James B. (James Brown) Johnston.

The place-names of England and Wales online

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O.Fr. gole, goule, ' the throat.' For -fiete, see Fleet.

Goonhavern (Perranporth, Cornwall). Corn, goon, 'a down, a
moorland, a marsh,' and ? some word for ' iron,' W. haiarn.

Goosey (Faringdon). O.E. chart. Gosige, Dom. Gosei, 1291 Goseye,
' Goose-isle.' See -ey. But Goosnargh (Preston), Dom. Gusan-
sarghe, is ' shieling of Gusan,' an unrecorded, prob. N., name.
See Anglesark and Grimsargh.

Gore (hundred of Middlesex, around Kilburn). c. 1134 chart. Gara,
which is O.E. or Early Eng. for ' a wedge-shaped strip of land on
the side of an irregular field.' This is a good deal earlier than
any quot. in Oxf. Diet. Cf. Dom. Wilts, Gare.

GoRLESTON (Gt. Yarmouth). Dom. Gorlestuna. The name is
doubtful; ? fr. Garweald, or Geroldus, or Gerbold, as in Dom.
Norfk., Gerboldesha.

GoRNAL Wood (Dudley), a. 1500 Gwarnell, Guarnell. Prob. ' hall '
or ' nook ' (O.E. heall or healh) ' of Garnwi ' or ' Geornwig/


names in Onom. Duignan derives fr. O.E. cweorn, cwearne,
6 quearn, ' a quern, a hand-mill/ but this is not prob. phoneti-
cally. See -hall.

GoRSLEY (Glouc). Not in Dom. 1228 Close R. Gorstley. Prob.
not 'furze-meadow/ O.E. gors, 'furze, whin/ but 'meadow of
Gorst,' a name not in Onom., but still a surname. See -ley.

GosFORTH (Seaseale and Newcastle). Se. G. c. 1170 Gose-, 1390
Gosford, 1452 Gosforth. ' Goose ford/ O.E. gos, 3-6 gose, ' a
goose." But GoscoTE (Walsall), a. 1300 Gorstycote, is gorsey cot
or ' cottage among the gorse '; and Gossington (Glouc), 1189
Gosintone, is ' village of Gosa,' -an. Cf. 940 chart. Gosanwelle
(Dorset). See -forth.

Gotham (Notts). Sic 1316, but Dom. Gatha. O.E. gdt Mm, ' goat-
house,' 4-6 gote, 6- goat. Gotherington (Bishop's Cleeve), Dom.
Godrinton, is fr. Godhere. See -ing.

GowER (S. Wales). In W. Gwyr. a. 810 Nennius Guir, c. 1188
Gir. Camb. Goer, Ann. Camb. 1095 Goher. Prob. W. gwyr,
' awry, askew '; there is a Corn, gover, ' a rivulet '; and W. gwyr
is ' fresh, verdant.' There can be no certainty as to the name.

GowY K.. (trib. of R. Mersey, Cheshire). Corrup. of W. givy, ' water,

GoxHiLL (E. Riding and Grimsby). E. Ri. G. Dom. Golse (? c),
Gr. G. Not in Dom., 1210 Gousele (where -ele prob. represents
-hale or -hall, q.v.). Difficult; more old forms needed. No
name like Golc is on record; and gowk, 4-6 goJc, O.N. gauk-r, ' the
cuckoo,' yields no Z, nor is it found in Eng. till c. 1325.

GoYT R. (N.E. Chesh.). M.E. gote, 'a watercourse, a stream';
O.E. gyte, ' a flood,' fr. geotan, ' to pour,' still found in North, dial.
as goit, goyt. Cf. W. gwyth, ' a conduit, a channel'; also ' Skir-
beck Gowt,' sic 1593, near Boston, which is a watercourse or
channel. Guy ting -Power and -Temple (Glouc.) must be fr. same
root; 814 chart. Gythinge, Dom. Getinge, 1221 Guytinge, with
-ing, q.v., here in its meaning of ' place on a stream.' But
GoYTRE (Glamorgan) may be for W. coed tre, 'wood-house,
dwelling in the wood.'

