James B. (James Brown) Johnston.

The place-names of England and Wales online

. (page 41 of 54)
Online LibraryJames B. (James Brown) JohnstonThe place-names of England and Wales → online text (page 41 of 54)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


PURY, also next.

Pirton (Hitchin, Worcester, and Awre). Wor. P. 766 chart.
Pirigton, Pyrigtun, 972 Pyritune, Dom. Peritune. Aw. P. Dom.
Peritone, ' pear-tree village.' Cf. Perton or Purton (Wolver-
hampton), c. 1060 Pertune, Dom. Pertone.

PiTCHCOMBE (Stroud), 1253 Pychencombe; andPiTCHroRD (Shrews-
bury). 1238 Close B. Pycheford, 1298 Redulphus de Picche-



PLAINANGUARE 403 POLDHU

forde/ Prob. fr. a man Pice, Pic, ov'Picco. See Onom., and
Cf. Pegswood. The verb pitch, ' to throw/ is not found in
Eng. till c. 1205. See -combe, ' valley/

Plainangtjare (Cornwall). 'Plain for theatrical plays.' Plain
is O.Fr., L. planus, but guare is late Corn., L.vana. Cf. Dor-
chester.

Plaistow (London, Sussex, Selborne). Lo. P. old Plegstow, Se. P.
1271 La Pleystow, now called Plestov. O.E. plegstow, 'play-
place, playground.' Cf. Plestins (Warwksh.), a. 1300 Pleystowe,
Pleistouwe. See Stow.

Plashetts (Northumbld). Dimin. of jplash sb^, O.E. plcesc, plesc,
' a marsh, or marshy pool.' Plashet is also an Eng. word, found
from fr. 1575, and given in Oxf. Diet, as fr. O.Fr. plassiet
plaschet, dimin. fr. plascq, ' a damp meadow.'

Pleck (Gloster and Walsall). Gl. P. 1220, Plocke. M.E. (found
c. 1315) plecche, ' a small enclosure or plot of ground/ cognate
with Du. plecke with same meaning; but there is no O.E. plmcca,
as Baddeley thinks.

Plemonstall or Plemstall (Chester). 1340 Plemondstow.
' Plegmund's place.' See Stow. But -stall is O.E. steall, steel,
also ' a place,' then ' a stall.'

Plxjmpton (Penrith, Preston, Yorks, and Lewes). Pr. P. Dom.
Pluntun. Yor. P. Dom- Plontone, 1206 Plumton, 1490 Plompton.
Prob. ' plum-village.' O.E. plume. No name like Pluma
in Onom. For the intrusion of p ef. Bampton, Brompton, etc.

Pltjmstead (Woolwich and Norwich). Wool, and Nor. P. Dom.
Plumestede; Nor. P. 1450 Plumbsted. O.E. plume-sted, ' plum-
place.' Cf. Plumptree (Notts), Dom. Pluntre.

Plymouth. Sic 1495, but 1231 Close R. Plimmue, 1234 ib. Plime-
muth, c. 1450 Fortescue, The Plymouthe. Plympton, Dom.
Plintone, c. 1160 Plintona, 1218 Plinton. Plymstock, Dom.
Plemestoch. All on R. Plym. W. plym, L. plumbum, is ' lead ' ;
but some think the root simply means here ' river.'

Plynlimmon Mothsttain (Wales). 1603 Oiven Penplymon. W.
Pumlumon; c. 1200 Gir. Camb. Montana de Elenit or Elennith.
Pum llumon seems to be W. for ' five beacons.' O.W. pimp,
W. pum, pump, ' five,' and llumon, ' beacon.' Cf. Ben Lomond
(Sc), G. Laomuinn.

PocKLiNGTON (York). Dom. Poclinton, 14 times, 1202 Pokelinton,
1298 Pokelington. Prob. ' town of Puccla,' gen. -Ian, fr. O.E,
pticel, ' a goblin,' prob. connected with pucJc, ' a fairy.' Cf.
PiJCKLECHURCH, and Pockley, E. Riding, Dom. Pochelac (for
this ending, cf. Filey) . Possibly this last is fr. Poha, or Pohha,
names in Onom. Cf. 1161-2 Pipe Pocheslea, Northants.

