James Albert Garland.

The private stable; its establishment, management and appointments online

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The Taming, Controlling and Educating of Unbroken

AND Vicious Horses, and How to Break

UP Bad Habits and Vices.

The Diseases of Horses and Their Remedies.



Author of the New System of Taming and Educating Ho



copyright iss7

copyright 1893





Leading Veterinary Surgeons Who Assisted In Preparing Special Articles in This Volurr

1. James Hamii.l, D V. S.
4. A. J. Chandi.kr, V. S.

7. D. «i. SUTHERLAND, V. S.

2. T. Bknt. Cotton, V. S, 3. Paul Pauuin, A. M. V. S.

5. John A. McLauohlin, V. S. ti. Chas. A. Meyer, V. S.

8. Dk. B, V. McHeth. 9. J. A. Dell, V. S.
10. S. Hkexton, V. S.



Tlie Horse in his Relation to Man — His History — The Remarkable Evolution
of the Horse — His Ancient Historic Record — His Place in our own
History — The Horse in Nature — What he once was — His only Rela-
tives — The Earliest American Horse — ^ohippus and his Changes —
The Horse and Primeval Man — Alone in his Peculiar Anatomy — Spe-
cial Type of the Modern Horse — Modifications of this Type — Science
of the Modern Horse — American Breeds — All studies of the Horse ad-
dressed to a common Human Interest.



The Instincts of Lower Animals — Their Remarkable Powers — Adaptation of
Domestic Animals to Special Wants of Man — Principles of Treatment

— Necessary Qualifications for Success in Controlling Vicious Horses. . 25



Special Points of Importance — The War Bridle — Principles of its Application

— The " W," or Breaking Bit — Training the Mouth — Four-ring, or
Upper Jaw Bit — Half moon Bit — Spoon Bit — Patent Bridle — Foot
Strap — Patent Breaking Rig 53



How to Make the Colt Gentle — Teaching to be Ridden, Handled, and to Fol-
low — Various Methods — Making a Wild Colt Follow Instantly — How
to Make any Sullen Colt Lead — Teaching a Colt or Horse to Follow
with the Whip — Making the Colt Fearless of Objects and Sounds —
Driving any Colt in Harness without Breeching — Training the Mouth.
Biting, etc 106


Susceptibility to Fear — How to Prevent and Overcome It — Illustrative Cases
— Fear of Rattle of Wagon — Jumping out of Shafts — Top Carriage —
Objects Exciting Fear while Riding or Driving — A Robe — Umbrella
or Parasol — Sound of a Gun — Hogs and Dogs — Railroad Cars — In-



Causes of Kicking — -How to Prevent and Overcome It — Driving any Kicker
without Breeciiing — Switching Kickers — Kickers in Stall — While Har-
nessing — Nervous Kickers — Kicking while Grooming — Runaway
Kickers. .... . . 148



Runaway Kickers — Different Methods of Controlling the Mouth — How to
Hold any Horse — Lugging, or Pulling upon One Rein — Making a Horse
Back < 1S3



Preventing the Habit — Different Methods of Starting the Balker — How to
Break up the Habit — Different Tricks Used — Will not Stand when
Getting in or out of a Wagon — Double Balking — An Easy Method of
Breaking a Double Balker. . . . 193



Taking up the Colt's Foot — Easy Method of Controlling Colts — Confirmed
in the Habit — Simple Method of Making a Horse Stand to be Shod —
The Control of Very Difficult Cases — Leaning Over J09



How to Prevent any Colt or Horse from Halter-pulling — How to Break any
Horse of the Habit — Running Back in the Stall when Unhitcht-d —
Standing Without 15eing Hitched — Hitching any Horse so that he will
not Pull after Two or Three Minutes 222



Care in their Management — Treatment for Headstrong Stallions — Treatment
for Very Vicious Stallions — How to Subdue and Control any Stallion
so that he can be Called away from a Mare in a few Minutes — Special
Tests Illustrating the Ease with which this can be Done. . . . 232



Cruelty of Checking — The Foolishness of the Practice — Iiijurii)us to the

Horse — Covering the Eyes — A Bad, Senseless Custom. . . . 246





His Subjection and Management. . 263



Cribbing — Wind-sucking — Putting the Tongue out of the Mouth — Pawing
in Stall — Kicking in Stall — Getting Cast in Stall — Jumping over
Fences — Tender-bitted — Ricking Cows — To Lead a Cow Easily. . 266