Grafton {5 in P.G.). Worcester G. 884 chart. Graf tune. Two in
Warwick, 710 chart. Graftone, 962 ib. Greftone, Dom. Grastone,
1189 Grafton. Northants G. 1166-67 Pi^Je Grafton. ' Grove
town,' O.E. grdf. See -ton.

Graham. The orig. Graham prob. was in Northumberland; c. 1195
a David de Graham witnesses a charter re Ellingham (Belford).
The surname is found a. 1128 as Graeme, and 1139 Graha.
O.E. grd ham, ' grey house.' Cf. 1179-80 Pipe Gremrig (Yorks).

Grainthorpe (Lines). [Dom. Lines has only Greneham.] 'Village
in the forked valley '; O.N. grein, ' division, branch'; Sw. gren.


' a branch.' See -thorpe and Grain (Sc), also Grain, sb.- in
Oxf. Diet., found in Eng. a. 1300. This last also means ' arm of
the sea, branch of a stream,' as in Isle of Grain (Medway).

Grajmpound (Truro). Corn, gran pont, ' great bridge.'

Gran(d)borough (Rugby and Winslow) . 1043 chart. Grsenesburgh,
Greneburga, Dom. Grane-, Greneljerge, 1260 Greneborwe,
' Burgh of Groen/ not in Onom. Of. Granby (Notts), Dom.
Granebi, and Dom. Lines., Granham. See -borough.

Grantchester. See Cambridge.

Grantham. Sic in Dom. ' Home of Granta ' or ' Grant,' a name
not in Onom., but we have also Grantley (Ripon), Dom.
Grentelaia. On the meaning of Grant, see Cambridge.

Grasmere (Cumberland). 'Grassy lake'; O.E. grces, 3-6 gras,
' grass.' Cf. Graseley (Wolverhampton), sic 1282.

Grassington (Skipton). Z)om. Ghersinton, 1212 Gersinton. 'Town
of Gersent ' or ' Gersendis,' both names in Onom.

Grateley (Andover). Not in Dom. Prob. a. 941 Lett, to Athelstan
Greatanlea. ' Greta's lea ' or ' meadow ' ; but the name is not in
Onom. Cf. Greetham and Gratwich (Uttoxeter), Dom. Grate-
wich, which Duignan thinks 'great, large village.' O.E. great,
3 greet, 4-6 grait, grett.

Graveley (Stevenage and Huntingdon). Hunt. G. chart. Grseflea,
Greflea, Dom. Gravelei, ' grave or trench meadow.' See -ley.
Cf. Graveney (Faversham), 940 chart. Gravenea. See -ey.

Gravesend. Dom. Essex, Grauesanda, 1157 Pipe Grauesent.
c. 1500 in Arnold's Chron. Gravesende — i.e., ' at the end of the
moat.' Cf. Med. Dutch grave, ' a trench.'

Greasborough (Rotherham). Dom. once Gersebroc. One would
expect a man's name here, but on analogy of Garston this is
prob. ' grassy brook,' O.E. broc, altered to -borough {q.v.). O.E.
for ' grass ' is gcers, grces. But it is also in Dom. Grese-, Gresse-
burg, prob. ' burgh, castle of Grese ' or ' Grise ' — i.e., ' the Pig !'
See Gristhorpe. So Gersebroc is prob. an error.

Great Ayton (Yorks). Dom. Atun, 1179-80 Atton. Perh, ' village
of JEtta, jEtte,' or ' Mtti,' all forms in Onom. If so, not= Ayton
(Sc). It may well be =Eton; O.E. ea-tun, 'town, village on
the stream.'

Great Bookhajm (Leatherhead) . Chart. Bocham, Dom. Bocheha.
Cf. 1224 Patent R. Bukeham (Norfk.). Prob. 'beech-built
home,' See Bockhampton.

Great Bradley (Newmarket). 1341 deed Bradeleghe; M.E. for
' broad lea ' or ' meadow.' See -ley.

