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The place-names of England and Wales online

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DARWEN R. 229 DEBDEN

Eng. dirt. Perh. W. dorth, ' limit, covering/ or O.E. daro^, ' a
dart, a spear/ though our Eng. dart comes to us through O.Fr.
dart. Dartmoor is 1228 Close R. Dertemor.

Darwen R. and to\vn (Lanes), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Dyrwente, 1311
Derwent. W. dwr gwen, ' white, clear stream.' Cf. Darent,
Derwent, and G. dobhar, ' water, river.''

Dassett (2, Kineton, Warwick). Dom. Derceto, -tone, a. 1200
Afne Dercct, a. 1400 Chepyng and Great Derset. O.E. deor,
' deer,' and set, ' a place where animals are kept, a stall, fold.'
See Avon, Chipping, Darley, and r on p. 83.

Datchet (Windsor) . Dom. Daceta, 1238 Dachet. A puzzling name ;
but all solutions fail phonetically except 'Dacca's cot,' O.E. cete,
' cot, hut.' Cf. Datchworth (Stevenage), 769 chart. Decewrthe,
Dom. Daceuuorcle, B.C.S. 81 Dseccanham, and Watchet. The
O.E. cc normally becomes tch.

Dauntsey (Chippenham). Dom. Dantesie. Cf. 940 chart. Daun-
tesbourne (Wilts). ' Isle of Daunt.' See -ey.

Davenham and -port. See Dane.

Daventry (Weedon). Dom. Daventrei, a. 1124 Dauentre, c. 1200
Gervase Davintria. The present pron. is Daintry, which would
suggest an O.E. Dcefan treo, ' tree of Dcefa ' ; cf. Oswestry.
However, no Dcefa or Dave is in Onom., though cf. 1179-80 Pipe
Yorks Dauebi; whilst John Dawe, who gave name to Dawshill
(Powick), was living there in 1275. In the abccncc of good
evidence for an O.E. origin, a W. origin is not altogether to be
dismissed, though a W. name would be very unlikely here. It may
be 'the two summits,' fr. W. dau, 'two,' and entrych, 'summit/
as D. stands on a hill, and there is another a mile away. It
may be c. 380 Ant. Itin. Devnana.

Dawlish (S. Devon). O.E. chart. Doflisc, Dom. Do vies, a. 1500
Doflysch. Doubtful. The first syll. may be W. d^^,, O.W. dub,
Corn, dew, ' black,' or dwfn, ' deep.' Cf. Dewlish and Dow-
LAis,also R. Divelish (Dorset), which is chart. Deuelisc, Defiisch,
DeuUsc, Defelich, and Dom. Devon, Monlish. All these are orig.
river -names. The river at Dawlish is now the Dalch. So the
second syll. is prob. W. glais, ' stream, river,' rather than Ihjs,
' court, hall,' or glwys, ' hallowed place, a fair spot.'

Dead water (N. Tyne) . Perh . 1249 Dedy. Doubtful. We find ' a
standing poole or dead water,' as early as 1601 Holland's Pliny.

Deal. Not in Dom. 1160 Pipe Dela; later Dale, Dele, Dola.

O.E. dcel, 3-6 del, 4-7 dele, ' a division, a section, a part,' a

' deal,' cognate with dale, 56^, ' a portion or share of land,'

and with dole, O.E. ddl.
Dean, E. and W. (Eastbourne). Asser Dene. O.E. denu, 'a

dean, a dell, a deep, wooded vale.' See also Forest of Dean.
Debden (Saffron Walden). Dom. Deppedana, 1228 Close R.

Depeden — i.e., ' deep, wooded valley/ See Dean.



DEBENHAM 230 DENNY BOTTOM

Debenham (Framlingham, Suffk.). Dom. Depben-, Depbeham.
' Home on the R. Deben/ which may be W. diojn ' deep/ Cf.
Davenham.

Deb R. (Cheshire), c. 150 Ptolemy Deva, 1480 Dee; but a. 1196
Gir. Camb. Deverdoeu, Deverdoe, which is just the mod. W.
name Dwfr Dwy. W dwfr or dwr (O.W. deifr), is ' river, stream/
and dwy is ' two/ feminine. But cf. Dee (Sc), also R. Divie,
trib. of Findhorn, Moraysh.

