James B. (James Brown) Johnston.

The place-names of England and Wales online

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Oswald, so that the corrup. is a very early one. Cf. Oswestry
and St. Austell's, pron. St. Ossle's. The n, of course, comes
fr. the prefixed saint. Horsfall Turner identifies Nostell with
Dom. Osele (p. 37b), but this seems doubtful. Noverton
(Worcestrsh.) is really Overton; it also appears as Nurton
(Abberley), which in 1327 is given both as Noverton and
Overton.

NosTERFiELD (Cambs). c. 1080 Inquis. Camb. Nostresfelda.
Skeat derives fr. a tenure by saying Paternosters, and compares
the name of an Ahce Paternoster, who held lands at Pusey
(Berks).

Nottingham. Asser ann. 868, ' Scnotingaham quod Britannice
Tigguocobauc interpretatur, Latine Speluncarum domus,' or
' house of caves.' Tigguocobauc is prob. Kelt, for ' house in
the httle cave'; cf. W. ty, G. tigh, 'a house,' Corn, ogo, 'a
cavern,' and W. bach, O.W. becc, ' little.' Dom. Snotingeham,
a. 1190 Walter Map Notingam, 1461 Snotingham. ' Home of
the Snotinga,' a patronymic. Onom. gives Snoding and Snot.
Snoddy is still used as a personal name. Cf. Sneinton. There
are also 2 Nottinghams in Gloster. See -ing.

Notting Hill (London) is said to have been formerly ' Knolton
Barn Hill.' Cf. Knolton Bryn.



NOTTON 384 OAKHANGER

Notion (Barnsley). Dom. Notone. 'Nut town/ O.E. hnut.
Cf. NuTTLES, i)om. Notele.

Ntjnbuenholme (York). Dom. Brunha', but 1206 Brunnum, a
loc. ' At the burn ' or ' bourne/ O.N. brunn-r. See -bourne
and -hohne (' a meadow by a river '). -ham and -holme often
interchange, and many Yorkshire places in -ham or -am are
orig. locatives.

Nuneaton (Warwicksh.). a. 1200 Etone, O.E. ea-tun, 'town on
the river ' Anker, where the nuns live. A Benedictine nunnery
was built here in the 12th cny. Cf. Eaton. Similarly Nun
Keeling (Yorks) is in Dom. simply Chelinge, Chilinghe, ' place
of the sons of Gille ' or ' Cilia.' See -ing.

Nunney (Frome). Dom. Nonin. 'Nun's isle'; L. nunna, O.E.
nunne, 3-6 nonne, ' a nun.' See -ey.

NuNNiNGTON (York). Dom. Nonninctune, Noningtune, Nunnige-
tune. Patronymic. ' Town of the sons of Nun ' or ' Nunna,'
several in Onom. Cf. Altarnun. See -ing and -ton.

Nursling (Southampton). Dom. Notesselinge, later Nutshalling.
A curious and unexplainable corrup. ; prob. patronymic fr. some
unrecorded man. See -ing.

NuBTON. See Nostell.

Nutfield (Redhill). Dom. Notfelle. ' Field of nuts/ O.E. hnut.

NuTHURST (Horsham). Cf. 704-9 chart. Hnuthyrste (Warwicksh.),
O.E. for ' nut wood.' See -hurst. Nuttles (Holderness) is
Dom. Notele, 'nut meadow'; see -ley. Cf. Nuttall (Notts),
Dom. Nutehale; see -hall. But Notgrove (Stow-on-Wold) is
743 chart. Natangraf, ' trench, ditch of Nata.'

Nymphsfield (Stonehouse). 872 chart, and 1280 Close i^.Nymdes-
feld, Dom. Nimdesfelde (1287 Kingesnemeton, see King's
Nympton). W. and Bret, nemet, also aspirated in W. nevet,
' a wood,' then prob. ' a sacred grove,' and then ' a temple.'
There are several Njonets in Devon, as well as 3 Nymphs near
Tawton. It will be noted that 'p after m is almost always a
mod. intrusion; cf. Bampton, Brompton, Hampton, etc.

Oaxen (Wolverhampton). Sic 1398, but Dmn. Ache, a. 1300 Ake,
Oce, Oken. Prob. an old loc, O.E. aeon or acum, ' at the oaks.'
Cf. Hallajvi, etc.

