James B. (James Brown) Johnston.

The place-names of England and Wales online

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brouke, Dom. Norfk. Cranaworda, and Cranham (Painswick),
1190 Pipe Cronham.

Crank (St. Helen's), Crank Hill (Wednesbury), Crank Wood
(Derby). See Oxf. Diet, crank sb"^, ' a crook, bend, winding, a
crooked path or channel.' Not found in Eng. till 1552. Duig-
nan identifies this with a number of obscure names in Cronk,
several Cronk Hills in Salop, etc. But crank is never spelt with
o in Eng., and Cronk is prob. a nasalized form of crook sb, O.N.
krok-r. See Oxf. Diet., s.v. 6 and 11.

Cransley (Kettering). 956 chart. Cranslea. See Cranbrook.

Crantock (Newquay). Fr. St. Carantocus, a Welsh saint who
lived c. 450, and who also crossed to Ireland. Cf. Cradock.

Craswall (Herefcl.). 1237 Cressewell=CRESSWELL.

Craven (Yorks) and Craven Arms (Salop). Yor. C. Dom. Crave-
scire (shire). 1202 Cravene. O.N. kra fen, 'nook in the fen.'



CRAWLEY 220 CRESSWELL

Fen is also O.E. fen, and is found fr. 2-4 as ven or venn{e). The
name must therefore indicate a dry spot in the midst of marshes.

Crawley (Winchester). All names in Craw- are fr. O.E. crawe, ' a
crow.^ CJ. Dom. Leicr., Crawsho.

Crawnon (Brecon). Perh., says Anwyl, the name of the Keltic
goddess of storage.

Crayford (W. Kent). Chart. Creganford, Creacan-, Creagan-ford.
' Ford of Creaga,' a name not found in Onotn. Still, as Oxf. Diet.
says, this name has nothing to do with creek, and still less with
crayfish ! Craycomb (FladLury), however, is 1275 Craucombe,
Crowecombe, fr. O.E. crawe, ' a crow." See -combe.

Crayke (Easingwold). Dom. Creic, 1197 Rolls CtqcYi; 1236 Creek,
Crek. See Creech. However, this, instead of being W. crug,
' stack, heap,^ may be G. crioch, gen. criche, ' boundary, frontier,
landmark.' Only, if so, it is very rare to find a Gaelic name
so far south. Dom. Norfk., Kreic, must be the same.

Creditor. 905 in Eadmer Ecclesia Cridiensis; c. 1097 Flor. Wore.
Cridiatunensis ; c. 1540 Leland Crideton. Also found as Kyrton.
' Town on R. Creedy ' — 739 chart. Cridia, Dom. Cridic, Credie,
by some said to be fr. Crida or Creoda, grandfather of Penda,
K. of Mercia, or fr. Crioda, Creoda, first K. of Mercia, d. 593.
But it is rare to find a river called after a man. Cf. Credenhill
(Hereford) and Dom. Bucks, Credendone, plainly fr. a man
Creda. The river name may be connected with W. cryd, O.W.
crit, ' to shake.'

Creech (Wareham), a. 1130 chart. Crucha; also Creech Hill
(Somst). 702 cAar^. Crich hulle. .^^ . cruc ,^ . crug , G . cruach ,
'a stack, heap, pile.' Cf. Crich, Crickhowell, Cricklade.
Thus Creech Hill is a tautology. Dom. Somst. has Crice, Cruce,
and often Cruche; in Norfk., Kreic, Kreich.

Creech IMichael (Somerset). Chart, of 682, 'The hill which is
called in British speech Cructan, but by us (Enghsh) Crycbeorh.'
Cructan is ' heap, pile, hill on the R. Tone,' while Crycbeorh is
' Stack-burgh.' 1167-68 Pipe, Norfk., has a Crichetot ( = toft).
Cf. Evercreech.

Creighton (Uttoxeter) . 1241 Cratton, so perh. O.E. crcet, crat tun,
' cart enclosure ' or ' village.' More old forms needed.

Cressage (Much Wenlock). Dom. Cristesache, 1540 Cressege.
Not 'crest ' (only found in Eng. fr. 1325), but ' Christ's, edge ' or
border,' O.E. ecg, 1205 agge. It is at the foot of Wenlock Edge.
Cf. 1494 Fabyan, ' in the egge of Walys.'