Great Kimble (Bucks). Dom. Chenebella, chart. Cunebelle, 1291
Kenebelle. Cf. 903 chart. Cjaiebellinga-gemsere. Perh., as Dr.


Birch suggests, called after CunobelUnus, the British King, said
to have been buried here. There is also a Cynebill or Cynobill,
brother of the Bps. Cedda and Ceadda, in Onom. Cf. Kemble
(Cirencester), a. 1300 Kenebelle.

Great Tey (Kelvedon). O.E. tih, teah, ' a paddock.'

Great Witchingham (Norwich). Dom. Wicinghaha, c. 1444
Wychyngham. ' Home of W idling ' or ' W icing '; three of
this name in Onom., really a var. of viking, ' bay-man, sea-rover.'
Prob. here a patronymic. See -ing.

Greenodd (Lonsdale). O.N. oddi, odd-r, 'a small point of land,'
as in Odde (Norway). Cf. Greenhow (Pately Br.). O.N. haug-r,
' mound, cairn ', and Dom. Norfk., Grenehov.

Greenwich. 1013 O.E. Chron. Grenawic, Dom. Grenviz, c. 1386
Chaucer Grenewich. O.E. grene wic, ' green, grassy town or

Greetham (Oakham). Dom. and 1292 Gretham. C/. Dom. Hants,
Greteham. Prob. ' Greta's home,' as in Grateley. But it may
be ' great house '; O.E. great, grecet, 3-6 gret, 4-6 greet. Greet-
land (Halifax) is Dom. Greland.

Grendon (Atherstone, Northampton, Aylesbury). Ath. G. Dom.
Grendon. O.E. gren dun, ' green hill.' Grindon (Ham and Co.
Durham), H. G. Dom. Grendone, and 1183 Boldon Bk. Grendona
(Durham), is the same name.

Gresham (Norwich). Dom. and 1426 Gressam. Older forms
needed, but prob. 'Home of Gressa,' a name not in Onom.,
but seen in Gressenhall, and cf. Greasborough, whilst
Dom. Norfk has also Gresingaha, the patronymic form. See -ham.

Gresley (Burton-on-Trent). Old forms needed. Perh. ' meadow
of Gresa' or 'Gressa.' Cf. Gresham. But also cf. 1179-80
Greselea, 1283 Greseleye (S. Lanes), Grizebeck and Grizedale,
which may come fr. O.N. griss, 'a pig.' See -ley. Greis- or
Grassthorpe (Notts), Dom. Grestorp, is prob. 'grassy village';
cf. Garston.

Gressenhall (Dereham), Dom. Gressenhala, c. 1450 Gressenhale.
Prob. as above, ' nook, corner of Gressa.' It does not seem prob.
that it comes fr. grass ; no adj. grassen or gressen is known. See

Greta R. (Yorks). O.N. griot a, 'stony, shingly river,' fr. griot,
O.E. greot, ' gravel, sand, stones.' The name reappears in Lewis,
the R. Greeta or Creed, in G. Gride. We also have a R. Greet
(Notts), 958 chart. Greota, Great Bridge (Wednesbury) on a
stream called a. 1400 Grete, a. 1600 Greete, and Greet (Glouc),
1195 Greta, a hamlet on a brook.

Gretton (Kettering and Winchcombe). Ket. G. not in Dom.
Chron. Ramsey Gretton. Same as Girton. But Wi- G. is


Dom. Gretestan, or -stanes, c. 1175 Gretstona, j)i'o^- 'great
stone or rock/ C'/. Greetham; and see -ton, which often inter-
changes with -stone.

Greystones (Sheffield) . CJ. 847 chart. Fram Smalen cnmbes heaf de
to grsewanstane ; not this place. There is no Smallcombe in the

Grimsargh (Preston). Dom. Grimesarge. ^ Grim's shelling' or
' hut.' argh being N. corrup. of G. airigh. See Anglesark; and
cf. Sizergh (Kendal), also next.