Oakford (Bampton). 1174 cJmrt. Acforde. O.E. dc, 'an oak.'

Oakham. Local |)ron. Yekkm. 1298 Okham. This will prob.
mean ' home, house built of oak.' Oakhampton (Astley,
Wstrsh.) is 1275 Okhamtone.

Oakhanger (Berkeley, Alton, and Dorset). Be. 0. 1250 Ochungre;
chart. ? where, Achangra (c. 1350 Akhangre), which is O.E. for
' oak-tree slope.' Cf. Clayh anger. There is also 961 chart.



OAKINGTON 385 ODIHAM

Geoc hangra (at Hurstbourne, Winchester), but this is fr. O.E.
geoc, ' a yoke/ or ' as much land as a pair of oxen can plough in
a day.'

Oakington (Cambridge), c. 1080 Inquis. Camb. Hokintona, Hoc-
chintona, Hockingtona, Dom. Hochintone, 1284 Hokingtone,
Hoggitone. Patronymic. ' Village of the Hackings ' — i.e., sons
of Hoc or Hoca, both known names.

Oakley (Rochester, Bp's. Stortford, and 4 others). Roch. 0.
chart, of date 774 Acleag. Staffs 0. 1004 chart. Acclea, Dom.
Aclei. Beds. 0. 1166 Pipe Achelai. Bp's. S. 0. 1474 Ocle
Magna and Parva; 958 chart. Acleg, -lea, on Stour, Staffd.
O.E. dc leah, ' oak meadow.' Similarlj^ Oakworth (Keighley)
is Dom. Acewrde, Acurde, ' oak farm.' See -worth.

Oare (Chieveley, Berks, Wilts, Faversham, N.W. Somerset). Ch.
0. B.C. 8. iii. 509 Ora, 1316 Ore. O.E. ora, ' bank, shore, edge,'
cognate with L. ora. Gf. Bognor, etc. But Som. 0. is 1264
Ar, perh. same root as Arrow, or ? N. aa-r, ' river.' It is on the
East Lynn R., whilst Fav.O. is on a creek of the R. Swale.

Oby (Norfolk). 1479 Owby. ' Dwelhng of Ofta, Oya, Otta,' a name
common in Onom. See -by.

OcK R. (Abingdon) and Ockbrook (Derby). Dom. Ochebroc.
O.E. chart. Eoccen, and in late copy of chart, of 955 Occen.
Skeat cannot suggest any meaning for the Berks river ; and the
Derby name is presumably the same, though some think it a
tautology, making Ock Kelt, for ' water.' This last is some-
what confirmed by Geoffr. Mon. iv. 12, who tells us that ' Ridoc '
is the British name of Oxford (W. rhyd, O.W. rit, ' a ford,' whilst
oc is certainly not W. for 'ox'). Cf. 1201 ' Yockflet '— i.e.,
Yokefleet (Howden). There is also an Octon (E. Riding),
Dom. Ocheton, which seems fr. the same root.

OcKER Hill (Tipton). Cf. Dom. ' Ocretone ' (Notts). Perh. fr.
M.E. {a. 1225) oker, O.N. okr, 'increase of money, usury'; but
Duignan, more prob., suggests W. ochr, ochren,'' a side, a shelving
locahty.' But Ockeridge Wood (Little Witley, Worcstr.),
1332 Ocrugge, is ' oak-tree ridge,' O.E, dc, 3-5- ok.

Ockley (Dorking) = Oakley.

Odell (Sharnbrook, Beds). Said to be old Wode-hul or ' wood-hill.'
Not in Dom., but it has Odecroft, Cf., too, 941 chart. Odden-
heal, ' nook of Odda,' Hants. See -hall.

Odiham (Winchfield). 1116 O.E. Chron. Wudiham. ' Home in the
wood,' O.E. wudu. For change of w; to o cf. Wodin and Odin,
also Dom. Essex, Oddesforda, fr. the common Odda or Oda,
which gives name to Oddington (Moreton-in-Marsh) . Oddingley
(Droitwich), 816 chart. Oddingalea, is a patronymic fr. Odda.
See -ing. Cf., too, Odcombe (Somerset), 1167-68 Pipe Devon
Odecuba.