Cresswell (Norbld., Stafford, and Mansfield). Nor. C. 1235
Kereswell. Sta. C. Dom. Cressvale, a. 1300 Cresswalle. This
ending is certainly 'well' or 'spring,' O.E. wella, often in
M.E. wale ; and Cress- is O.E. cerse, ' watercress.' Cf. Dom.
Bucks, Cresselai, ' cress-meadow,' and Craswall.



CEEWE 221 CROCKERTON

Crewe. Dom. Crev, Creuhalle (Crewe Hall). O.W. creu, crau,
Mod. W. crcwyn, Corn, crow, ' a pen, sty, hovel.'

Crewkerne (Yeovil). Not in Dom.; perh. 1160-61 Pipe, Devon
Creueq'r. O.E. cruc-erne, ' cross-houp.e/ house with the cross.
Pipes form may refer to the Fr. family of Crevecoeur, often referred
to in England. Cf. Crcvequer, c. 1330 cJiart, Kent and Lines.

Criccieth (Portmadoc) . Prob. W. cnuj caeth, 'narrow hill.' Cf. next.

Crich (Matlock Bath). Dom. Crice, and Crick (Rugby and Chep-
stow) . Ru. C. Dom. Crec. W. crug, ' a heap, stack, mound, hill.'
Cf. Creech and Crickhowell and Penkridge. Duignan
would derive this group of words fr. G. and Ir. crioch, gen. criche,
' boundary, limit, frontier,' as in the Sc. Creich. But this is
not found in W., and the evidence given mider Creech Michael
and Crickhowell seems practically conclusive; though cf.
Crayke. There are a Crickapit and a Crickley in Cornwall.

Crickhowell (Abergavenny), c. 1188 Gir. Camb. Cruco-hel. In
W. Crughywel, ' Conspicuous hill,' fr. O.W. cruc, W. crug, ' a
heap, a stack,' and hywel, ' conspicuous.' Hewell Grange
(Warwick) alwaj^s found sic, may be the same word. Baddeley
thinks Crickley (Birdlip), old Cruklea, contains O.W. cruc.

Cricklade (Wilts). 905 O.E. Chroii. Crecca-gelade, Cricgelad;
c. 1097 Flor. Wore. Criccielad; c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Crikelade,
Cricalade; c. 1160 Gest. Steph. Crichelada. Gelad is O.E. for
' passage,' same root as lead and lode: but the first half is doubt-
ful. The Eng. creek is not found till c. 1250 crike, and Oxf.
Diet, does not favour it here. M'Clure conjectures W. craig,
' a rock,' or cruc, ' a mound '; the latter is quite possible. Cf.
Creech and next. There is a Craca, but no nearer man's name,
in Onom. 1160-61 Pipe, Surrey, has a Crichefeld.

Cricklas (Caermarthen) . c. 11S8 Gir. Camb. Cruclas. O.W. cruc
glas (Mod. W. crug), ' bluish or greenish mound or stack.' Cf.
Creech.

Cricklewood (Middlesex). 1525 Crekyll Woddes, 1553 Crekle
Woods. Doubtful; older forms needed. Prob. fr. a man
Crecel, otherwise unknown. Cf. 1241 Close E. Krikeleston.

Crocken Hill and Crockham Hill (Kent). Prob. ' pot-shaped '
hill, fr. W. crochan, O.Ir. crocan, G. crogan, O.E. crocca, -an, ' a
crock, a pot, an earthenware dish.' Cf. a. 1000 ' Crocford ' in
K.C.D., V. 17. The -ham may be a quite late corrup. ; old forms
needed. Dom. has only Croctune.

Crockern Torr (Dartmoor), c. 1630 Crocken Torr. See Crocken
Hill. Torr is a ' tower-like rock or hill,' W. tor. Corn, twr, tor.

Crockerton (Warminster). Not in Dom. ' Town of the potter ';
Crocker is first found c. 1315 in ShoreJiam. Cf. ' Crokerbec/
Egremont, Cumberland.