POLDHXJ (the Lizard). Corn. = ' black pool.'



POLESWORTH 404 POPPLETON

PoLESWORTH (Tamworth). Old Polles-, Polsworth, 'farm of Pol.'
Cf. Dom. Bucks, Policote, and K.C.D. 641 Polesleah.

Pollen GTON (Wellingboro')- Cf. Grant of a. 675 ' Poddenhale/
Winchester. O.E. Poddantun, ' town of Podda,' in Onom. Cf.
PoDMORE (Eccleshall) Dom. Podemore ('moor'), and Poden
(Wore), 860 cJiart. Poddan-, -denho. See Hoe.

PoLURRiAJ^ (the Lizard). Corn.^oZ yrJiian, 'pool at the boundary/
or else, 'pool of St. Urian.' Cf. Centurion's Copse. Others
say fr. St. Ruman or Ruan, whose bones were translated to Tavis-
tock Abbey in 960. St. Kuan's, Major and Minor, are near.

PoNSONBY (Whitehaven). ' Dwelling of Punzun,' in Fr. Ponson, on
record c. 1300, whilst another Punzun is named 1179-80 in Pipe,
Yorks. See -by.

PONTEFRACT. 8ic 1608, c. 1097 Orderic Fractus Pons, 1120 Bull
Pontefractum, c. 1160 John Hexh. Pontifractus. L. pontefracto,
' broken bridge,' a rare t}^e of Eng. name, prob. referring to the
bridge broken down by Wm. I., 1069. Remains of a Roman
bridge were still visible in Leland's time. Cf. Catterick.

PoNTESBURY (Shrewsbury). Prob. O.E. Chron. 661 Posentesbyrg,
' Burgh, castle of Posente.' See -bury.

PoNTRiLAS (Hereford). W. pont tri glas, 'bridge over three
streams.' It is so still. Pontfadoc (Chesh.),is for Pont Madoc,
' son of Owain Gwynedd,' who, the natives say, discovered
America ! F is aspirated m.

PoNTYPOOL (Monmouth) . As it stands, W. pontypwl, ' bridge at the
pool,' but commonly held to be pont ap Howel, ' Powell's bridge.'

Pontypridd (Glamorgan), c. 1540 Leland Pont Rherhesh, W. pont
yr hesg, 'bridge of the rushes.' But renamed pont y pridd, lit.
' bridge of clay,' for pont yr hen dy pridd, ' bridge of the old house
of earth,' erected by Wm. Edwards, 1755.

Poole. 1234 Close R. La Pole, c. 1450 Fortescue Polle havyn.
O.E. pol, Corn, pol, ' a pool.' But Pool, W. Riding, is Dom.
Pouele, which may be ' pool-nook.' See -hall.

Poplar (London), c. 1350 Popler. There is no reason to doubt
Dr. Woodward, writing in 1720, ' Popler or Poplar is so called
from the multitude of poplar-trees (which love a moist soil)
growing there in former times.' The Manor of Poplar belonged
to Sir John de Pulteney, temp. Edw. III., which gives about the
earliest mention of the name of the tree in England (see Oxf.
Diet.), O.Fr. poplier, L. populus.

PoppLETON (York). Dom. Popletune, Popletunis, pi. for P. Upper
and Nether. ' Poplar-tree town,' late O.E. popul, dial, popple.
But Papplewick, Nottingham. Dom. Paplewic, is fr. O.E.
papol, 'pebble.'



POE(T)CHESTEIl 405 PORTSMOUTH

Por(t)chesteb (Fareham). c. 150 Ptolemy Meyas Ai/at^v, the
Rom. Portus Magnus, 'great harbom-/ c. 1170 Wace Pore-
cester, c. 1205 Layam. Port-chsestre. L. portus, ' harbour/
and castrum, ' camp.' See Chester, and cf. Portsmouth.
Identification with Cair Peris in Nennius is very doubtful.