OFFCHUECH 386 OMBERSLEY

Offchurch (Leamington). . 1300 Ofechirche, 'church of Offa,'
? the K. of Mercia in 8th cny. Offley, in the same county, is
Dom. Offeleia.

Offenham (Evesham). 714 chart. Vffaham, 860 ib. Uffenham^
Dom. OSenham. ' Home of Uffa ' or ' Offa.'

Offerton (Durham), a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Uflfertun. Prob. 'town
on the bank/ O.E. obr, ofr, Ger. ufer; see -over. But Oflferton
(HindHp) is 972 chart. ^Iflsedetun, ? Do7n. Alcrintune, 1275
Alf verton, a. 1600 Alcrinton, now called Alfreton, a. 1800 Affre-
ton. A most remarkable corrup, ' Town of Mlfloed,' perh. she
who was daughter of K. Offa, 757-786. Duignan suggests that
r came in through similarity of ^Iflted to ^Elfred.

Offord (Warwksh.). Dom. Offeworde, a. 1200 Offorde. This is
' Offa's farm.' Cf. Offmoor (Halesowen), 1288 Offemore, and
Pampisford ; and see -worth.

Ogle (Newcastle-on-Tyne) . Prob. O.W. ugl, W. uchel, 'high';
same root as Ochils, Ogilvie, and Glen Ogle (Sc). Cf.
Knoyle. But Oglethorp (W. Riding) is Dom. once Ocelestorp
and 4 times Oglestorp, ' village of ' some man, the nearest in
Onom. seems Ugelbert; the -bert may easily have dropped. See
-thorpe.

Ogo Dour (the Lizard). Corn.= ' cave by the water.'

Okment Hill (Devon). W. uch mynydd (Corn, menit), ' high hill.'
Cf. Longmynd and Ochils (Sc).

Old Man of Coniston. Supposed to be W. allt maen, ' cliff-like '
or ' high rock.' Cf. Alltwen. As curious a corrup. is Old-
barrow (Henley in Arden), 709 chart. Ulenbeorge, ' hill, barrow
of the owl,' O.E. ula, -an. See Barrow.

Oldswinford (Stourbridge). Dom. Suineford, 1275 Swjoieford,
1340 Oldeswynesford. O.E. swinford, ' swine's ford.'

Olney (Bucks and Coventry). Dom. Olnei, Bucks; Cov. 0. 1349
Olneie. Cf. K.C.D. 621 Ollan eg, O.E. for ' Olla's isle.' Also
1016 O.E. Chron. Olanige, c. 1097 Flor. W. Olanege, an islet in
the Severn near Deerhurst. See -ey.

Olton (Hampton-in-Arden). 1295 Oulton, c. 1450 Oulton abas
Ulverton — i.e., ' Ulfr's town.' Cf. Sc. oo for wool, and Oldcoates
or Ulcoates (Notts), Dom. Caldecotes, but 1269 Ulcotes, 1302
Ulecotes. ' Cots of the owl,' O.E. ula. But Olveston, close to
Alveston, is 1303 Olveston, 1515 Olston, and is orig. the same
name, ' jElfe's town.'

Ombersley (Droitwich). 706 chart. Ambreslege and Ombreswelle,
714 ib. Ambresleie, JDom. Ambreslege. May be fr. O.E. amber,
omber, ' a pitcher.' See Ambergate and Amberley. Or perh.
it is fr. a man Amber, Ambre. See Ambrosden and Amesbury.
See -ley.



OMILY R. 387 ORMSKIRK

Omily E,. (Hereford). Prob. W. amwyll, ' shady, gloomy on all sides.'

Onecote (Leek). 1199 Anecote, 1285 Onecote — i.e., ' one cottage/
as Onehouse (Suffk.) is chart. Anhus. But Onesacre (S. Yorks)
is Dom. Anesacre, ' field of Anna ' or ' Onna,' a common name
in Onom.

Ongae. (Essex) or Chipping Ongar. Dom. Angra, O.E. hangra, ' a
wooded, hill-slope.' Cf. Clayhanger, and see Chipping.