CROCKFOED WATER 222 CROP RED Y

Crockford Water (Lymington) . a. 1000 chart. Crocford, ? this
one. Prob. hybrid. W. crug, O.W. cruc, 'a tumulus, a low
hill'; c/. Cruckbarrow Hill (Worcester), 1275 Cruckberew,
Crokeborow, a double tautology. See Barrow. It can hardly
be fr. crook, O.N. krok-r, as in Le Croc du Hurte, Channel Is.

Cromer (Norfolk) . Not in Dom. 1351 Crowemere. ' Crow (O.E.
crawa) mere ' or 'lake.' Cf. Bomer Pool (near Shrewsbury) —
i.e., ' bull lake,' and Cranmer.

Cromford (Derby), Dom. Crunforde (m and n easily interchange),
andCROMHALL(Glouc.). Z)ow?. Cromhal. O.E.crom6, cjwm6,'bent,
crooked, curved,' cognate with W. crwm, crom, G. and Ir. crom,
O.G. cromb, with same meaning. Cf. Croome d'Abitot, Pershore,
972 Cromb, 1275 Crombe Dabitoth, ' Crook of the D'Abitots,'
found in Dom., who took their name fr. St. Jean d'Abbetot, E.
of Havre. Earl's Croome, near by, is 969 Cromban, Cromman,
Dom. Crumbe. There is also a Crambe (Yorks), Dom. Crambom,
-bon, which prob. is a loc. for ' at the crooks,' fr. an unrecorded
O.E. cramb, cromb, now represented by crome, cromb, 'hook,
crook,' first found a. 1400.

Cromwell (Newark) and Cromwellbottom (Yorks). Ne. C.Dom.
Crmiwell, 1223 Crumbwell, 1298 Cromwelle, c. 1340 Crumwell.
Prob. ' curved or crooked well,' or ' brook,' as in Cromford ; but
Crum may be a man's name; it is so now. Cf. Cromhall
(Charfield), Dom. Cromale, -hal, and 1179-80 Pipe Yorks, Crum-
wurcla. Bottom is O.E. botm, ' the lowest part of anything,'
found fr. c. 1325, meaning ' low-lying land, an alluvial hollow.'
Cf. RiAjmsbottom, etc.

CRONDALL(Farnham). Dom. Crundele, 1242Crundel. SeeCRUNDALE.

Cronton (Prescot). Cf. Dom. Bucks, Cronstone, ' Village of Cron,'
a name not in Onom. Cronware (Pembroke) is 1603 Oweri
. Cromewere, and in c. 1130 Lib. Land. Lann cronnguern, perh. W.
llan crwm gwern, ' church on the crooked moor.'

Crookham (Berks, Hants, and Northumberland). Berks C.O.E.
chart. Croh-hamme; Dom. Crocheham; a. 1300 Crokham.
' Saffron enclosure '; croh being the O.E. form of the L. crocus,
whilst the ending here is hamme, and not the commoner ham,
' home.' Cf. Cbowle. But Crooks House (Yorks) is Dom.
Croches, which will be O.N. hok-r, 'a crook, a bend,' with Eng.
plur. The ending -hes has afterwards got turned into -house.

Croome (three on Severn near Pershore). 969 chart. Cromman,
Croman, Cromban, all datives, 972 ib. Cromb, 1038 ib. Hylcrom-
ban (now Hill Croome), Dom. and 1241 Crumbe, Hilcrumbe.
O.E. cromba, ' a crook, a bend,' cognate with O.G. crumbadh, as
in Ancrtjm (Sc.) and W. crwm, crom, ' crooked.'

Cropredy (Oxon). Dom. Cropelie, 1109 Cropperia, ? 1275 Cro-
prithi, 1291 Cropperye, 1330 Cropperdy, 1405 Croprydy, 1460



CEOPTHORNE 223 CROXBY

Cropredy. Prob. ' Croppa's stream/ O.E. rith, as in Rye and
Ryde ; but on Crop- cf. next.

Cropthorne (Pershore). 780 Croppon-, Croppethorne, 841 Crop-
panthorn, Dom. Cropetorn. Crop sb. is found as meaning ' the
head or top of a tree/ a. 1300. But the early charter forms show
that Croppa must be a man. Cf. next. Cropwell (Notts) Dom.
Crophelle, -hille, is fr. N. kropp-r, ' a hump or bunch, a hump-
shaped hill.'