Grimsby. Dom., and 1156 Pipe Grimesbi, 1296 Grimmesby, 1297
Grymesby. ' Grim's dwelling.' See -by. Grim was a very
common O.E. name. Grimsby existed from the days of Cnut,
or earlier. Its origin is described in c. 1300 Havelok. There is a
Grimsbury (Berks) and a Grimstock (Coleshill). See -stock. But
Grimscote (Whitchurch) is said to have been Kilmescote and
Kenemyscote, which, as Duignan says, is prob. ' Coenhelm's ' or
' Kenelm's cot.' There are also several Grimstons — e.g., Dom.
Yorks and Notts, Grimeston, Grimstun, and a Grimsbury (Glouc.) .

Grim's Dyke, or Ditch of Grim, runs f r. Bradeham (High Wycombe)
to Berkhamstead (Herts). It is an ancient earthwork of un-
known origin, possibly Roman. Cf. above and Graham's Dyke
(Falkirk), which is the old Roman Wall; also Grime's Hill
(Worcs.), 1275 Grimesput (' pit '). Grim in O.E. means ' fierce,
cruel,' common as a surname. Grimley (Worcs.) is 851 chart.
Grimanleage, ' Grima's meadow.'

Grindleton (Clitheroe). Dom. Gretlintone. This seems to be a
corrup. of the common ' GrimcyteVs, town,' a name also found as
Grichetel, Grinchel, Grichel. But cf. next, Grindleford (Sheffield)
and Grindalythe (see Hythe), Thirsk; neither in Dom.

Grindley Brook (Whitchurch) . May simply be ' meadow with the
barred gate'; O.N. grind. See -ley. Some would compare
Grendlesmere (Wilts) fr. Grendel, the witch in Beowulf. Cf.
a. 1000 chart. Grendles bee and Grindeles pytt (W^orc), and there
is a Grindelay, or ' Grenclel's isle ' (Orkney) ; but see, too, above.
Grindley (Uttoxeter) is often in 13th cny. Greneleye, as if
' green meadow.' Cf. Gringley (Notts), Dom. Grenelei.

Grindon. See Grendon.

Grinshu^l (Shrewsbury). Not in Dom. Grin is prob. var, of
Grim, as in Grimsby, etc. Grimthorpe (Yorks) is in Dom. both
Grim- and Grintorp; cf. 940 chart. Grinescumb (Dorset). But
Grind ALE (Yorks) is Dom. Grendale, ' green dale.'

Gristhorpe (Filey). Dom. Grisetorp and Griston (Thetford).
Dom. Gris-, Grestuna. ' Village of the pigs,' or, ' of a man Grise ';
O.N. griss, ' a pig.' Similar is Girsby (Yorks), Dom. Grisebi.
Cf. next and Greasborough; and see -thorpe.

Grittleton (Chippenham). 940 chart. Grutehngtone, Dom. Grete-
linton. ' Village of the sons of Grutel/ a name not in Onom.



Perhaps it is for the fairly common Grimcytel, var. Grichetel,
See -ing.

Geizebeck (Furness) and Grizedale (Cumberland). O.N. griss,
' a pig.' C/. above. On beck, ' a brook/ see Beckermet.

Groby (Leicester). Dom. Grobi, 1298 Grouby. ' Dwelhng by the
pit.' O.N. grof, Ger. gruhe. See -by.

Gronant (Rhyl). W. gro nant, ' sand ' or ' gravel valley.'

GuASH R. (Rutland). Prob. O.W. gwes, 'that which moves or
goes.' 6'/., too, G. guaimeas, ' quietness,' and Wash.

Guernsey. Possibly c. 380 Notit. Dign. ' Granona in Armorica.'
If so the first part of this name must be Keltic, or pre-Keltic;
perh. W. gwern, ' plain, moor, and alder tree,' with N. ending.
But it is a. 1170 Wace Guernesi, 1218 Patent R. Ger(n)esie,
1219 Gernereye; 1286 Close R. Gennere, 1447 Guernesey, 1449
Garnyse, 1454 Gernessey. Some think it is also a. 1220 Volsunga
Saga Varinsey. The name is prob. N. ' Isle of Gcerwine ' or
' Gerinus/ names in Onom., or of an unrecorded Gcern, in which
case s in 1218 will be an Eng. gen. and r in 1219 a Norse one.
See -ey.