Onibury (Craven Arms). Dom. Aneberie. ' Burgh, town on R.
Onney or OuNY.' See -bury. But High and Little Onn (Staffs),
are Dom. Otne (error) and Anne, which Duignan derives fr.
W. onn, ' ash-trees.' There is an Onneley also in Salop, Dom.
Anelege; and an Oney Coppice (Lindridge). Cf. Onecote.

Orby (Burgh, Lines). Cf. Arbury (Nuneaton), a. 1200 Ordburi,
Erdbury, 1235 Orbyri, which is prob. ' Eardulf's burgh.' See -ly.

Orcheston (Devizes). Must be fr. some man. Cf. 1298 ' Willelmus
de Orkesleghe.' The nearest in Onom. is Oric, a dux in Kent,
of 9th cny. There is an ore, orke, orch, ' an ogre,' but it is not
found in Eng. a. 1598.

Oreton (Wolvermptn.). Dom. Overtune, a. 1300 Overton, Orton.
O.E. ofer-tun, ' upper town.' Cf. Orgrave (N. Lanes), Dom.
Ourgreve, prob. 'bank'; O.E. obr, ofr, 'of the grave.' See
Over. Orgrave (S. Yorks) is Dom. Nortgrave.

Orford (Suffolk and Warrington). Suff. 0. not in Dom. 1166-67
Pipe Oreford, c. 1450 Fortescue Orford havyn. Like Orwell,
near by, prob. corrup. fr. N. aar fjord, ' river ' or ' river-like
firth or bay.' In N. aa sounds o. Cf. Havereord, Waterford
(Ireland), etc. Warr. 0., sic 1511, may be fr. a man Ord, or
contracted fr. one of the many names in Ord-.

Orleton (Tenbury). Dom. Aketune, 1275 Olretone, ' alder town.'
See Allerton, etc. Alder is O.E. alor, aler, 3 olr, 7 owler,
ouller. The Orls (Mathon) is fr. same root. Alder is still
pron. orl in S. Salop. But Ollerton (Newark), Dom. and 1190
Alretun, 1278 Alverton, is perh. fr. Mlfweard or Mlfhere.

Orlingbury (Northants). c. 1190 Orlingberge. ' Town or fort of
Eorlwine,' 3 in Onom. See -bury.

Ormesby (Yorks and Gt. Yarmouth). Dom. both Ormesbi.
' Dwelling of Orm.' See -by.

Orm's Head (Llandudno), a. 1145 Orderic Horma heva, a N. form
of Ormes heafod or Orm's Head, or Worm's Head. Orm or
Orma is a common name in Onom.

Ormskirk. 1285 Ormeskirke. See above. The Ortn here is not
the monk who wrote the Ormulum, but a Saxon noble who
gained large estates near here through marrying a Norman
heiress. The place is not in Dom., but is referred to temp.
Rich. I., d. 1199.



ORRELL 388 OSMOTHERLEY

Orbell (Wigan). Dom. Olegrimale, Olringemele, 1201-02 Horhill,
-hull; 1205-06 Orhille; 1320 Orell. Even though Dom. is so
clumsy, it gives the clue to a most interesting corrup. The
first part is the N. name Authgrimr, later Udgrim. An Oudgrim
is actually found in Dom. Notts. The second part is either
-hall (q.v.) or -hill, regular W. Midi. hull.

Obslow (Staffs). 1203 Horselawe, a. 1400 Orselow — i.e., ' Horsa's
mound.' See -low. Orsett (Grays) (-sett= ' seat ') prob. has a
similar origin. Cf. Dom. Surrey, Orselei.

Orston (Nottingham). Dom. Oschintone, 1242 Orskinton, 1284
Orston. Mutschmann thinks, ' Ordric's town," as in Ordsall,
Dom. Ordeshale. Dom. confuses with Ossington.

Orwell R. (Suffolk). 1015 O.E. Chron. Arwa, Arewe; Dom.
Ordewelle; c. 1386 Chaucer Ore well; c. 1450 Fortescue Orwell
havyn. The 1015 forms suggest, and Orford near by con-
firms, that this must be a corrup. fr. N., akin to that of Kirk-
wall (Sc), c. 1225 Kirkiuvagr, 1438 Kirkwaw, c. 1500 Kirk-
wall. The Ar- will be N. a, gen. aar, ' river,' aa in mod. N.
being pron. o. The wa- will be O.N. vagr, ' bay, voe,' the
liquid r having early become I, or else disappeared. So the name
is ' bay of the river.'