To Follow by the Whip — To Throw Boys — To Drive without Reins — To

Tell the Age, etc., etc 275



Horseback Riding — Its Beneficial Effects upon the Health — Teaching to Ride

— Position in the Saddle — A Model Riding Horse, etc. . . . 2S6



Principles of Breeding — Methods Adopted in Foreign Countries, etc. . 296


Construction of Stable — Air and Light — Form of Manger 301



Cooked Food — Mr. Bonner's System. ........ 3°7



Caries of the Teeth — Treatment. ......... 313



Principles of Shoeing — Tips and Thin Shoes — Contraction — A Reliable
Method of Preventing and Curing Contraction — Old Methods of Treat-
ing it — Quarter-crack — Simple Method of Curing any Case — Crack, or
Fissure of Toe — Corns — Causes, and Practical Method of Curing —
Weak Heels — Their Management — Interfering — Clicking, or Over-
reaching — Stumbling — Shoeing Sore or Foundered Horses — Causes
of Injury in Shoeing. .......... 339




The Circulation — General Plan of the Circulatory System — Derangements

of that System the Cause of Disease — Importance of Ventilation. . 401


Anchylosis — Caries ^Necrosis — Exostosis, or Bony Enlargement — Splints

— Spavins — Ring-bone — Side-bone, or False Ring-bone — Curb — Bog
Spavins and Thorough-pins — Capped Hock • — Wind-galls — Navicular-
joint Lameness — Founder — Chronic Founder — Peditis. . . .411


Sec. I. Catarrh — Laryngitis — Distemper — Glanders and Farcy — Chronic
Cough — Heaves, or Broken Wind — Roaring — Bronchocele — Nasal
Gleet — Influenza, Epizootic, or Catarrhal Fever — Pink-eye — Conges-
tion of the Lungs — Pleurisy — Pneumonia — Ilydrothorax — Typhoid
Pneumonia— Bronchitis 453

Sec. 2. Colic ^ Flatulent Colic — Inflammation of the Bowels — Superpurga-
tion — Diarrhea — Constipation — Worms — Bots — Inflammation of the
Kidneys — Profuse Staling — Inflammation of the Bladder — Retention
of Urine — Bloody Urine — Inflammation of the Brain — Vertigo — Sun-
stroke 493

Sec. 3. Spinal Meningitis — Paralysis — Lock-jaw — Stringhalt — Thumps —
Lymphangitis — Weed — Monday Morning Leg — Peritonitis — Indiges-
tion • — Acidity of the Stomach — Acute Indigestion. .... 524


Sec. I. The Foot — Pricking in Shoeing — Stepping on Nails, Glass, etc. —
Foot Lameness — Seedy Toe — Graveling — Bruise of the Sole — Treads,
or Calks — Overreach — Qiiittor — Thrush — Canker 536

Sec. 2. Sprains, Bruises, etc. — Sprain of the Back Tendons — Breaking Down

— Sprain of the Fetlock — Shoulder Lameness — Sweeney — Hip Lame-
ness — Knuckling Over — Broken Knees, or Open Joint — Fractures —
Dislocation of Patella — Stifle-joint Lameness i;4S

Sec. 3. Cuts or Wounds — Sore Mouth — Fistula of the Withers — Poll-evil—

Diseases of the Eye — Dropsy — Swelled Legs 568

Sec. 4. Diseases of the Skin — Surfeit — Nettle Rash, Hives, etc. — Mange —
Hen Lice — Ring-worm — Scratches — Grease — Tumors — Sallenders —
Saddle and Collar Galls — Tenotomy — Castration — Parturition —
Counter-irritants — Fomentations — Poultices — The Pulse — Giving
Balls — Physicking— Bleeding — Setons — The Rowel — Tracheotomy
Embrocations — Liniments — Rheumatism, Acute and Chronic — Warts. 592


THE HORSE stands nearer to the daily life of man than any other
animal, not even excepting the dog. He has done this in all
ages and countries, and his story goes back with that of man to
a time unknown, and long before the dawn of our present civilization.
A slave through the entire known history of the human race, indispensa-
ble in war and peace, a sharer in every peril and a sufferer in every vicis-
situde of his master, he has been often abused and always misunderstood.
No other animal has shared with man the shock of battle, and he has
died with his master by millions upon the field. He has conquered ene-
mies, won fields, saved nations ; a soldier gallant, speechless, uninter-
ested, with nothing to gain and all to lose, "his not to reason why;
his but to do and die."