PoRCUiL (Falmouth). Local form Perkil. Corn, jaorth chil, 'har-
bour on the neck of land/ which it is. Chil is same as G. caol,
' narrow, a strait, a kyle.'

PoRiN GLAND (Noiwich). Dom. Porringelanda, Porring is an
otherwise unknown patronymic.

PoRLOCK (Somerset). 1052 O.E. Chron. Portlocan, 1275 Porlok.
Port-loca is ' enclosed harbour,' loca, ' an enclosure.' Cf.
Matlock.

PoRTHCAWL (Glamorgan). W. porth cawell, ' harbour of the weir ';
or ' of the hampers or baskets.' Corn. dial, cawel, cowel, ' a
fish creel,' O.E. cawl, ceawl, ' a basket.' Cf. Calbourne.

PoRTH Gaverne, Isaac, Quest (Padstow). Corn, porth, ' harbour,'
L. portus, ' of the goat,' gavern, ' of the corn,' iz, with its adj.
izick, ' of corn,' and ' white,' gwin.

PoRTHMEAR (Cornwall). Corn. = ' great harbour,' Mear is cognate
with Eng. more, L. major, G. mor, as well as W. mawr.

PoRTiN SCALE (Keswick). Old Portingscale. Thought to be ' the
harbour or ferry bj' the hut,' of the viking, O.N. skali, ' a
shieHng, a hut.'

PoRTiSHAM (Dorchester), a. 1250 Owl and Night. Porteshom.
' Home on the harbour.' See above and -ham.

PoRTiSHEAD (Bristol). Pron. Posset. 'Head, headland at the
port or harbour.'

Portland. Sic a. 1130 Sim. Dur.; O.E. Chron. 837 Port, v.r.,
Portlande — i.e., ' land forming a harbour or shelter.'

Port Llanw (S. Wales) . Thought to be c. 150 Ptolemy Louentinon.
Doubtful.

PoRTREATH (Redruth). Corn, porth treath, ' harbour on the strand
or sands.' Cf. Pentreath.

PoRTSKEWETH (Chepstow). 1065 O.E. Chron. PortascihS, Dom.
Porteschiwet, c. 1130 Lib. Land. Porthisceuin, a. 1130 Sim.
Dur. Portascith, Gir. Camb. Itin. Eskewin. Doubtful. Perh.
W. 2^orth yscuit, ' harbour at the shoulder.' But the W. name
is said to be Porthiscoed, ? ysgoad, ' a thrusting aside.' See
M'Clure, p. 300, note.

Portsmouth. O.E. Chron. 501 refers to Port, and to a chief Port
who landed here. c. 1097 Orderic Portesmude, 1203 Portes-
muthe, 1213 Portesmue. Very likely it is simply L. portus,
' harbour,' but we have Portengton (Yorks) Dom. Portiton,



POSTWICK 406 PRESTEIGN

-inton, which must be fr. a man Fort. In 1160-1 Pijpe Hants,
we have Portesdon or Poetsdown.

PosTWicK (Norwich). 1452-Possewyk. Nothing Hkely in Onom.
so prob. O.E. post-wic, ' house, dweUing with the posts/ But,
PosTLiP (Gloster), Dom. Poteslepe, 1175 Postlepa, is prob.
' Potta'a leap/ Cf. Birdlip.

PoTTON (Sandy), a. 1130 Pottona. Possibly ' pot- town/ O.N.
pott-r, ' a pot.' Perh. fr. a man Pohta or Poto, names in Onom.
Cf. 1179-80 Pipe, Potton (Yorks), not in Dom., but there we
have PoTTERTON, i)ow. Potertun; this is as early as, or earlier
than, any quot. for potter, in Oxf. Diet. Potterspuey (Stony
Stratford) is, however, in 1229 simply Estpirie. See Pauler-
spury. PoTTERNE (Wilts) is Dom. Poterne, where erne is cer-
tainly O.E. for ' house.'