Orwell (Royston, Herts), c. 1080 Inquis. Camb. Oreuuella, Dom.
Oreuuelle, Orduuelle (a mistake), 1210 Norwelle (for 'atten
Orewelle '), 1284 Orewelle. O.E. oran wella, ' well at the edge
or brink.' Cf. Orton (Tebay).

OscoTT (Birmingham), a. 1300 Oscote, c. 1615 Camden Auscote,
Perh. ' East cottage,' O.N. aust-r, ' east.' Cf. Austwick. But
Duignan prefers some name in Os-, Osbeorn, Oswald, etc.,
which may well be.

OsGATHORPE (Loughborough) . ' Village of Osgar or Osgeard,'
common in Onom. See -thorpe.

OsGODBY (E. Riding and Market Rasen). E. R. 0. Dom. Ansgo-
tesbi, -gotebi, Asgozbi {z = ts) ; 1204 Fines Angodeby; 1206 An-
goteby. M. R. O. a. 1100 chart. Osgoteby, 1298 Osgodeby.
Cf. Dom. Osgotcros, 1179-80 Pipe Osegotecros, now Osgoldcross
(Wapentake), Yorks. ' Dwelling of Osgod ' or ' Osgot,' common
names in Onom., which also has the Norm, forms Ansgod and
Ans-got. Cf. next, and Ansthiyth, var. of name Osthiyth.
Osgod, in N Asgod, seems to mean ' the good ' — i.e., ' the prop-
erty, of the gods.' See -by.

Osmotherley (Lanes and Northallerton). Lan. 0. 1260-72
Osmunderlawe, 1269 Asemunderlai, 1276-79 Asmunderlauue,
1588 Estmotherhe, 1667 Osmonderley, 1670 Osmotherlow.
Nor. O. Dom. Asmundrelac, 1197 Rolls Hosmmideslea, a. 1300
Osmunderley. Instructive forms. ' Meadow of Asmund ' or
' 05mw/i(Z' ('the protected ' or else 'the^ mouth of the gods').
Cf. Osborne, N. Asenbjdrn, ' bear of the gods or demigods.'



OSNEY 389 OULTON

The ending is often -low (q.v.) or -lawe, ' hill.' Cf. Aspatria,
and Amotherby, and Mythe; also Osmondthorpe (Notts),
1331 Osmundthorp.

OsNEY (Oxford). 1155 Pipe Osineia, 1161 ib. Oseneia, c. 1200
Gervase Osneye. ' Island of Osa,' gen. ' Osan/ common name
in Onom. See -ey.

OssETT (Yorks). Dom. Osleset. 'Seat, abode/ O.N. sceti, 'of
Osla,' 2 in Onom. Liquid I easily vanishes.

OssTNGTON (Newark). Dom. Oschintone, 1162-65 chart. Oschintona,
1278 Oscington, ' Town of Osecg,' a name in Onom,. Mntschmann
derives fr. a dubious Osketin, var. of the common AsJcetill. See
-ing and -ton.

OswALDTWiSTLE ( Accrington) . 1241 Oswaldtuisil. ' Oswald's con-
fluence.' See TwizEL ; and cf. Birtwistle, Entwistle, Tintwistle.
In E. Yorks we also have Oswaldkirk, Dom. Oswaldes cherca.

Oswestry, c. 1190 Gir. Itin. Camb. Osewaldstreu, id est Oswaldi
arborem, or ' tree of Oswald,' K. of Northumbria, d. 642. He
was prob. slain here by Penda, K. of Mercia. 1603 Owen Oses-
tree. In W. Croesoswallt, ' cross of Oswald.' Cf. Brentry
(GIouc), 1247 Bernestre, ' tree of Beorn.'

Otford (Sevenoaks). O.E. Chron. 774 Ottanford, a. 1130 Sim.
Dur. Ottaforda, 1160-61 Pipe Otteford. 'Ford of Otta' or
' Otto.' Cf. Otham (Maidstone).

Otherton (Penkridge and Worcester) and Othery (Bridgwater).
Pe. 0. Dom. Orretone, a. 1200 Oderton, a. 1300 Otherton, which,
like Otherton (Wrcstrsh.), is prob. ' Ohthere's or Othere's or Otre's
town.' All these forms are in Onom. Othery is prob. similar,
with ending -y or -ey, ' islet.' But cf. Ottery.