Guild EN Morden (Royston, Hunts) and Sutton (Chester), c. 1080
Inquis. Camb. Morclune, 1166 Morclone, 1236 Mordene. ' Moor,
down '; O.E. dun, changed into denu, ' (wooded) valley.' Later,
1255 Geldenemordon, 1317 Guldenemordon, 1302 Gylden, 1342
Gilden, 1346 Gyldene. This also prob., thinks Skeat, means
' Morden of the guild-brother,' O.E. gyldena, gen. pi. of gylda,
' a guild-brother.' But further evidence is needed. It can
hardly be the same as Dom. Goldene (Salop), with which c/.
Goldenhill (Stoke-on-Trent) .

Guildford. Dom. Glide-, Geldeford, c. 1100 Ralph the Black
Guldedune (O.E. dun, ' hill, hill-fort '), 1120 Geldeforda, a. 1199
Goldeford, 1298 Gildeforde. ' Ford with the toll '; O.E. ^ield,
^eld, ^yld, ' payment, tribute.'

GuiSBORo' (Yorks) . Dom. Ghigesborg ; but it is also Dom. Giseborne,
1151 Gyseburne. Cf. Gisburn, and see -bourne. It is difficult
to say what name Ghige- represents, but prob. it is the same as
in Ginge (Berks), which is in O.E. chart. Giieging, Geinge, Gainge;
Dom. Gainz, ' place of the sons of Gcega '; also c/. K.C.D. vi. 137,
Geganlege, ' Gega's meadow.' In Ghiges- we have a strong gen.
instead of the weak -an, and Gise- is a contraction ; also see next.
See -boro'.

GuiSELEY (Shipley). Dom. Gisele. ' Gisa's lea' or 'meadow.'
See above, and cf. Dom. Norfk., Guistune. See -ley.

GuLVAL (Penzance). Sic 1521; 1536 Gulvale alias Lanesleye (1222
Lanesely). Called after 6^Mc^t(;a?, Bp. of St. Malo, 6th cny. But
Lanesely must mean ' church of ' some other saint.


Gtjmley (Leicester). Dom. Godmundelai, 1292 Gomuudele. 'Lea,
meadow of Godmund'; 3 such in Onom. Cf. Godmanchester
and GooDMANHAM ; and see -ley.

GuNNEBSBURY (Kew). Not found till the loth cny. 'Burgh,
town of Gunner/ N. Gunnarr, a common name in Onom. Cf-
next and Ballj^gunner (Waterford) ; and see -bury.

GuNNERSKELD (Shap). 'Well of Gunner' (see above); fr. O.N.
kelda, ' a well, a spring." Cf. Threlkeld (Penrith).

GuNNiSLAKE (Tavistock). Perh. 'Lake of Gunna'; there is one
such in Onom. On this Norse name, which means ' war,' see
the interesting discussion in Oxf. Diet. s.v. gun sb. Cf.
GuNSTON (Staffs) a. 1300 Gonestone, Gunstone. Gunn is still a
common surname. Lake is already found in O.E. as lac, though
rarely. Cf. Filey. But Dom. Devon has a Gherneslete;
? this place, which may be fr. O.E. gelcet{e), ' open watercourse '
or 'junction of roads' (see leat, sb.), and so 'leatof Geornn' or
' Geornivi,' corrupted into Gunnislake. Cf., too, Gurney Slade.

Gunthorpe (Nottingham and Norfolk). Not G. Sic a. 1100 in
grant of 664, but Dom. Gulne-, Gunnetorp, 1278 Guntorp. Nor.
G. Dom. Gunestorp. ' Village of Gunna.' See above, and
-thorpe. Possibly the name embedded is Gunhildr ; cf. Gun-
THWAiTE (Yorks), 1389 Gmmyldthwayt.

GuNWALLOE (The Lizard). Named fr. Winwaloe, son of Fragan of
Brittany, c. 550.