PouiiTON LE Fylde (Prcston) and Poulton (Fairford and Birken-
head). Pr. P. Dom. Poltun, O.E. for ' village by the pool.'
Fa. P. 1303 Polton.

PowicK (Worcester). Chart. Poincgwic, Dom. Poiwic, 1275 Poys-
wyke, a. 1300 Poywick. Poincg- is clearly a patronymic, fr.
Po or Poha, see -ing ; so this is ' dwelMng -place of Poha's descen-
dants.' See -wick.

PowYS (this includes Flint, Montgomery, Merioneth), also Powys
Cast. (Welshpool), c. 1200 Gir. Camb. Powisia, Ann. Camb.
828 Poywis, 1297 Powys. W. powys, ' a state of rest.'

PoYNEsrGS (Hurstpierpoint, Sussex). Dom. Poninges. A patrony-
mic. Nothing in Onom. Poynton (Stockport) is Dom. Pontone;
so evidently Pon was a man's name.

Praze (Camborne). Corn, pras, L. pratum, ' a meadow.'

Prees (Whitchurch) and Preese (Lytham). Ly. P. Dom. Pres.
W. prys, pres, ' copse, shrubs.' Cf. Dumfries (Sc). Peeesall
(Preston) is Dom. Pressouede, where the ending is doubtful;
prob. it is for ' wood,' and so a tautology. Also see -hall.

Prendergast (Haverford W.). Sic 1603 Owen. The name is also
found with same spelhng in Berwicksh., 1100 Prenegest, 1451
Prendregest, also Plenderguest ; whilst in Roxburghsh. is Plender-
leith, 1587 Prenderleith. A puzzhng name. The first part
may be for O.W. premter, found in Jr. as prenter, ' a presbyter,
a priest,' and the second may be, W. gest, cest, ' a deep glen
between two hills.' Fris. gaast, ' a morass,' seems also possible.

Prescot. ' The cot or cottage of the priest.' O.E. preost, O.N.

prest-r.
Presteign (Radnor) and Preston (19 in P.G.). Dom. Yorks,

Bucks, and Salop, Prestone, -tun; ib. Warwk., Prestetone. All

= ' priest's town.' In W. Presteign is Llanandras or ' church

of St. Andrew.'



PRESTWICH 407 PUNSBORNE

Prestwich (Manchester). 1301 Prestwyche. O.E. preost-wic,
' priest's dwelling/ Cf. Prestwick (Sc.) and Prestwood
(Stourbridge), a. 1200 Prestewude; also Prestbury (Chelten-
ham), Bede Preosdabyrig, Dom. Presteberie. See -buiy.

Pbickwillow (Ely). Called fr. a willow, used for making pricks
or skewers. Cf. the ' spindle-tree.'

Pelnce- or Pelnsthoepe (Rugby), a. 1300 Prenesthorpe. ' Village

of Preon ' — i.e., ' the pin ' or ' brooch," Sc. preen. Cf. Preen

(Salop) .
Peiors Heys (Tarvin, Cheshire) . An ' extra-parochial liberty '

of 1,100 acres, with houses. See Oxf. Diet, hay sb^, O.E. hege,

3 heie, 4-7 hey{e), ' a hedge.'

Peivett (Alton). Prob. O.E. Chron. 755 Pryfetes floda. Prob.
a personal name of unknown origin. The shrub privet is not
surely known in Eng. a. 1542, and its etymology is very doubtful.
Can Pryf et be for prefect, L. prcefectus ?

Peudhoe or -HOW (By well, Northumbld). c. 1175 Fantosme Prud-
hame (=ham), a. 1200 Prudchou. Prob. ' Prud's height.'
There is one Prud in Onom. in Cornwall, while ' proud ' (O.E.
prut, prud) is not used re things till c. 1290. See Hoe.

