisability of making a stand at Gettysburg — Reaches
Cemetery Hill just as the Broken Ranks of the Federals reach
it — Perceives the Value of the Position and Assists in Rallying
and Placing the Troops — Arrival of Slocum and Sickles — Han-
cock leaves Slocum in Command and hurries to Taneytown to
Report to General Meade — The order to concentrate at Pipe Creek
rescinded, and instructions sent to all the Corps Commanders to
move to Gettysburg — Arrival of the Commander-in-Chief — The
night spent in Preparations for a Renewal of the Battle — Failure
of the Confederates to follow up the advantages of the First Day's
Engagement by seizing Cemetery Hill — Reasons assigned by
Southern Writers — Advance of General Smith from Harrisburg
to Carlisle — Stuart's Cavalry comes upon the scene at the latter
place — Demand upon Smith to Surrender — Demand refused, and
Carlisle shelled and the United States Barracks burned — Stuart
falls back toward Gettysburg 259



The Second Day's Engagement.

The Position taken by the Federals — Position of the Confederates —
Superiority of the former — Arrival of Troops, and their Positions
assigned them — Contemplated Attack upon the Confederate Left—
Generals Sloeum and Warren oppose it and the purpose abandoned,
and a defensive attitude determined upon — Both sides Preparing
for a Renewal of the Conflict — Silence along the Lines — Confed-
erates Less Sanguine and Boastful — Providential Inactivity of the
Confederates — Their Failure to make an Early Attack gives Time
for all the Federal Troops to Arrive — Lee Confronted by Difficul-
ties, abandons his Purpose of a Tactical Defensive, and resolves to
attack Meade — Reconnoitering the Federal Position and Consult-
ing with his Generals — A Simultaneous Attack upon both Flanks
determined upon, and Orders Issued accordingly — Inexplicable
Delay of General Longstreet in Opening the Battle — Expected to
make an Earlier Attack — Statements of several distinguished
Southern Officers — Advanced and Exposed Position taken by Gen-
eral Sickles — Furious Attack upon him by Longstreet — Meade,
seeing that Sickles could not hold his Position, posts the Fifth
Corps upon the Line originally intended — Desperate Fighting and
Fearful Slaughter — The Historic Peach Orchard and the Wheat
Field — Sickles' Line Broken at the Angle and Driven Back — Hum-
phreys Driven and the Federal main Line Pierced — Failure of Hill
to Support this Charge and Hold the Position Gained — Large Cap-
tures of Federal Artillery — Stannard's Vermont Brigade to the
Rescue — The Enemy Driven Back and Guns Recaptured — Efforts
of the Enemy to Out-flank Sickles' Left and Seize Little Round
Top — Strange Oversight of the Federals in failing to perceive the
Importance of this Key to the whole Field — Its Value accidentally
Discovered — Troops and Cannon rushed up to its Summit, and a
Determination to Hold it at all Hazards — Terrific Fighting and
Great Slaughter — Eminent and Distinguished Officers Slain — De-
scription of the Terrific Struggle, by a Confederate Participant —
Brilliant Charge by Barnes' Division and by the Regulars under
Ayers in Front of Round Top — The Ground in front a Seething
Whirlpool of Blood and Fire — The Enemy Penetrates between Big
and Little Round Top and Attacks the Federal Rear — Heroic Re-
sistance by the Twentieth Maine under Colonel Chamberlain —
Reinforcements from the Sixth and Twelfth Corps Ordered — Gal-
lant Charge by the Pennsylvania Reserves and Repulse of the
Enemy — Longstreet seeing part of the Sixth Corps in Line, be-



comes Discouraged and Withdraws his Men — Numbers Engaged

upon the Federal side — Confederate Estimates Considered — At-
tack of Early upon the Confederate Center — Terrific Hand to Hand
Fighting — Temporary Success of the Confederates — Their final
Repulse with Great Slaughter — The Louisiana Tigers meet their
Match — Great Numbers of them Slain — Attack of Johnson's Di-
vision upon the Federal Right — The Line having been Weakened
to Reinforce the Sorely-pressed Left, is Pierced and Occupied dur-
ing the Night — Ignorant of the Importance of the Position gained,
the Confederates fail to take Advantage of it — Results of this
Day's Engagements — Positions of the Respective Armies at the
Close of this Day — Errors of the Confederates — Errors of the
Federals — Scene in General Meade's Head-Quarters — A Council
of War Held — Decided to Remain and Fight the Battle Here —
Scene in General Lee's Head-Quarters 295


The Third Day's Engagement.

Readjustments of the Lines during the Night — Pickett's Division,
which had only Reached the Field during the Afternoon before,
Placed in Position — The Twelfth Corps Returned to its Position,
and Preparations made to drive Johnson from the Position within
the Federal Line he had gained — Shaler's and Wheaton's Brigades
of the Sixth Corps and Lockwood's Maryland Brigade sent to As-
sist Slocum — Johnson Reinforced by Daniels' and O'Neill's Bri-
gades of Rodes' Division — Opening of the Engagement at Early
Dawn — Terrific Fighting and Fearful Slaughter — The Enemy
finally driven out and the Federal Line Re-established after six

Online LibraryJacob HokeThe great invasion of 1863; or, General Lee in Pennsylvania. Embracing an account of the strength and organization of the armies of the Potomac and northern Virginia; their daily marches with the routes of travel, and general orders issued; the three days of battle; the retreat of the Confederate an → online text (page 1 of 46)