Gurney Slade (Bath). This looks as if the same name as Dom,
Devon, Gherneslete; see Gunnislake. Dom. Somerset has only
Gernefelle, ' Georn's field.''

Guyhirn (Wisbech). 'Guy's nook' or 'hiding-place'; O.l^.hyrne,
now hern, him. Guy is a common Nor. name in England. But
Guy's Cliff (Warwick) is a. 1200 Gibbe- Kibbechve, a. 1300
Chibbeclive — i.e., ' Gibbie's ' or ' Gilbert's cliff.'

Gwaelod-y-Garth (Cardiff). W., 'bottom of the Uttle corn-field.'
Garth must be a loan-wood, fr. O.N. garh-r, ' an enclosure, a
yard '; but in W. it now means ' a ridge, a hill, a promontory.'

GwAUN-CAE-GuRWEN (Glam.). Looks like W. gwaen cae gwr gwen,
' moor with the field of the fair man '. There is also a H. Gwaun
or Gwayne (Pembrokesh.) a. 800 Guoun, or Gvoun; W. gwaen,
' a (wet) moor.' Cf. Waunarlwydd, Glam. (W. arglwydd, ' a
superior, a lord ') .

GwEEK (Helston). Corn, gweek ; L. vicus, 'town, village.' Cf.
Week St. Mary, etc.

GwiNEAR (Hayle, Cornwall). Not in Dom. 1536 Gwynner. Some
would say. Corn, gwin nor, ' white earth.' Cf. Annor. But
Gwynear was a saint, killed by K. Listewdrig.

GwYNFAi or -FE (Llangadock). 1317 Gwynuey. To-day W. gfi^i/n
fai, aspirated fr. mai, ' fair field.' But -uey may= gwy, 'river.'


Gyting and Temple Guitlng (Cutsdean, Wore). 974 Gytincgas
Mwelme, Gytinc, -ges. Gyting seems a patronymic, ' place of
the sons of Gytha, Gythe, Githa,' or ' Gida,' all forms in Onom.
See -ing. O.E. cewylme is ' a spring, a well/ See Ewelme.

Hacheston (E. Suffolk). Dom. Haces, Hecestuna. 'Town of
Hacca " ; 2 in Onom.

Hackness (Whitby). Bede Haconos, Hakenes; O.E. vers. Hecanos;
Dom. Hagenesse. Haco nos is O.N. for ' Haco's ness ' or ' nose.'
Cf. Hackthorpe (Penrith) and Haconby (Bourne). But a farm
called Hack- or Ack-bury (Brewood, Staffs) is a. 1300 Herke-
barewe and 1304 Erkebarwe, ' burial-mound of ' an unidentifi-
able man.

Hackney (London), c. 1250 Hackenaye, Hacquenj^e; temp.
Edw. IV. Hackeney or Hackney. " Isle of Hacca, Hacco/ or
' Hacun ' ; several so-called in Ononn. See -ey. Nothing to do
with hackney, the ' horse,' which is O.Fr. haquenee, and not
found in Eng. before about 1330. Cf. Hagbourne (Walhngford),
a. 900 chart. Hacca broce, Dom. Hacheborne, 1291 Hakeburn.

Haddenham (Thame and Ely). Th. H. Dom. Hadena; El. H.
K.C.D. vi. 98 Hsedanham; c. 1080 Jnquis. Camh. Hadenham,
Hsederham, Hadreham ; JDom. Hadreham; 1300 Hadenham.
' Home of Hceda ' or ' Heada.' The forms with r pro n are due
to a common confusion of liquids. 6'/. Haden.

Haddon Hall (Bakewell). Dom. Hadun(a), O.E. for 'high hill,'
hedh, ' high.' Cf. a ' Hadune ' (Notts), in Roll Rich. I.

Had EN Cross (Dudley). Named fr. a family long resident here.
A family of Haden is found at Rowley Regis in 1417. Cf. Had-

Hadfield (Manchester). Not in W. and H. Cf. 778 chart. 'To'
hadfelde 3eate.' This cannot mean 'head field,' but will be
' field of Hadd, Hada, Hadde, or Headda,' names all found in
Onom. Cf. Dom. Essex Hadfelda. Not the same as Hatfield.