Deerhurst (Tewkesbury). 804 (rmwi Deor -hyrst(e) ; Z)om. Dere-
hest, a. 1200 Walter Map Durherst. Deor, dior in O.E. means
' any kind of beast ' ; Jiyrst is ' forest.' See -hurst.

Deganwy, Diganwy, or Dwyganwy (N. Wales), a. 1145 Orderic
Dag(e)amioth; Ann. Cambr. ann. 822 Arx Deganhui. Difficult.
By some connected with Ptolemy's Delcantai ; by Rhys Jones*
with the Irish Ogam form Deccetes, found in (?) sixth-century
inscriptions in Devon, Anglesea, and Ireland. In the Patent R.
c. 1245 it is often Gannok, which suggests a similar origin to
Cannock.

Deighton. See Ditton.

Delph (Yorks, Rochdale, N. Staffs) and the Delves ( Wednesbury ) .
A ' digging ' (for iron ore or the like). O.E. dcelfan, deljan, ' to
dig, delve.' Cf. Dilhorne.

Denary Main (Rotherham) . Dom. Degenebi, Denegebi, ' Dwelling
of,' it is uncertain who ; perh. Degn or Thegn — i.e., 'thane, lord,'
names in Owow. C/. Dagenham ; and see -by. Main meaning
' main ' or ' chief vein of mineral,' seems a quite recent usage.

Denbigh, c. 1350 charts. Den-, Dynbiegh, -eigh, 1485 Dynbigh.
W. Dinbych. InY^.din bych would mean, 'hill or fort of the
wretched being.' This would be absurd. Prob. it is, as pron.
in Eng., Den-by, ' dwelling of the Dane '; we have Denby more
than once in Yorks, Dom. Denebi, fr. O.E. Dene, ' Danes,' and
Dene- or Den-mearc, ' Denmark.' Thus it would be the same
name as Danby and Tenby. See -by. But T. Morgan favours
W. din bach, ' little hill,' which it is. This certainly accounts
better for the final guttural -gh or -ch.

Denchworth (Wantage). O.E. chart. Dences wyrthe, Deneces
wurthe, Denices wurth ; Dom. Denchesworde. ' Farm of Dence,'
a name otherwise unknown; though Onom. has Denisc, or 'the
Dane/ See -worth.

Denham (Uxbridge and Eye, Suffk.). Ux. D. Dom. Daneha.
Eye D. Dom. Denham. Prob. ' home of the Dane.' Cf.
Denton and Den-mark.

Denny Bottom (Tunbridge Wells). Cf. Denny (Sc.) 1510 Dany,
and Dom. Bucks, Danitone. Denny is a dimin. of den or dean,
' a narrow, wooded valley.' See -den.

* Cited by M'Clure, p. 94.



DENSTON(E) 231 DEVERILL

Denston(e) (Uttoxeter and Newmarket). Utt. D. Dom. Dene-
stone, ' village of Dene,' 3 in Onom., meaning, of course, ' the
Dane/ Cf. above. Bnt New. D. is Dom. Danardestuna,
' town of Deneheard.' Cf. B.C.S. 480 Deneheardes hegersewe.

Denton (8 in P.G.). 801 chart. Deantone (Sussex). Dom.
Yorks and Lines Dentune, ' village by the Dean, or deep,
wooded vale.' Cf. Denford (Berks), Dom. Daneford, where
O.E. dcen, a word cognate with den and dean, means esp. ' a
woodland pasture for swine." Few Eng. names in Den- or Dane-
show any connexion with the Danes ; but cf. Denbigh, and above.

Deptford. Sic. 1521, but c. 1386 Chaucer Depford; not in Dom.
'Deep (O.E. deoj)) ford' on the Ravensbourne, or rather, the
creek at its mouth. There is another at Sunderland. Cf.
Defford (Pershore, 972 chart.), Deopford, Dom. Depeforde, also
in Dom. Wilts.