Otley (W. Riding and Ipswich). W. Rid. 0. Dom. Othelai, a. 1130
Sim. Dur. Oteleisi. ' Otto's lea ' or ' meadow.' See above and -ley.

Ottery St. Mary (Exeter). 963 chart. Otheri, Dom. Otri, c. 1200
Gervase Oteri, 1460 Otryght. ' Isle,' O.E. i^e, i^, ' on R. Otter,'
which is prob. O.E. otr, oter, otor, ' an otter.' Cf. Otterburn
(Craven and Northumbld.), Dom. Yorks and Hants, Otreburne,
1160-61 Pipe Devon has a Fenotri, ? Fen Ottery.

Ottringham (Hull), Otterington (N. Yorks), and Oughtrington
(Warrington). Dom. Otringeha', Otrege, Otrinctune, Otrintona.
Wyld and H. connect these Ottring- names with the N. Auth-
grimr or Oudgrim (see Orrell) , which certainly seems the origin
of the Warr. name, which Wyld and H. omit. But the Ottring-
names prob. are patronymics fr. Othhere, Otre, or perh. Othgcer,
all found in Onom. Cf. Dom. Otringeberge and Otringedene
(Kent), which is by no means a specially N. region. See -ing.

OuLTON (6' in P.G.). Stone 0. a. 1300 Oldeton, Oldingtor.
Possibly O.E. Ealdantun, ' Ealda's town,' or else 'old town.'
But Dom. Norfolk Oulstona — i.e., Oulton, Aykham — will be



OUNDLE 390 OWSLEBURY

' Ulf's town/ It is in 1477 Owstoonde. Possibly it is ' town
of Ule ' — i.e., ' the owl.' Cj. Ofston and Outchester (Bamboro')
1242 Ulecestr.

OuNDLE (Northampton), Bede Undalum, a. 1000 Undola, a. 1100
chart. Undale, 1542 Leland Oimdale. Thought to be a con-
tracted form of Avon + dale, O.E. dcel. But the contraction
seems almost too early to be found in Bede. Avon means ' river/
here the Nen. For a similar contraction, c/. Dunoon (Sc).

OuNY or Onney R. (Salop and Hereford). Seen in Onibury, Dom.
Aneberie, and also in Anelege. Must be Keltic for ' river.'
The G. ahhuinn or amhuinn, ' river,' is in certain districts pron.
own. Cf. OuNDLE and Avon.

OusE Great, Ouse R,., and Ouseburn (York). Gr. 0. 905 O.E.
Chron. Wusa, 1010 ib. Usa, a. 1130 Use, 1330 Ouse. York 0.
Dom. Useburne, 1237 Usus. Perh. connected with O.E. ivcise,
4-6 wose, 6 oous, ouse, ' wet mud, ooze.' The name occurs all
over England — in Essex and Sussex, as well as in the cases
above — and very possibly it is Keltic. See p. 12. Isis, c. 1350
Ysa, must surely be a cognate root. See -burn.

Ousel R. (trib. of Great Ouse). Presumably O.E. osle, old name
of the blackbird, the ouzel ; but old forms needed.

OusETHORP (Howden). Dom. Owestorp, Dwestorp (D error for 0) .
Not fr. R. Ouse, but ' village of Oua, Ova, or Oba,' forms all in
Onom. See -thorp.

OusTON (Stamfordham, Birtley, Durham; and Coxwold, N. Riding).
St. 0. 1201 Yorks Fines Hulkeleston — i.e., ' Hulfcytel ' or
' Ulfcytel's village.' But Cox. 0. Dom. Ulvestone, 1201 Ulveton,
' village of Ulf,' ' Ulf's town.' Now also called Oulston. But
Ouston (Coleshill) is old Oustherne, Owsthirn, which is prob.
' east nook.' East Riding in Dom. is Oust redenc ; and see Herne".
Cf. OuLTON and Owston.

Ovenden (Halifax). Sic Sim. Dur. contin. ann. 1147. O.E. Ofan-
denu, ' den, cave of Ofa,' or possibly ' of Owen.'