Of all the animals the horse has the strangest history. As we now
know him he is the embodiment and proof of the doctrine of Evolution.
His native country is to man unknown, and his first subjection is equally
a mystery. The oldest authentic record thus speaks of him : " Hast thou
given the horse strength? Hast thou clothed his neck with thunder? "
Even in the far-off" times of Job he was an animal so splendid as to excite
the admiration of one of the greatest poets who has ever lived. He is
mentioned in authentic profane history that was written two thousand
years before Christ. He is represented in Egyptian carvings that were
cut about iSoo B.C. In ancient Greek, Roman and Assyrian history he
figures almost as largely as his master does. Every schoolboy knows the
story of Alexander the Great, and that the first victory he ever won was
over the horse Bucephalus.

In Saxon history, which is our history, the horse appears very early.
The old story of England is full of him. Laws about breeding him were
enacted in the time of Henry VIII., about 1490. Long before that time
he had ceased to be a creature of chance begetting, and the jennet, the
palfrey and the charger figure throughout all the days of chivalry.
Special breeds with special merits were matters of interest and pains be-
fore there were any roads in England. The big horse we now regard
as a draft animal exclusively ; the Percheron and Norman are at least as
old as the crusades, and carried men weighted with the clumsy armor of
the Middle Ages before their necks had ever known a collar.


But the story of the horse as written by nature, and before he had any
connection with man, is more strange than any item of written history.
He is a near relative of the tapir and the rhinoceros, and has passed
through astonishing stages of evolution to arrive at what he now is. He
can be traced in his various forms back to the Tertiary age, and his entire
present family is now represented by the two animals mentioned and

The remains of the earliest horse are found in the United States ; in
the strata and deposits of New Mexico, Wyoming and Utah. There is
in all nature no greater contrast than that which is shown in the phe-
nomenal evolution of this most remarkable animal. He was then a crea-
ture a little larger than a fox. He had four toes, or hoofs, instead of the
present one, and science names him Eoh'ippns. With three toes, with
two, and finally with one and rudiments of others, specimens of him
come in between. This most remarkable record of animal creation re-
mains undisputed. These strange creatures, changing through the a?ons,
were, one after the other, merging into each other as the ages passed, the
veritable ancestors of the modern creature who is totally unlike them ;
who has been the close companion of man since history began ; and whom
man has never known except in his present form with his single toe —
the horse.

Both in Europe and America are abundantly found the remains of the
immediate ancestor of the present horse. But even he had three toes.
Much later, but still far beyond the boundaries of human history, he ran
wild, in droves, as he is now with a single toe which we call the hoof
The men of the age of polished stone, the primeval human, hunted him
for food, and their remote descendants have returned again to the eating
of him. Fossil remains of the true horse are abundantly found in Amer-
ica, and one of the unsolved problems is how, being once so abundant
here, he became entirely extinct, and was unknown to the western con-
tinent until again brought from Europe. Since that date there is no
other country in which he has multiplied so fast or become so easily ac-
climatized. The argument is that America is his native country in his
latest form, and that when the Europeans imported him he was but com-
ing home again.

In being constructed as he is in anatomy and outward form, the horse
is as peculiar, and as much alone as he is in his unique history. If we
were not accustomed to him we should be surprised in reading of him.
No other animal is so constructed, with one toe at each extremity; a
single nail on the end of a limb ; on which he walks, trots, paces, racks
or gallops. He is without a parallel among vertebrates ; an instance of
specialization in nature otherwise unknown. He is in still other respects

IN rii OD VC TION. xi

a unique animal. While he was acquiring his single toe his neck
lengthened. His eye became large and prominent. His ear became
smaller and grew tapering. His sense of smell became one of the most
acute known to any animal. Now his length of limb, and the angles
which the difl'erent segments form with each other, make him in firm-
ness, stability, lightness, quickness, speed, endurance, the foremost
among beasts.

When man first came to know the horse he had a special type. He
often goes back toward that type now. This original horse was a dun-
colored animal, inclined to stripes, much like his present brother, the
zebra. In our southwest, where he has in some cases gone wild again, a
reversion to this ancient type is common. He was an animal difficult to
tame, as the zebra is, but this taming was first effected in times unknown.