Derby. 917 O.E. Chron. Deoraby, 1049 Deorby, 1598 Darbi-
shiere. In W. Dwrgwent. ' Beasts' dwelling.' O.E. deor,
dior, Icel. dyr, ' a beast '; and see -by. Derby was a Danish
name ; NorthweorSig was the O.E. one. For its ending, cf.
Badgeworthy.

Dereham (Norfolk). Dom. Dere-, Derham. c. 1460 Dyram, so
= Dyrham and Derby, ' beasts' home.'

Dersingham (King's Lynn). Dom. Dersincham, 1234 Patent R.
Dersingham ; ' home of the Dersings.' Cf. Sandringham.

Derwent R. (Cumbld. and Yorks), also Derwentwater, sic
1298. The two rivers get a little mixed in early records — c.
380 Ant. Itin., and c. 700 Rav. Geogr. Derventione, Bede
Dorowensio, Deruuentis fluvius, c. 850 O.E. vers. Deorwenta,
a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Dyrwenta, 1229 Patent R. Derewent (Yorks).
W. dwr, dwfr given, ' white, clear stream.' Cf. Darent and
Darwen. For suffixing of t, cf. Leven and Levant.

Desborotjgh (Mket. Harboro'). Dom. Deis-, Diesburg, c. 1260
Rot. Hund. Dosteberge. Very puzzling; no name in Onom.
seems to suit any of these forms; but it may be Deorswith (see
Dosthill). ' Dais ' raised table in a hall, is O.Fr. deis, and
not known in Eng. till 1259, so very unlikely here; but cf.
Diss. See -burgh.

Deuddwr (Wales). W. dau dwr, ' two streams.'

Deverell — Kingston Deverill (Bath), Longbridge Deverill,
and Brixton Deverill (Warminster), Dom. Devrel, 1245
Patent R. Deverel (Wilts). Prob. hybrid. Devr- will be
O.Kelt, for 'stream,' W. dwfr (see Andover and Dover);
whilst -el is prob. Eng. for hill, or else -hale, ' nook.' See -hall.
Cf. Derridge, Kingswood, old Deveridge. Possibly Devrel is
Nor. for Devereux or d'Evreux.



DEVIL'S WATEE 232 DILHORNE

Devil's Water (Hexham). 1610 Speed Do vols fl. Thought to
be corrup. of G. dubh glas, 'dark, peaty stream '= Douglas.
This is very doubtful.

Devizes. 1157 Pipe Divisis, c. 1160 Gest. Steph. Divisa, 1228 Close
R. ad Divisas. This is corrupt L., and prob. means ' place at
the division or border ■" (? that between Saxon and Kelt).

Devon. 878 O.E. Ghron. Defenascir; Exon. Dom. Duuenant,
1189 Devonia; 1402 Devenshir, c. 1630 Risdon, 'Devonshire,
now by a vulgar speech Denshire.' In O.W. Dyvnaint, which
seems to be O.W. dub, W. du nant, ' dark ravine or vallcj^ or
stream.' The Sc. Devon, c. 1210 Dovan, has a similar origin,
G. dubh an, ' dark river.' But Rhys identifies both with the
Damnonii, who orig. inhabited Devonshire, the m here being
aspirated into mh or v. There is also a R. Devon, Notts.

Devonport. Dates from 1689. a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Devenport is
Davenport. See above.

Dewchurch, Little (Hereford). 1234 Close R. Deweschirch,
' Church of Deivi,' W. for St. David. Cf. Dewiston, near St.
David's, Llandewi, and Dewsbury; also Dowthorpe (Yorks),
Dom. Dwetorp, 1202 Duuestorp.

Dewlish (Dorchester). Chart. Diolisc, 1230 Close R. Deuehz, 1238
Patent R. Deuelis. Must be same as Dawlish and as Dewlas
R. See DowLAis.

Dewsbury (Yorks). Dom. Deusbereia, -berie, 1202 Deubire.
' David's burgh.' See Dewchurch and -bury.

Dickleborough (Scole, Norfk.). Dom. Dicclesburc, 1232 Close R.
Dikelebury. Prob. ' burgh of Dicuil,' a Keltic name. See
-borough.