Over (Glouc, Cambridge, and Winsford, Chesh.). Gl. 0. 804 chart.
Ofre ad Gleawecestre. Cam. 0. Dom. Ovre, Oure; 1210 Overe.
Chesh. Dom. Ovre. O.E. ofre, dat. of ofer, ' a shore of a sea or
bank of a river.' Cf. Ger. ufer ; and see -over.

Overton (9 in P.G.). Dom. Ovretone, Chesh. and Worcr. ' Upper
town,' O.E. ufera, 3-5 ouere, ' over.' Cf. Overbury, Tewkesbury,
875 chart. Uferebiri, Vfera birig, Dom. Oureberie, with the same
meaning. See -bury.

Owersby (Market Rasen). 1233 Orresby. Prob. corrup. of
' Ordgcer's or Ordgar's dwelMng.' The name is very common in
Onom. See -by.

OwsLEBURY (Winchester). Not in Dom. Cf. Ozleworth (Char-
field), Dom. Osleworde, c. 1220 Hoheleswordi, later Wozel-,



OWSTHORP 391 OXFORD

Owselworth. The man's name is uncertain. Cf. B.C.S. 764
Oslan wyrth, ' Osla's farm/ It might be Oshelm, 4 in Onom.,
or Ositmlf, as in Owston. Also cf. St. Austell's. See -bury
and -worth.
OwsTHORP (Pocklington). Dom. lanulfestorp, 1203 Uhiestorp,
a. 1400 Ulvesthorpe. Very curious corruption. ' Village of
Eanwulf,' very common in Onom. In a. 1400 the Ean- has
dropped away. With the present form Ows-, cf. Ooston, mod.
pron. of Ulveeston; also cf. next. Owthorp (Notts), Dom.
Ovetorp, c. 1190 Hustorp, is ' village of Ufi or Uvi.' See -Thorpe.
Owston Priory (Leicester) is 1233 Osulveston, ' town of Osvmlf,
a name common in Onom. But Owston (Doncaster), Dom.
Ulsitone, 1179-80 Pipe Ouston, is prob.= OusTON (Coxwold),
Dom. Ulvestone, ' town of Ulf.' Only it seems to be in Dom.
also Austun and Austhu', which may be an O.E. loc, ' in the
east places/ oust and aust being early forms of ' east/ and loca
tives in -un or -on are not uncommon; only they usually turn
into -ham. See Hallam, etc., and next.
OwsTWicK (Hull). Dom. Ostewic. Prob. 'eastern dwelling/ just
as East Riding is in Dom. Oust redenc, and in the Yorks Pipe
Rolls we have ' Oustcotun ' and ' Westcotun/ or Eastcott and
Westcott. Cf. above; and see -wick.
OxENHOLME (Wostmld.). ' Oxen's meadow.' See -holm. Cf.
OxLEY (Wolverhampton), Dom. Oxehe. and Oxnam (Sc).
Oxcliff (N. Lanes) is Dom. Oxeneclif,
Oxford, a. 900 coins of K. Alfred Oksnaforda, but some read
Orsnaforda, which conceivably represents a 'Horse-ford'; 912
O.E. Chron. Oxnaforda; c. 1000 chart. K. Mthelred Oxonaforda;
1011 O.E. Chron. Oxenaf ordscire ; c. 1160 Oxenefordia; 1479
Oxenford. O.E. oxena ford, ' ford for the oxen.' Cf. Grant of
a. 675 Oxelake (on the Thames). The regular W. name is Rhyd
ychen, which also means 'ford of the oxen.' It is agreed that
this W. name is very old, and that there is no recorded spelling
for ' ox ' other than ych, unless it be a dial. wch. However,
c. 1145 Geoffrey of Mon., iv. 12, speaks of ' Boso of Ridoc, that
is Oxford.' It seems unlikely that this 12th cny. name Ridoc
is meant for rhyd ychen, though rid is clearly O.W. for ' ford.'
It seems more prob. that in -oc we have O.Kelt, for ' water.'
See OcK. So that, while the Anglo-Saxons thought the name
was their own ox, it orig. was Keltic, and cognate with Ax, Ex,
UsK, and Ux- bridge. Cf., too, Isis. But for two or three
centuries the Kelt, name must have been quite lost, and the
Welsh would coin a new name when they began to frequent the
University. Before the 14th cny. Oxford would prob. be of
too little importance to the Welsh to have a W. name of its
own. As to forms a. 900, curiously enough for Oxenhall
(Dymock), Dom. writes Horsenehal, prob. an error; c. 1230
Oxonhale. Cf. also the curious form Tweoxn earn, s.v. Twyning,