So far as we are concerned, man has always known the horse tame,
and a slave. He and the earliest records of human history go together.

There are six modifications of the horse-type now in existence. The
two extremes are represented by the horse and the common donkey.
Some of the six families are nearly enough related to breed together.
Strangely enough, those that are farthest apart are oftenest connected.
The story of the mule goes back almost as far as that of the horse. He
is a hybrid that has never reproduced his kind, and who is a singular in-
stance of an inheritance of patience, endurance and frugality from one
ancestor, and of brains and activity from the other. There is a mental
difference which has been turned to account. The patience of the donkey,
the high spirit of the horse and the persistent obstinancy of the mule are
all proverbial.

The science of the horse as we know him to-day, is largely embodied
in the following pages. We procured our present horse from England.
The racing strain began there with a bay stallion who was known as the
"Darley Arabian," imported in the reign of Qiieen Anne, about 1702.
It is not included in the plan of the present volume to deal with strains
and pedigrees, or with the performances of celebrated individuals. It
may, however, be remarked that the Americans have in many respects
departed from European standards in their uses and breeding of the horse.
In any investigation of that part of the general subject some curious facts
at once appear. The trot, an artificial gait of the horse, whereas to
pace is natural, has been developed in the United States. "Trotting
matches " are recorded as having occurred in colonial times. The idea
was new, and has been at various times criticised by other nations as a

The first distinguished American breed of horses was the " Narragan-
sett Pacer," a riding-horse unequalled in his time or since. The original


sire was a stallion imported from Spain, and known to his times as
" Old Snip." There is no further record of him than that he originated
the strain mentioned. In the end they went back into Spanish hands
by whom they were exported to the island of Cuba, where the breed still
lives. Another breed, celebrated in its time, was the " Morgan Horse,"
the progeny of a scrub stallion owned by an officer of the Revolution.

These were our beginnings. The present American horse has his
origin in the bay stallion mentioned previously as coming to England in
the time of Qiieen Anne. He has had, in the United States, many ad-
mixtures, and ihany changes and improvements. Many even of his dis-
eases are now his alone, and many of his distinguishing traits are purely
American. A prominent development has been backward toward unre-
strained nature, and it is embodied in an animal in many respects un-
equaled among his aristocratic kindred, and known by us as a " Broncho."

In the days before the railroad we had bred draft horses ; the " Con-
estoga" being a specimen. With the advent of that great feature of
our civilization these gradually disappeared. Within thirty years our
heavy horse is mainly descended from the ancient Norman and Percheron
that was to the knight a riding-horse, and from the English draft or shire

Claiming in all ages an immense share of the interest and attention of
his master, and valuable to man above all other animals, nothing that is
said of the treatment of the horse in health, sickness and use can entirely
lack interest. To thousands of intelligent men he is of himself a science.
He has repaid a hundred fold in profit and in pleasure all that has been
spent upon him. Much has been recently said about the supplanting
of the horse, at least in cities, by the machine, by the bicycle and by
the motor-impelled vehicle. But the result of this process has al-
ready begun to be apparent in the desire of all interested to breed a
better horse, and to teach him more and understand him better after he
is bred. There is a pleasure in his companionship which humanity is
not yet ready to forego. To such as these, to the lovers of animals in
general, and the horse in particular, the following pages are addressed.
His vices are described and a cure for each of them is suggested. His
diseases are discussed and the remedies prescribed by the most prominent
veterinarians of the country. But the most prominent feature of the vol-
ume is a description of his powers, uses and virtues ; how to train and
enjoy him, and get the most from him, and through him to add to the
pleasure and the usefulness of ordinary life.



Chapter 1.