Didcot (Oxford). Not in Dom. a. 1300 Doudecote, also Dud-
cote; and Didcote (Beckford), 1177 Pi2Je Dudicota. Cf. B.C.S.
iii. 101. Dyddan hamm, ib. 486 Dydinc cotan (dat.). 'Cot,
cottage of Dydda or Dudda.' Cf. Dudley and Diddington
(Warwk.), 1188 Didindon.

Didmarton (Tetbury). 972 chart. Dydimeretune, Dom. Ded-
mertone. Feud. Aids Dudmerton. Perh. ' village of Dudemcer,'
as in 1015 chart. To Dudemseres hele (' nook '), Chilton (Berks),
But it may be ' mere- or lake-town of Dydda ' or ' Dudda,' the
latter a very common name. Cf. Dummeb.

DiGBETH (Birmingham, Coventry, and Northfield, Wore).
Duignan thinks this may be corrup. of dike path; dike, O.E.
die, being either ' ditch ' or 'embankment.' But there are no
old forms, and this is doubtful.

DiLHORNE (Stoke-on-Trent). Dom. and till 1300 Dulverne.
Duignan thinks, O.E. dulf-, delfern, ' place of digging or delv-
ing.' Cf. Delph. However, in Dom. Bucks we have ' Dile-
herst,' and Dilham (Noiik.) is sic c. 1150, fr. a man Dela or Dila.



DILSTON 233 DITTON

DiLSTON (Hexham), a. 1300 cliart. Divelin, which looks hke W.
ty Felyn, ' house of Velyn.' 6'/. Helvellyn and SxiRLmG
(So.) c. 1250 Estrivelin. But — surely very improbably — Sir
H. Maxwell thinks this name is D'Eyville's town ' (see Scala-
cronica MS., fo. 211) ; whilst M'Clure thinks the Dils- is a
corrup. of Dubglas, ' dark stream.'

DiNAS (Glamorgan). W. and Corn., ' a castle/ fr. din, ' hill/ then
' hill-fort.' CJ. Pendennis.

DiNAS Emrys (small hill near Snowdon). 1190 Gir. Camb. says

this means ' promontory of Ambrosius,' a celebrated bard of

the 5th cny.
Din AS PowYS (Cardiff). 1223 Patent E. Dinant powis. ' Hill ' or

' fort of PowYS.' Cf. above.
DiNEFWR Castle (Caermarthen) . c. 1196 Gir. Camb. Dynevur,

1246 Patent E. Dynavor. W. din y ffwyr, ' castle of the onset

or assault.'
DiNGERBElN (Cornwall). Corn, din Geraird, 'fort of K. Geraint,

husband of Enid, who fell at Langport, 522. Cf. St. Gerrans.

DiNMORE (Hereford). W. din maur, ' big hill.' It is a village on
the top of a high hill. Cf. Dunmore (Sc).

DiNNENGTON (Newcastle-on-T. and Rotherham). Ro. D. Dom.
Dunnitone, Dunintone, ' town of Dun, Duna, or Duning,' all in
Onom. See -ing.

DiN-oRWiG (Caernarvon). Old Dinorddwig — i.e., 'fort of the
Ordovices,' a tribe of central Wales. See Tacit. Agric. 18.
But in charters of Edw. III. it is Dynnorbin. Rhys derives
Ordovices fr. O.W. ord, W. gordd, ' a hammer.'

Din TON (Aylesbury and Salisbury). Sa. D. Duntone. 1179-80
Pipe Yorks. Dinton, ' village of Dynne or Dyne,' a common
name in Onom. See -ton. But Dinsdale (N. Yorks) is Dom.
Digneshale, prob. ' Degn's nook {cf. Denary) ; though Over
Dinsdale is Dom. Dirneshala, fr. Deorna, or perh. Deoring,
Diring, names in Onom. See -hall.

Diss (Norfolk). Dom. Dice. Doubtful. ? O.Fr. deis, found in
Eng. c. 1259 as deis, ' a dais or high-table.' Diseworth (Derby)
and DiSLEY (Stockport) imply an unrecorded man Disa. Cf.
Desborough and next.

Dissington (Northumbld.). ? The Digentum in Hexham Chrons.
Should be ' town of Dissa ' or the hke ; but there is no such name
in Onom. Still we have Dishforth, Thirsk, Dom. Disforde,
and the places above, suggesting such a name.