Cropton (Pickering). Dotn. Croptun, so also in Dom. Suffolk.
' Village of Croppa.' See above.

Crosby (5 in P.O.). Dom. Crosebi (Cheshire), 1189 Pipe Grossebi
(Cumberland) . Dom. Yorks has Crox(e)bi, Crocsbi, and Croches-
bi, representing more than one Crosby. ' Dwelling by the cross/
O.E. cros, 3-4 croiz, 4-7 croce ; or, at any rate in Yorks, ' dwelling
of Croc{cy, a fairly common name. Cf. Croxby; and see -by.

Crostwight (Norfolk). Dom. Crostueit, c. 1460 Crostweyt. ' Cross-
place ' or 'farm with the cross.' This name gives a rare corrup.
of -thwaite. Cf. Crosthwaite (Kendal), 1201 Crostweit; and
see -thwaite, which is very rarely found except in the North-West.

Crouch End and Hill (London). O.E. cruc, 2-3 cruche, 3-5
crouch{e), ' a cross.' R. Crouch, Essex, may not be the same.

Croughton (Brackley) . Not in Dom. Curiously, this means much
the same as Crostw^ight, ' cross town '; O.E. cruc, M.E. cruche,
crouche, ' a cross.'

Crowborough (Leek and Tunbridge W.). Neither in Dom. Lee
C. a. 1300 Crowbarwe. Prob. ' crow's wood,' O.E. crawe, and
beam, dat. barwe. Cf. -borough.

Crowland or Croylaistd (Peterborough). 806 chart. Croylandie;
Sim. Dur. ami. 1075 Crulant; c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Crulande, 1238
Croiliand. Doubtful; the first syll. may be O.E. croh, ' saffron.'
Cf. Crowle.

Crowle (Worcester and Doncaster). Wore. C 836 chart. Croglea,
840 ib. Crohlea, Dom. Croelai, Crohlea, 1275 Crowele, O.E. croh-
ledh, ' saffron meadow.' Crowley is, of course, the same name.
Duignan prefers the meaning ' crocus meadow,' and compares a
' Richard de Croccusweli ' found in 1332. O.E. croh is just L.
crocus in an Eng. dress. Cf. Crookham and Croydon.

Crowthorn (Berks). Cf. K.C.D., iv. 103, 'Crawan thorn,' Hants.
' Crow's thorn,' thorn-tree frequented by crows, and used as a
boundar}' mark. Cf., too, Crowmarsh, Wallingford, Dom.
Cravmares (O.E. mersc, merisc, but here rather O.Fr. mareis,
-ais, ' a marsh '), 1242 Crawmers.

Croxby (Lincoln), c. 1180 Ben. Peterb. Croxebi. ' Crocc's dwell-
ing'; two so named in Onom. Cf. Croxall (Lichfield), 773
chart. Crokeshalle, Dom. Crocheshalle, and Crosby.



CKOXTON 224 CUCKAMSLEY

Croxton (4 in P.G.). Eccleshall C. Dom. Crochestone, Chesh. C.
Dom. Crostone, Cam. C. Dom. Crochestone, 1302 Croxtone,
Thetford C. chart. Crochestune, 1240 Croxton, 1303 Crokeston,
c. 1460 Croxeston. Also 1179-80 Pipe Lanes. Crokeston. ' Vil-
lage, town of Croc,' a man; 3 in Onom. Cf. above.

Croydon (London). 809 Monasterium quod dicitur Crogedena;
Dom. Croindene, 1288 Contin. Gervase Croyndona. It lies on
the edge of the chalk, and so is often said to mean ' chalk hill ' ;
cf. Oxf. Diet. s.v. Cray and crayer. Yet form 809 must mean
' dean," (wooded) valley of the' saffron,' O.E. croh. Cf. Crowle.
But Croydon (Royston) is Dom. Crauuedene 1238 Craweden,
1316 Croudene, 1428 Craudene, 'Dean, wooded vale of the
crow,' O.E. crawe.