OXHEY 392 PAILTON

OxHEY (Watford). 1007 chart. Oxangehsege — i.e., O.E. for 'oxen's
enclosiu'e ' or ' hedge/ O.E. heye. Cf. Hay and Oxenhay
(Berkeley), 1243 Oxhaye.

OxNEAD (Norfolk). 1420 Oxenede. The ending is difficult. There
seems nothing likely in e or n (no ede or nead or the like), so this
may be ' oxen-head/ where head is used in the sense of ' a pond
or body of water dammed up." Caxton, 1480, speaks of ' fissh-
ponde hedes,' and head is spelt 3-6 heed, 4-7 hede.

OxsTED (Reigate). Dom. Acstede, O.E. for 'oak-place' Cf.
homestead, etc.

OxTON (W. Riding, Birkenhead, and Southwell, Notts). W. R. 0.
Dom. Oxetone and Ossetone. So. 0. Dom. Oxetune. ' Village
of the oxen.' Cf. Oxspring (Sheffield), Dom. Osprinc, and
Oxenton (Tewkesbury), Dom. Oxendone.

Oysterlow (Pembroke), c. 1200 Girald. Oisterlaph, -laf, c. 1210
Osterloyth, 1325 Oystrelof, 1541 Usterloys. This is the O.W.
Esterlwyf , W. Ysterlwyf, or ystre Iwyf, ' dwelling in the elm-
wood,' influenced, of course, by Eng. oyster, O.Fr. oistre, not
found in Eng. till 1357. Oystermouth (Glam.), said to be old
Ostremuere (prob. error for -muue, M.E. for 'mouth'), may
have a similar origin, only here it will be a hybrid.

Packington (Tamworth and Ashby-de-la-Zouch) . Ta. P. Dom.
Pagintone, a. 1200 Pakintone. Ash. P. 1043 chart. Pakinton,
Dom. Patitone (error). Cf. Dom. Essex, Pachenduna, and
Packwood (Warwk.). The nearest name in Onom. is one Pcecga ;
so prob. ' village of Pcecga.' See -ing and -ton.

Padbury (Bucks). B.C. 8., ii. 377, Padde byrig, Dom. Pateberie,
' Burgh, town of Padda,' 3 in Onom. Cf. Paddlngton, London,
(1167-68 Pipe Padinton, 1439 Paddyngton) and Warrington, and
Dom. Surrey, Padendene; also Pad worth.

Padstow (N. Cornwall and Devon). Corn. P. 981 O.E. Chron. See
Petrocestow, 1536 Padstowe. Dev. P. Dom. Petroches stow,
later Petrockstow. ' Place of St. Petroc,' an interesting corrup-
tion. The ending -stow, formd already in 981 in Cornwall, is
an early proof of Anglo-Saxon influence there.

Pad WORTH (Theale, Berks). O.E. chart. Peadan wurth, Dom.
Peteorde, c. 1280 Paddewurth. ' Farm of Peada.' See -worth.

Pagham (Bognor). a. 1130 Sim. Dur. arm. 1108 Paggaham, 1298
Pageham. ' Home of Paga,' only one in Onom., and he at Carlisle.
But Paythorne (W. Riding), Dom. Pathorme, prob. contains the
name Paega or Paga also; 2 Pcegas in Onom. Cf. Paganhill
(Stroud), 1346 Paganhulle, and Painley.

Pailton (Rugby), a. 1300 Paylynton, Pailinton. 'Village of
Pcelli,' one in Onom.



PAINLEY 393 PAPCASTLE

Painley (Craven). Dom. Paghenale, possibly a gen. pi. ' lea of the
pagans.' OxJ. Diet, has no instance of 'pagan, a. 1375 ; but Pagan,
Paganus, and Pagen are all names in Onom. Paine and Payne
are surnames fr. pagan. Painswick (Stroud) is Dom. Wyke,



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