DiTTON (Widnes, Bridgnorth, and Surrey) and Fen Ditton
(Cambs). Cam. D. c. 1080 Inquis. Camb. Dictune, Dittune.
Dom. Surrey and Bucks Ditone, -tune; also c. 1170 and 1213
charts. Dicton, ? which, and c. 1005 chart. Dictune, Kent,

16



DOCCOMBE 234 DONYATT

' Town, enclosure, with the ditch/ O.E. die. Cf. Ditchford
(Warwk.), Dom. Dicforde. The names Deighton and Dighton
have the same origin as Ditton. N. Yorks is Dom. Dictune,
and Deightonby is Dictenebi, a somewhat rare hybrid.

DoccoMBE (Newton Abbot). Not in Dom. 1174 Documba, 1322
Dockumbe; also corrupted into Dockham. O.E. docce-cumbe,
' dock-valley/ valley in which the docken weed abounded.

DoDCOTT (Nantwich). 1135 Dodecotte. Cf. a. 1300 ' Dodeford/
Northants. ' The cot or cottage of Dodd, Doda, or Dodda/ a
very common name in Onom. Cf. Didcot and Dodwell, Strat-
ford (Warwk.), close to the Doddanford of 985 chart.

DoDiNGTON (Yate and Bridgwater). Ya. D. Dom. Dodintone,
1170 Duddinton; and Doddington (5 in P.O.), March D. Dom.
Dodinton, 1302 Doddyngtone. ' Village of Dodda ' or ' Dudda,'
gen. -an. Cf. Dom. Bucks and Salop, Dodintone. But
DoDiNGTBEE (Leicester) is perh. fr. dod, ' to clip or top/ found
a. 1225 dodd ; cf. 1440 Prompt. Parv., ' doddjTi trees or herbys
. . . decomo.' This tree was the meeting-place of the hundred.
Cf. Manningtree. See -ing.

DoGSTHORPE (Peterboro'). Not in Dom. c. 1100 Grant Dodes-
thorpe. Interesting corruption; ' farm of Dodd.' See Dodcott
and -thorpe.

DoLEBURY Cajvip (Mendips). 'Burgh, fortified place of Dola';
one such in Onom. It is the site of a pre-Roman fort. See
-bury.

DoLGELLY. W. dol gelli, ' meadow with the grove or copse,' gelli
being var. of the commoner celli.

Dolly Meadows (Bath). W. Dol. pi. dolau (pron. dola}-), ' a
meadow.' Cf. G. dnl. Thus the name is a tautology.

DoLTON (Devon). Dom. Dueltona. 1235 Patent E. Dughelton.
' Town of Dougal ' (see Duggleby), only here the h has
' eclipsed ' the g. Cf. the surname Doulton.

Don R. and Doncaster. Prob. c. 380 Ant. Itin. Dono and
Bede II. xiv Campodunum, c. 850 O.E. vers. Donafeld; Nennius
Cair Daun; Dom. Doncastre, 1158-59 Pipe Dane Castre, 1202
Fines Danecastre, 1206 Donecastre. It cannot be the same as
Don (Sc). Perh. W. dwn, G. donn, ' brown. ^ See -caster.

DoNNENGTON (Salop, Gloucs., and Berks). Sa. D. Dom. Donitone.
Gl. D. 1176 Pipe Dunnington. Be. D. 1316 Dunj^ngton.
' Village of the sons of Dunn.' Cf. B.C.S. iii. 601 on Dunning-
lande. Cf. Dunnington; and see -ing.

DoNYATT (Ilminster) . 1234 Patent R. Dunyed. O.E. dun ^eat,
' hill of the gate, opening or pass.' Yat or yat{t)e has been the
S.W. dial, form of gate since the 16th cnv. Cf. Symond's
Yat.