Crudgington (Welhngton, Salop). Dom. Crugetune. Prob.
' town, village of Gruga/ gen. -gan, an unknown man. For dg,
cf. bryg and bridge, Maggie and Madge. There is a surname
Grudgings. See -ing.

Crudwell (Malmesbury) . Dom. Credwelle. Perh. ' crypt-wcll,'
A.Fr. crudde, M.E. crowd, ' a crypt, a vault.' See Oxf. Diet.,
crowd sb.^, not given there till 1399 ; so it may be fr. a man Grud.
Cf. B.C. 8. 536 Crudes silba (' wood ').

Crug Mawr (Pembroke), a. 1196 Gir. Camb. ' Crug Maur — i.e.,
Collis magnus,' ' big hill,' ' stackhke hill.'

Crukeri Castle (Radnor). Older Cruk-keri. Prob. a. 810 Nennius
Caer Ceri, 'Castle of Ceri.' But Cruk- must be W. crug, 'a
heap, a stack.'

Crumlin (Pontypool). W. crom llyn, ' crooked or concave pool.'

Crijndale (R. Wye, Kent). O.E. crundel, crondel, still in South,
dial., 'a cutting shaped like an open.'V, made by a little
stream, a ravine.' Cf. B.C.S. 906 Abbancrundel, also 3 farms
in Worcestershire called Crundel or Crundles, and Crondall.
Baddeley says Crundel (Kemble), 1280 Crondles, means ' a
quarr3^'

Crutchley (Northampton and Monmouth). Not in Dom.
' Meadow with the cross,' O.E. cruc, 2-3 cruche. Cf. Crouch
End and Croughton, and Crutch Hill (Worcestersh.), a. 1200
Cruche, 1275 Cruch, Cruce.

Cub(b)ington (Leamington). Dom. Cobintone, Cubintone, a. 1300
Cobyngton, Cumbyngton. ' Village of Cuba.' See -ing.
CuBBER- or CoBBBRLEY (Cheltenham), Dom. Coberleie, later
Cuthbrightley, is ' Cuthbert's mead.'

CucKAMSLEY or -LOW (Berks). 1006 O.E. Chron. Cwichelmes laiwe,
c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Chichelmes laue, 1297 Quichelmeslewe.
' Burial-mound ' or 'hill ' (O.E. hlikw) of Cwichelm '; either he
who was K. of Wessex, d. 636, or an earlier pagan king of this
name, d. 593. See -low.



CUCKFIELD 225 CULMSTOCK

CucKFiELD (Hayward's Heath). 1092 Kukefield, 1121 Cucufcld.
Hardl}^ fr. vb. cuck= cacare, not found a. 1440, though we have
cucking-stool in 1308; nor hkely to be fr. the cuckoo, which in
O.E. was geac. So. gowk, though it is found as early as c. 1240
cuccu. Analogy, as well as other reasons, points to ' field of
Cuca'; cf. B.C.S. 936 Cucan healas. The 1121 spelhng cer-
tainly suggests the bird; if so, it is much the earliest instance
known. Cf. next. Cooksland (Stafford) is Dom. Cuchesland,
which Duignan takes to be ' land of Cuca ' or ' Cue' Cf. Cuxham.

CucKNEY (Mansfield). Dom. Cuchenai, 1278Cuckenay; and Norton
CtJCKNEY (Yorks). 1202 Yorks Fines Cucuneia. Prob. ' Cuca's
isle ' ; see above and -ey. To derive fr. cuccu ' cuckoo ' is for-
bidden by the n, sign of the O.E. gen. ; whilst to make it O.E.
CRt cucan e^e, ' at the rumiing stream,' cwicu, cucu, ' living,
quick/ is not in accord with analogy.

CuDDESDON (Oxford) . 956 chart. Cupenes dune ; a. 1200 Codesdona.
' Cuthen's dean ' or ' wooded valley.' Cuthen seems to be a
contraction of the name Cynethegn or Cytliegn ; 4 in Onom.
But cf. ' Cudandene,' 958 chart., on Stour (Staffs). There are
several named Cudd, Cudda, or Cuddi in Onom. ; also cf. Cuts-
dean. See -den and -don.