PucKERiDGE (Ware), This is a name of the night-jar. See Oxf.
Diet. Bvit the place-name is prob. ' Pucca's ridge.' Cf. Pouke
Hill and Powke Lane (Staffs.), Puckington (Ilminster) and a
' Pokebrook,' 1274 in Lines. Old forms needed. They may
all come fr. puck or pook, O.E. puca, O.N. puki, ' a sprite, demon,
fairy.' See Oxf. Diet., puck sb.^

PucKLECHUECH (Bristol). 946 O.E. Chroti. Puc(e)lan cyrcan,
Dom. Pulcrecerce, Sim. Dur. ann. 946, Puclecirce. O.E. for
' church of the goblin,' pucel, prob. connected with pv^^k, ' a
fairy.' Cf. Pocklington and Puckle- or Picklenash (Gloster),
' fairies' ashtree.' Gloster also has a Puckshole.

PuDSEY (Leeds). Dom. Podechesaie, 1183 Puteaco, 1203 Pudeckshee,
1213 Picteaceo. 'Isle of Podeca' {'i= Bodeca, 1 in Onom.).
See -ey. ' Poody-Crofte ' sic 1423 Coventry Leet Bk., seems to
be fr. the same name. It is not in Duignan.

PuLLOXiiiLL (Beds), c. 1200 Polochessele. 'Hill of Poloc' This
can hardly be the same name as Pollock (Renfrewsh.), 1158
Pollock, PuUock, though it may. The -ele may be for hale,
' nook'; see -hall; or -sele may be O.E. sele, 'a hall, a house.'

Ptjncknoll (Dorchester). 'Knoll, hillock of Punt,' 1 in Onom.,
short form of Puntel. Cf. 940 chart. Punteles treow (Dorset).

PuNSBOENE (Hatfield). Not in Dom., c. 1495 Pamsborow. It must
be fr. the same name q,s Panslianger, also in Herts, no old forms,
' wooded slope of Pan.' The ending -borne is -boui-ne, ' brook,'
while -borow is -burgh or -boro', q.v. Puncheston (Letterston,



PURBECK 408 QUANTOCKS

Pembk.) is 1603 Owen Pontchardston, a name not in Onom.; but
Punchard is common in medieval France.

PuRBECK. 1205 Purbice, 1410 Pm-brick. ' Brook of the ram, or
wether lamb/ O.E. pur found only in pur lamb; or 'of the
snipe or bittern/ also O.E. pjur. Cf. Purfleet and Purton,
and see -beck.

Purfleet (Essex). O.E. pur-fleot, ' snipe or bittern creek or inlet.'
Cf. Fleetwood.

PuRLEiGH (Maldon) and Purley (Reading and Surrey). Read. P.
Dom. Porlei, a. 1290 Purle. Ma. P. jjrob. 998 chart. Purlea.
Thought by Skeat to be, like Purton, 'pear-tree meadow'; but
old forms are against this, and prob. these names are to be
taken as in Purbeck.

PuBSTON (Pontef ract) . Dom. Prestun, and so= Preston. But Pur-
shall, (Bromsgrove) is a. 1300 Pershull, ' hill of Piers,' Cf.
' Piers Plowman.'

Purton (Swindon and Berkeley). Sw. P. 796 chart. Perytun,
Puritun, later Pyryton, pea,r-tree town.' O.E. pirige, ' pear-
tree/ peru, ' a pear.' Cf. Paulerspury.

PuSEY (Berks), a. 900 J^lf red's Will Pefesigge, later Peuesige;
1066-87 Chron. Abingdon, Pusie, Dom. Pesei, a. 1290 Pesey.
O.E. Pefes -i^e, ' isle of Pefi,' an unknown man. Cf. Pewsey.

PuTLOE (Standish). a. 1200 Puthleleye, 1274 Potteley; Putney
(London) old Putton -heath; and Puttenham (Guildford). All
fr. the common O.E. name Put{t)a, -an. In the first case -ley
' meadow,' has varied with -loe or -low, ' burial mound.'