ONCE, while stopping with a
farmer, as a matter of amuse-
ment I took a colt that had
become unmanageable to him, and
made him perfectly gentle. Upon
learning what I had done, the farmer
was so surprised at the result as to
offer me fifty dollars for the secret.
Without thinking, I proposed teach-
ing him and ten of his neighbors
how I did it, in addition to other
points that might be of interest to
them. In this I was entirely suc-
cessful, and thus I was unintention-
ally drifted into the most trying
and exacting field of effort that
ever man engaged in, which con-
tinued nearly nineteen years. I
was necessarily forced into contact
with all sorts of people, who were
continually trying to break me
down, and in addition I had the
most vicious and difficult horses
forced upon me to experiment upon ; and that I succeeded at all
seems to me even now so remarkable as to be beyond belief. But
without realizing it, or knowing it at the time, the people who forced


- Ideal Head of an Intelligent,
Docile Character.



me to these trials were in reality my best friends, because proving the
best instructors to me in the world ; and the experiments upon vicious
horses were just what was necessary to give me the best opportuni-

FiGs. 8-4. — Extremes of. Vicious Character.

ties of observation and practice needed to master the subject. Now,
in teaching classes I soon found it necessary to make such explana-
tions of points and conditions as I could before making experiments ;
and in like manner, before taking up the details of instruction, I think
it necessary to refer to such points as will be most suggestive in the
study of the subject. I may state that this is somewhat difficult
here, because compelled to limit my explanations to less than one
half of what I have been able to devote to it in my regular work on
the horse, and also to omit many chapters of much interest to the
general reader.

Many of the lower animals possess some qualities by nature that
make them, in some respects, re-
ally superior to man. The dog,
for example, can follow the track of
his master through a crowd of
strangers, though hours behind,
and find him ; and he will also
find his way home, though distant
hundreds of miles — a fact that has
been repeatedly proved. The
ordinary sheep-dog will at com-
mand find and bring home stray
sheep of the flock ; and the
blood-hound can perform the still
more remarkable feat of taking up
the track of a criminal hours aft-
erward, by the scent of a bit of his
clothing, and pick him out from hundreds of others who had been his
companions — a power that entitles even the commonest cur to our
kindest consideration. The eagle and vulture, though miles in the

Fig. 5. — A Portrait of a Docile Family Horse.


Fig. 6. — A very Intelligent, Docile Character.

air, can see the smallest ob-
jects of prey on the ground — a
power far beyond that of man.
Thus these superior qualities,
exhibited so largely by the
lower animals, seem to be a
special provision of nature to
guard them from danger and
aggression, or to aid them in
providing sustenance.

Now, this singular power
of instinct appears to be a very
strongly marked feature of the
horse's nature. The wild horse
of the prairie cannot be ap-
proached near enough on the
windward side to imperil his safety ; and even when cornered and
unable to get away, his acts of biting, striking, or kicking are but
his natural promptings to defend himself. It is also seen that no
matter how wild a colt, when treated with such kindness as to win
his confidence, he not only will not show fear of man, but become a
pet. A good demonstration of this is shown in the remarkable do-
cility of the Arab horses, which are always treated with the utmost
kindness ; and ladies
who are specially kind
to horses, it is known,
can approach them
anywhere, and make
them such pets that
they will follow, even
into the house. Per-
haps in no way is this
peculiar instinct more
strikingly shown than
in the repugnance of
exceptionally sensi-
tive, intelligent horses
to men who may be
ignorantly or thought-
lessly cruel to them.

Hence it is evident ^'''- "' — In'elligenl, Courageous, but very Sensitive Nature.

that the true ground of success in the subjection and education of


rh'KiJ.ui.\.\ h' y h'KM I h'Ks

s On* ol lh» most Vicious Horses
c>v«r SuNutHl by Ihv Author.

the hoisr. ov iit brrakini; \ip ami
ovoiviMuii)^ l»iul habits vvlu-n
ron\)ovl. luust ho ill proportion to
tlu- ilrgivc t»» v\ hich tl»o t-lVorts can
ho inttlli^tutly avlihossoii to tl>r
liiu- ol'thi'Sf instincts, l\oKlin^ pas-
sive, convlMtinij, or ovt-rconiin^
thfin while .»<Klrcssii\j^ the untUr
stai\ilin^, withvHit exciting Ivis
fears or resist at>ee ; ami it is ab-
solutely imperative that in his
eilncation these eomlitions shv>nM
not be tlisrei^arvUnl,

Another point : a hvMse nva\ b*-
moveil to inteiise excitetuent aiul
extreme resistance by even a nuv
mentary in»pressioi\ of fear, vvithinit any contact with v>r c.uise for
feelini; vlirect physical pain ; ami a^ain, in like tuanner, when prop-

Online LibraryJames Albert GarlandThe private stable; its establishment, management and appointments → online text (page 1 of 49)