DORCHESTER 235 DOVER

Dorchester (Dorset), c. 380 Ant. Itin. Darno(no)varia, 939
chart, villa regalis quae dicitur Doracestria, c. 1100 Flor.
Wore. Dorsetania, 1387 Dorchestre. Durno-varia is prob.
Kelt, for ' fist-plays/ there having been a Rom. amphitheatre
here; W. dwrn, Ir. dorn, ' fist ' ; and Corn, gware for L. varia, ' a
play.' Asser, ann. 875, speaks of the district {paga), called in
British Durngueir (in MS. -eis), but in Saxon Thornsseta {or
Dornsseta), now Dorset. In the present name there is nothing
which represents varia, so that it really seems to mean ' fist
camp." 6'/. Cardurnock; and see -Chester.

Dorchester (Oxon). (? Durcinate in a. 700 Rav. Geogr.) c. 689
Theodore Villa Dorcacaestrensis, Bede Dorcic, O.E. Ghron. 635
and 891 Dorcic-, Dorcesceaster, 905 in Eadmer Dorkeceastre,
Dam. Dorchecestre. This seems either to mean ' camp of Dorc,'
an miknown man, or, more doubtfully, ' dark camp,' O.E.
deorc, 3 dorc, ' dark.' Also see Dorset.

DoRDON (Tamworth). 1285 Derdon. Perh. 'hill of the deer,'
O.E. deor. Cf. Dassett; and see -don.

DoRE R. (S. Wales), c. 1130 Lib. Land. Door ; and Dore (Here-
ford and Sheffield). Shef. D. O.E. Chron. 827 Dore, ib. 942
Dor. W. dwr, ' water, stream ' ; G. dobhar. Cf. Appledore,
Dour (Yorks), and Durra (Cornw.). But Plummer derives the
towns fr. O.E. duru, dor, ' a door, an opening.'

Dorset, a. 900 Asser Thornsseta, Dornsseta, Dom. Dorsete, c.
1097 Flor. W. Dorsetania. Dornsseta should mean ' seat,
settlement among the thorns'; but c/. Dorchester; while
some connect with Ptolemy's Durotriges, who dwelt about here.
Cf. Somerset. Dom. Essex has a Dorseda.

DoRSiNGTON (Stratford-on-A.). Dorn. Dorsintune, and Dorstone
(Hereford), a. 1300 Dorsinton. ' Village of the Dorsings,' or
? ' sons of Deorsige.' Cf. Dersingham. See -ing.

DoSTHiLL (Tamworth). Dom. Dercelai. a. 1200 Dertehulla,
Derchethull, a. 1400 Derst-, Dorsethull. The ending is clear.
In Dom. -lai is fr. -ley, ' meadow,' q.v. ; and hull is the regular
]\Iid. form of ' hill.' Derchet or Derst prob. represents a man
Deorswith ; 2 in Onom. But cf. also Dom. Bucks Dusteb'ge and
Desborough.

Douglas (I. of Man). Local pron. Doolish. Moore says, Manx
dub glais, ' dark stream.' Cf. Douglas (Sc.) and Dowlais,
pron. Dowlish. One of K. Arthur's battles, in Nennius, was at
' Duglas.' c. 1205 Layamon has a ' Duglas water ' too.

Dove R. (Derbv) and Dovey or Dyfi R. (S. Wales and Machvnlleth).
Der.D. 890 cAar^.Dufa, a. 1300 Duve Douve. Mach.D. 1428 Dy vi.
All fr. O.W. dubr,W.dwfr, dwr, ' water, stream.' Duignan thinks
Dove the ' diving ' river, O.E. dufan. Its tribs. certainly dive



DOVER 236 DRAYCOTT

underground. Doveedige (Uttoxcter) is Dom. Dubrige, c.
1300 Doubrig, ' bridge on R. Dove.'

Dover (also near Leigh, Lanes), c. 380 Ant. Itin. Portus Dubris;
a. 716 chart. Duiras, 104S O.E. Chron. Dofre, a. 1100 Wm Poit.
Doueria, c. 1097 Flor. W. Doru-, Doro-bernia; 1160 Doura,
Dovre; c. 1205 Layam. Doure, c. 1275 Douere. The Kent D.
is on R. Douver, W. dwfr., ' stream/ still correctly pron. in
Fr,, Douvie(s) . Cf. above, and Dovebdale, Droitwich,706 chart.
Dourdale, 817 ib. Doferdsel; also Dom. Wilts Dobreha. There
are also a R. Doveele (Berkeley) and a Dover Beck, 1225
Doverbec (Notts), and a Douvres on the N. coast of France.