CuDWORTH (Barnsley). Not in Z)om. ' Cw(i(i's place or farm.' Cf.
Cudeley, Worcester) (974 c/iar^. Cu dine lea, Dom. Cudelei, orig. a
patronymic, see -ing; also Dom. Cornw. Cudiford. Dom. Yorks
Cuzeworde is Cusworth.

CuLCHETH (Wigan and Cmbld.). Cum. C. c. 1141 Culquith; also
Culchet. Wig. C. 1200-1 Culchet, Kulchet, 1300 Culchyt, 1311
Culcheth. Far older is 793 Mercian chart. Celchyth, which seems
the same name. Prob. ' strait ' or ' passage in the wood,' W. cul,
'a strait ' (G. caol, a ' kyle '), and coed, pi. coydd, ' a wood.'

CuLGAiTH (Penrith). This surely must be G. cul gaoith, 'at the
back of the wind,' or fr. G. cuil, ' a nook ' ; whilst cul in W.
m.eans ' a strait, a narrow place.'

CuLHAM (Abingdon). 821 chart. Culanhom, ? 940 Culenhema, 1216
Culham. ' Enclosure of Cwto.' C/. Culworth; and see -ham.

CuLLERCOATS (Newcastle). First syll. doubtful. It may be
'dove cots,' O.E. culfre, ' & dove.' If a man's name it
may be Ceolheard, a common O.E. name, or Ceolweard, also
common, and found once as Kilvert. Cf. Killirby (Durham),
sic 1183 in Boldon Bk., but 1197 Culverdebi, plainly ' Ceol-
weard's dwelling'; also Dom. Norfk., Culuertestuna, and c. 1200
Culdertun, Egremont, Cumberland. There is a Culkerton
(Tetbury), Dom. Culcortone; if not fr. Ceolheard, then fr. some
unrecorded name. The -coats is ' cots.' See Coates.

Ctjlmstock (Cullompton) . Dom. Culmestoche. ' Culm's, Cylm's or
Cylma's place '; all these forms are found in Onom. See Stoke.



CUL WORTH 226 CURY

CuLWORTH (Banbury). 1298 Ciileworthe. ' Cula's iarm.' There
is only one Cula in Onom., but c/. Culham. See -worth.

Cumberland. 945 O.E. Chron. Cumbraland, c. 960 chart. Cumbras
(i.e., 'men of Cumbria'), a. 142 Wm. Malmes. Cumberland,
1461 Lib. Pluscard. Cummirlandia. Now usually held to be
' land of the Cumhri ' or Cymry, med. L. Combroges, ' fellow-
countrymen.'' Of course, Cymry is now the common name for
the Welsh, whose Brythonic kingdom spread right away up to
Strathclyde until the 10th cny. Cf. Comberbach and Dom.
Worcester ' CUbrinture,' Yorks Cu'brewrde, now Cumberworth.

Cumdivock: (Dalston, Cumbld.). a. lOSOCombeSeyfoch. Combe is,
O.E. cumb, lit. ' a bowl,' ' a coomb, a vallej^' cognate with or
loaned fr. W. cwm, ' hollow ' ; the second part may be W. diffaith,
' wild, uncultivated, uninhabited.' The Sc. divot, ' a turf,'
always has t, and is not known a. 1536. But -theyfoch may
well represent a man's name, as in B.G.S. 1237 Theofecan hyl.
Only there is a Devoke Water, S. of Eskdale, in this same
county. C/.CuMWHiNTON and ' Cumbehop,' c. 1200 chart. Whalley.

CuMNOR (Oxford). O.E. chart. Colmanora, Cumanora, Cumenoran;
Dom. Comenore. ' Colman's edge or bank,' O.E. ora ; the liquid
I easily disappears. Cf. Cowdenknowes (Sc).

CuMWUiNTON and Cumwhitton (Carhsle). Old forms needed, but
perh. both Kelt., with Eng. -ton. The former seems to be W.
cwm gwyn, ' clear, bright hollow.' However, Lawhitton (Corn-
wall) is ' long, white town.'

CuNLiFFE (Whalley, Lanes). 1278 Gundeclyf, 1283 Cundeclive,
c. 1300 Conhve, 1317 Cunliffe. Doubtful. W. and H.'s deriva-
tion fr. Gunnhild-r is little less likely here than in Conder.
Prob. hybrid, Kelt, conde, cunde, ' confluence,' see Condate,
and O.E. clif, ' a chff or cleve.' Cf. Cleveland, and Lillies-
leaf (Sc), 1186 LiUeschf, or ' Lilla's cliff.'