Hadleigh (SuJGfk.) and Hadley (Droitwich). Suf. H., not in Dom.,
a. 1200 Heddele, still the local pron. Dr. H. 1275 Hedley.
Prob. ' Headda's meadow.' But Hadley (Wellington, Salop)
is said to be old Hsethleigh, O.E. hceth, ' a moor, a heath.' It is
Dom. Hatlege, and in Dom. medial th regularly becomes d.
Hadsor (Droitwich) is a. 1100 Headesofre, Dom. Hadesore, 1275
Haddesovere. ' Bank, edge of Headda,' O.E. ofr, obr, ' bank,
brink, edge.' See -or.

Hadstock (Cambridge). 1494 Fabyan Hadestok. Cf. R. Rich I.
Hadestache (Derby) . Either ' place of Hadde or Headda,' see
Hadfield; or fr. hade sb^ Oxf. Did. ' a strip of land left un-
ploughed, as a boundary, etc' Found in 1523. Stock is the
same root as stake.


Haggerston (London). Dom. Hergotestane. Either 'stone of
Hcergod, Heregod, or Heregyth,' all in Onom. ; or ' stone of the
heriot/ O.E. here-geatu, a feudal service, now commuted to
a money payment on the death of a tenant. See Oxf. Did.
s.v. HERIOT. But there is or was a Haggerston (Co. Durham),
1183 Agardeston, 1213 Hagardeston, which must be fr. a man
Haggard, O.Fr. Agard, still a surname.

Hagley (Stourbridge). Dom. Hageleia, a. 1200 Hageleg. The
first half is thought to be N., though such names are very rare
in this shire. O.N. hagi, Sw. hage, ' enclosed field, pasture/ not
found in Eng., as hag sb", until 1589. More prob. is derivation
from O.E. haga, with the same meaning, cognate with O.E.
hege, ' a hedge.' The -ley {q.v.) is ' meadow.' Cf. Haglow
(Awre), old Hagloe. See -low. This may be fr. a man Agga,
short for Agamund, a common name, as a form Aggemede is
found for Hagmede, also in Glouc.

Haigh and Haighton (see Haughton).

Haikable (Westmld.). Said to be High Cop Gill or ' ravine '; fr.
O.N. hd-r kopp-r, ' high top (of a hill).' See -gill.

Hailes (Glouc.) and Hales (Mkt. Drayton). Dom. Hales (?),
a. 1400 Hali, Hales. Glos. H. Dom. Heile, c. 1386 Chaucer
Hayles. O.E. healh, dat. heale, Mercian halh, hale, ' a nook,
corner, secret-place,' with common Eng. pi. Some make it
' meadow-land by a river, a haugh.' See -hall. Hale (Arre-
ton, I. of W.) is Dom. Atehalle, ' nook of Ata,' 2 in Onom.,
where the personal name has fallen away. We have the simple
Hale also at Liverpool, Altrincham, Glostersh., and Chingford.
The pi. s is usually late.

Hailsham (Sussex). Not in Dom. 1230 Close R. Eilesham.
' Home of jEla,' 1 in Onom.

Hainault Forest (Essex). Old Henholt. This old form tends to
bar out connection with Hainhault or Philippa of Hainhault,
Germany, consort of Edward III. Some think it is, O.E. hean
(inflected form of heah), holt, 'high wood.' As likely hen
represents Dan. hegna, ' a hedge, an enclosure,' O.N. hegna, ' to
enclose.' Dom. Essex has only Henham.

Hainton (Lincoln), Dom. Hagetone, Haintone, -tun, and Hain-
WORTH (Yorks), Dom. Hageneworde. Prob. fr. same man as
in Haunton (Tam worth), 942 Hagnatun, a. 1300 Hagheneton,
and in Hanyard, 1227 Hagonegate, Hageneyate. ' Town '
and ' farm of Hagene.' See -worth.