Dovercoxjbt (Harwich). Dom. Druurecurt (first r an error).
' Court on the river,' W. dwfr. See above. Court, O.F. cort,
curt, L. cohors, -tern, ' com-t, poultry -yard, yard,' is not in Oxf.
Diet, till 1297. It means ' a clear space enclosed by a wall,'
then ' a large building in a yard, a castle.'

DowLAis (Glam.). Pron. Dowlish. Disputable; perh. O.W. dau,
mod. W. dou glais, ' two streams '; but prob. = Douglas. The
Dewlas, trib. of Nthn. Dovey, is sic 1428 and locally pron.
Diflas, clearly ' dark (W. du) stream.' Dowlish Wake (llminster)
should be the same. Cf. Dawlish. The Little and Great
DowAKD Hills, lower Wye, were old Dougarth, which is O.W. for
' two garths,' or ' enclosures.'

DowisJHAM (Cambs and Norfolk). Cam. D. K.C.D. iv. 209 Dun-
ham. Nor. D. 1461 Dounham. O.E. dun-ham, ' hill-dwell-
ing.' Cf. next. DowKHOLME (Richmond, Yorks) is in Dom.
simply Dune. See -holm.

Downs, The (off Kent), a. 1460 Gregory's Chron. The Downys,
1520 The Downes. Perh. so called from the down or hill, O.E.
dun, opposite the E. end of the North Downs.

DowJSTTON (Sahsbury). c. 1160 Duntuna — i.e., 'hill-town' or Hilton.

DowTHORPE (Yorks). Dom. Dwetorp. Prob. 'village of Duua'
or ' Duha,' names in Onom. See -thorpe.

DoxEY (Stafiord). Dom. Dochesig, c. 1200 Dokesei, 'Isle of
Docca,' or ' the duck,' O.E. docce. Cf. Duxeord. In Dom.
Salop there is Dehocsele or ' Docca's nook. ' See -ey and -hall.

Drakenedge (Warwksh.). 1251 Drakenegg. O.E. dracan ecg,
' devil's or dragon's edge ' or ' brink.' Cf. Drakeiow (Derbysh.)
and Woiverley, former 942 ' set Dracan hlawen ' (see -low),
also Drakestone (Gloucs.).

Draughton (Skipton). Dom. Dractone. Doubtful. Possibly it
is 'town of the devil,' O.E. draca. Cf. above. Possibly =
Drayton.

Draycott (Berks, Bleckley, Dunchurch, Stoke-on-T.). Ber. D.
Dom. Draicotej Bl. D. 1275 Draycote ; St. D. a. 1300 Dra- and



DRAYTON 237 DROITWICH j

Draj^cote. This must go with Drayton, an even commoner
name with older recorded forms. Draycott would seem to mean
' diy cot'; O.E. dryge, drige, 2 dreie, 4 draye, dreye, 'dry.'
Possibly it is fr. O.E. drcege, 'a drag-net, a dray'; but then,
why so ? Certainly Skeat's derivation fr. an O.E. drceg, sup-
posed to mean ' a place of shelter, a retreat ' (c/. mod. dray,
' a squirrel's nest '), seems rather laboured. But the matter is
not yet settled. Dom. Devon has a Draheford, ? ' ford for a
dray.' Cf. Dbig.

Drayton (9 in P.G.). Chart. DrsQgtnn, Dom. Draitone, 1210 Dray-
ton (Cambs). 810 chart. Draiton (N. Notts), 960 chart. Dragegtun,
and Dom. Draitone (Berks), a. 1100 Drseitun, a. 1200 Draiton
(Stratford, Warwicksh.). Dom. Dray-, Draitone (Penkridge and
Tamworth). Dom. Drattone (Bucks). Prob. 'dry town'; but
the early forms make O.E. drcege ' a dray,' at least a possible
origin. Skeat derives the place in Cambs and Berks fr. the O.E.
drceg, referred to s.v. Draycott. The ' Cair Draithon ' of c.
800 Nennius has been identified with one of the Dray tons,
which is doubtful.