CuNSDiNE (Durham). Sic c. 1200 chart. Prob. 'Dean (wooded)
valley of Cuna '; 2 in Onom. Cf. Cunsall (Leek), Do7n. Cunes-
hala, and Cundall (York), Dom. Cundel.

CuRDWORTH (Birmingham). Dom. Credeworde, a. 1200 Crud-,
Croddeworth, 1327 Cruddeworth. 'Farm of Creoda'; meta-
thesis of r is common. Cf. Kersoe (Worcestersh.), 780 Criddesho,
1275 Crydesho.

Curry Mallet and Rivel (Taunton). Dom. and 1155 Curi (see
North Curry). W. cyri, ' a cauldron-shaped valley,' G. coire ;
cf. Cyri, and Sc. Corrie and Currie. Mallet denotes the name
of the family to which this place once belonged. Cf. Shepton
Mallet, and for E,ivel cf. Rievaux.

Cury (Falmouth). 1219 Patent R. Egloscuri (' church of Cury ');
1445 Cury towne; also Corantyn. From St. Corentinus, a saint
of Quimper, Brittany.



CUTSDEAN 227 DALSTON

CuTSDEAN (Broadway, Worcester). 974 cliart. and Dom. Codestune,
1275 Cotestone, a. 1500 Cotesdon, a. 1600 Cuddesdon. This,
then, is not ' Dean,^ but ' town of Code or Cola,' perh. the same
man as gave name to the Cotswolds. Already in 730 we find
B.C. 8. 236, set Codeswellan.

CuxHAM (Walhngf ord) . O.E. c/iari. Cuceshamm. 'Enclosure of
Cue' Cf. CucKFiELD and Cuxwold (Lines), 1235 Cukewald;
also B.C. 8. 936 Cucan healas (see -hall). See -ham.

CwMHiR (Radnor), c. 1188 Gir. Camb. W. cwm hir, ' long valley
or hollow." Cf. CuMDivocK.

Cwm-llaw-Enog (Chirk). W.= ' valley of Enog's hand.' Enog
was a W. chief who, it is said, had his hand cut off for being found
on the E. side of Offa's Dyke.

Cych R. (betw. Pembroke and Caermarthen) . a. 1300 Cuch.
W. cwch, pi. cychod, ' a boat.'

CyrFDY (Llanrwst). W. for ' dark, black stump.' Cf. CyffyHiog
(Ruthin), and Cuffern (Haverford W.), old Coferun.

Cynon R. (Glam.) seems to be built like, and to mean the same as,
the R. Conway (W. con gwy) — i.e., ' chief river,' compared with
the little Dare. Con, as in L., means ' together,' and -on is a
common ending for ' river,' as in af-on itself, in C arkon (Sc), etc.

Cyri (Merioneth). Name of several ' cauldron-shaped hollows,'
with tarns, same as G. coire, 'a Corrie ' (Sc.). Cf. Taliesin,
' the cauldi'on of Cyridwen,' and Curry.

Cytiau-'r-Gwyddelod (Holyhead). W.= 'cots of the Irish.' It
is a mountain, said to be the scene of a battle, c. 600, between the
Gwyddel (or Goidels, or Gaels) and the Cymri, or Welsh.

Dacre (Penrith), sic 1353, and Dacre Banks (Leeds). Bede
Dacore (R. and monastery). Dom. Yorks, Dacre. Possibly
med. L. {e.g., in Dom.) dicra, c. 1300 dacrum, O.Fr. dacre, dakere,
M.E. dyker, mod. E. dicker, corrup. of L. decuria. This number
10 was the customary unit of exchange, esp. in hides; but was
it ever apphed to land measurement ?

Dagenham (Barking). 693 chart. Deccan-haam; c. 1150 chart.
Dechenham. ' Daecca's enclosure ' or ' pasture ' ; only one
Dcecca in Onom. See -ham. But Dagnall (Oxon) is a. 1400
Dagenhale. See -hall.