Haisthorpe (Yorks). Dom. Aschil-, Ascheltorp, Haschetorp,
' Place of ^s- or Ascytel,' var. AsTcyl, Aschil. See Asselby and

Hakin (Milford Haven). Sometimes thought to be fr. the Norse
King Haco(n) (? which). Such an origin would be contrary to


analogy. It may be corrup. of haven. Cf. Copen-hagen,

' merchants' haven/
Halam (see Hallam) .
Hale (see Hailes) .

Halesowen (Worstrsh.). Dom. Halas, 1276 Halesowayn, 1286
Halesowen. See Hailes. The Owen comes fr. David ap
Owen, prince of N.Wales, who married Emma, sister of Henry II.,
in 1174.

Halford (Shipston and Stourbridge). Ship. H. 950 chart. Halh-
ford, 1176 Haleford. ' Ford at the meadow-land,' or ' haugh,'
O.E. healh ; see -hale, -hall. But St. H. is 1343 Oldeforde.

HaliFx'IX. Curious name. It seems always (see below) to have
been so spelt, since the founding of the Church of St. John the
Baptist here soon after 1100. If so, it must be O.E. hdlig feax,
' holy (2-4 hali) locks ' or ' head of hair,' perh. referring to some
picture of the head of St. John. On the strength of a compari-
son with Carfax (see Oxf. Diet, s.v.), it is often said to mean
' holy fork ' or ' holy roads,' converging as in a fork, L. furca.
Carfax is first found in 1357 Carfuks, and not till 1527 as Carfaxe,
so this origin seems quite untenable. Perh. the earliest original
document which names the place is a letter, c. 1190, which
speaks of ' ignotaj ecclesise de Haliflex,' where the I seems to be a
scribe's error, and -flex must be feax. ' Holy flax ' would make
no sense. In Dom. it seems to be called Feslei. Can the Fes-
be feax too ?

Halkin (Holywell). Dom. Alchene, a puzzling form. But, as the
village now lies at the foot of a hill called Helygen, this is prob.
the origin. It means in W. ' a willow-tree.'

Hallam (Sheffield). Dom. Hallun. An old loc, 'on the slopes,'
O.N. hall-r, 'a slope'; cf. La Haule, Jersey. Halam (South-
well) is also in chart, set Halum, 1541 Halom. For a N. word
taking on an Eng. loc. form, cf. Holme-on-the-Wolds. Hallen
(Henbury), old Hel(l)en, may be fr. W. helen, ' salt '; but this is

Halliford (Shepperton). 969 chart. Halgeford, inflected form of
O.E. haligford, ' holy ford,' 1316 Halgheford.

Hallikeld (Yorks). O.N. heilag-r kelda, 'holy well or .spring.'
O.E. hdlig, 'holy.' Cf. Gunnerskeld and 1202 Fines Helghe-

Hallingbury (Bp's. Stortford). Dom. Halingheberia. ' Burgh,
town of the sons of ? ' Older forms needed to identify this
patronymic; ? fr. Halig or Healfdene. See -ing.

Hallington (Corbridge, Northumbld.). Cf. 806 chart. Halington,
in the Midlands. Prob. a patronymic, ''Haling or Hayling's
town.' Cf. Hayling I.

Halloughton (see Haughton).


Hallow (Worcester) . 816 chart. Heallingan, Halhegan, Halheogan,
963 ih. Hallege, Dom. Halhegan, 1275 Hallawe. A very puzzling
name. It surely must be meant to represent hallow, ' a saint/
then, ' the shrine of a saint/ O.E. hah^a, hah^e, pi. hal^an, 2 hale-
chen ; whilst Heall- Hal- does look as if it had something to do
with -hall (q.v.).

Ha(l)lsall (Ormskirk). 1224 Haleshal, 1312 Halesale, 1320-46
Halsale, 1394 Halsalle. Prob. ' hall of Hala ' or some such
name; Halga is the nearest in Onom. Were the name late it
might be ' Hal's hall.' Cf. ' Halsam ' in a grant of a. 675, near
Chertsey, Halstead, Halstock, and Dom. Halstune (Salop), also
Halsham (Yorks), Dom. Halsam, -em. For the ending -all cf.

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