Driffield (BridUngton and Cricklade). Br. D. c. 1050 O.E. Chron.
705 DrifEelda, Dom. Drifeld, -felt, 1202 Driffeld. Cr. D. Dom.
Drifelle (common Dom. var.). 'Dry field,' O.E. drige, 3 drigge,
drie, ' dry.' Duignan says Driffold (Sutton Colfield), is drift
fold, ' fold into which cattle were driven.' Cf. next.

Drig (W. Cumbld.). O.E. drige, ' dry '; drceg, ' a place of shelter.
Cf. above.

Drighlington (Bradford). Dom. Dreslintone, -ingtone. The s in
Dom. is to avoid the guttural gh ; such Dom. hates. Prob.
' village of the descendants of Dryhtweald,' or perh. ' Drycghelm '
(once in Onom.). Cf. Dom. Gloucs. Dricledone. See -ing.

Dringhoe (Holdemess). Dom. Dringolme; and Dringhouses
(York). Not in Dom. N. dreng, 'a free servant of the king
endowed with lands.' They were found all over, N. of the
Humber and Ribble. The ending -hoe is here a corrup. of
-holm, q.v., through the liquidity or vanishing tendency of
I and m, influenced by Hoe, 'height'; whilst holm is 'river-
meadow.'

Droitwich. 716 chart. In wico emptoris salis quern nos Saltwich
vocamus, 888 ib. Saltwic, 1017 Sealtwic, 1049 O.E. Chron. Wic,
Dom. Wich 24 times, Wic once, 1347 le Dryghtwych, 1469
Dertwyche. But D. is not Ptolemy's Salinai. Wich is simply
O.E. wic, ' dwelling, village.' See -wich. True, here and in
Cheshire and the neighbouring districts it is the ending of most
salt-producing towns; but there is no O.E. authority for saying
that wic or wich has anything to do with salt. Many — even
Skeat — derive this wich fr. O.N. vik, ' a bay, a small (salt)
creek '; hence, it is said, the transition is easy to ' salt or brine



DEOMONBY 238 DULLINGHAM

spring.' But that wich could come fr. vile in 716 in Worcestersh.
seems simply impossible. Droit- (Fr. droit, ' right, privilege ')
was prefixed by sanction of Edw. III., who gave the inhabitants
the right to manufacture salt here a. 1293. The right had to be
restricted in other places owing to the great waste of timber
in making salt. But Edw. the Confessor already had £52 a
year from the salt works. Cf. ' The Droits of Admiralty.'

Dromonby (N. Riding). Dom. Dragmalebi, twice. A remarkable
corrup. ' Dwelling of Dragmel,' one in Onotn. We here see
how any one liquid can become another, even I become n.
See -by.

Dronfield (Sheffield). Not in Dom. 'Field of the drone-bees';
O.E. dran, 3-6 dron.

Droxford (Bps. Waltham). 939 chart. Drocenesf orda ; not in
Dom. ' Ford of Drocen/ not in Onom., but cf. Drakenedge.

Druid (Corwen) may be for W. derwydd, ' a Druid.' T. Morgan
omits it. But Druid Heath (Warwk.) is c. 1400 Dru-, Dre-
wood, f r. a family of Dru, or rather Druce, prob. taking their name
fr. Dreux, Normandy.

Drypool (Hull). Dom. Drid-, Dritpol, Dripold, 'dirty pool,'
Icel. drit, ' dirt.'

DuDBRiDGE (Stroud). 1302 Dodebrygge; and Duddo (Norham);
1183 Dudehowe. Named fr. some man Dudd, Duda, or Dudda,
names very common in O.E., esp. in Mercia. Cf. Dudley and
Duddeston (Birmingham), 1100 Duddestone. The -o is -howe,
' a mound,' q.v.

Duddon (Tarporley) and Duddon R. (Cumbld.). Latter thought
to be c. 709 Eddi Regio Dunutinga, a name of uncertain
origin. But Tar. D. may be W. du din, 'dark, black hill';
though cf. next.

Dudley. Dom. Dudelei, 1275 Duddleye, ' meadow of Dudd,



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