Daglingworth (Cirencester). Feud. Aids Dageling-; also 1240
a Dagehngstrete. ' Farm of the sons of Dceghild,' or ' Dceg-
weald,' nearest names in Onom. See -worth.

Dalden or Dawden (Sunderland), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Daldene,
O.E. ddl-denu, 'allotment, portion, field, deal,' 'by the dean
or deep, wooded vale.' See -den.

Dalston (Carlisle). 1189 Daleston, Dalstonn. ' Town, village in
the valley or dale.' O.E. dcel, O.N. dal. Possibly Dale may be



DALTON 228 DAKTMOUTH

here, as it is still, a personal name ; though it is not in Onom, and
would hardly be in use so early. Gf. Dalby (N. Yorks), Dom.
Dalbi and Dalham (Newmarket), sic in Dom. Dale (Pembroke)
is found in 1307 as La Dale — i.e., with the Fr. art., ' the dale.'

Dalton (5 in P.G.). Furness D. Dom. Daltun. Cf. a ' Daltone '
in Dom. Cheshire. ' Town, village on the allotment/ see
Dalden; in northern cases, ' village in the dale,' N. dnl.

Danby Wiske (Northallerton). Dom. and 1202 Danebi, or ' Dane's
dwelhng.' Cf. Tenby and Danemarche, Jersey; and see -by.
On Wiske, see Appleton Wiske. But Danethorpe (Notts),
Dom. Dordentorp, 1637 Dernthorp, is 'village of Deoma.' The
phonetic changes are all explainable.

Dane orDAVENR.(Chesh.) ; henceDAVENHAM(s^■cl218)andDAVEN-
PORT(Chesh.). Dom. DevenehamandDeneport,a. llSOSim.Dur.
Devenport. Perh. W. dain, ' pure, pleasing, beautiful,' or else
dwfn, ' deep.' Cf. Debenham. Duignan suggests G. deann,
impetuous, swift,' but that would rather yield Dann or Denn.

Darent R. See Dartford.

Darlaston (Wednesbury and Stone). St. D. 954 Deorlavestun,
Derlavestone, 1004 ib. Deorlafestun, Dom. Dorlavestone. Wed.
D. a. 1200 Derlavestone. ' Town of Deorlaf.' Cf. Darliston
(Whitchurch) and Darlton (Notts), Dom. Derluveton.

Darley (Leeds) and Darley Abbey and Dale (Derbysh.). Der.
D. Dom. Dereleie. Dar- is prob. from Deor or Deora, names in
Onom., and phoneticalty possible. Darton (Yorks) is Dom.
Dertune. In O.E. deor means ' any wild animal,' then ' a deer,'
then used as a personal name, ' a man Hke a deer.' See -ley.

Darlington, a. 1130yS^m. Diir. Dearningtun, Dearthingtun ; but
1183 Boldon Bk. Derlingtona. A name which has changed.
There is no trace in Onom.. of the Sim. Dur. forms, and only one
Deorling or Derling. As it stands, the name is ' village of the
darhngs,' O.E. deorling, a dimin. of ' dear.' ' Dearthingtun ' may
possibly represent Darren gton. Cf. Derhntun in 1156 Pipe
Notts, in Dom. Dallingtune and now Dalington. We have
Darlingscot, Shipston-on-Stour, a. 1300 Darlingscote.

Darn ALL (Sheffield). O.E. derne heal, ' hidden, out of the way,
dark nook.' Cf. Darnhall Pool (Cheshire), Dernford (Cambs),
and Darnick (Sc); also see -hall.

Darrington (Pontef ract) . Dom. Darnintone, Darnitone, 1204
Darthingtone, 1208 Dardhinton. ' Town, village of Deoma '
(one in Onom.), or possibly ' of Deorwen, or -wine.' See -ing.

Dartford (Kent), a. 1200 Derenteford, Darentford. 'Ford on
E,. Darent,' which is prob. a var. of Derwent; it is 940 chart.
Daerinta. Cf. Darwen.

Dartmouth (on R. Dart). Exon. Dom. Derta, a. 1130 Sim. Dur.
Derte, 1250 Layam. Derte mu]>. Doubtful; certainly not fr.



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