Pwllheli. Pron. pool-thelly. W. for ' brine pool.' Cf. Treheli,
' house of brine,' 'salt-house,' in Carnarvon also.

PwLL Crochan (Fishguard), 1377 Porttraghan, Tax. Eccl. Port-
crachan, and Pwll y Crochan (Colwyn Bay). Prob. not ' pool
of the pot ' for drawing water, or ' hke a cauldron,' same as
Eng. crock ; but fr. W. clochan, ' a little bell ' ; the hquids I and r
easily interchange. There is another Pwll Crochan, N. of
Llanrian.

Pytchley (Kettering). Dom. Pihteslea, 'meadow of Piht,' or
' Peoht.' See -ley.

Quad RING (Spalding), a. 1100 Quadaveringge. Seemingly a
patronymic; possibly fr. Wadbcorht or Vadipert, or fr. Wad-
iveard, names in Onom. But this is qmte uncertain. See -ing.

Quantocks (Somerset) and East Quantoxhead. Chart, attrib.
to 681 Cantuc-uudu ('wood'). Dom. Cantocheheve' (' head,'
O.E. heafod). W. cant uch, ' upper, higher circle.' W. uch
is same root as Ochils (Sc.) and G. uacJidar, ' the top, upper
part,' so common in Sc. place-names as Auchter-.



QUAELTON 409 RABY

QuARLTON (Bolton). 1292 Quelton. Prob. 'town of the quarry/
still in north dial, quarrel, O.Fr. quarriere. See Oxf. Diet. s.v.
qvMrrel and quarry sbs.^ We find in 1298 ' Thomas de Querle,'
now Quarrel! (Kinnaird, Stirlingsh.).

QuARNFORD (Buston). 1227 Querneford. ' Ford of the quern '
or ' handmill/ O.E. cweorn, cwyrn. Cf. Quarndon (Derby),
' hill like a quern/ Quernhowe (Yorks) and Quorn. How-
ever, Baddeley thinks the Querns (Cirencester) corrup. of
Crundles, sic 1286, see Crundale.

QuARRiNGTOisr (Coxhoe, Diu-ham). a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Queorming-
tun, 1183 Querindune, Queringdona. Seemingly patronymic,
fr. O.E. cweorn, ' a quern, a handmill.'

QuATBRiDGE (Bridgenorth) . 895 O.E. Chron. Cwatbrycge; Dom.
Quatford and Quatone, c. 1097 Orderic Quatfort now Quatford
Castle; c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Quadruge, Quathruge. Some think
fr. O.W. coit, W. coed, ' a wood,' which is not very likely. There
is an obscure quat, ' a pimple, a boil,' found fr. 1579. The
Quat- is quite doubtful. Cf. Quothquhan (Sc).

QuEDGELEY (Gloster). c. 1142 Quedesley, c. 1155 Quedesleg;
also perh. 1136 Quadresse. Prob. ' mead of (an unrecorded)
Owed.' Baddeley says, cf. Quither (Tavistock), 1286 Quedre;
but it is prob. Kelt. Cf. W. cwthr, ' excretory orifice, anus.'

QuEENBOROUGH (Chatham), c. 1460 Queneborow. Called after
Phihppa, Queen of Edward III., who d. in 1369. Edward built
a castle here. See -burgh.

Queen's Camel (Cadbury, Somerset). See Camel.

QxjEMERFORD (Calne). Thought to be Kelt, cumber, 'confluence.'
Cf. the Breton Quimper and Comberbach.

QuiNTON (Birmingham and Gloster). Bi. Q. 840 chart. Cwentune,
1275 Quintone. Gl. Q. 848 chart. Cwentone, Dom. Quenintune.
O.E. cwcen, cwen{n), tun, 'woman's' or 'queen's village.'
This is the same name as Quemington, also in Gloster, Dom.
Quenintone.

QuoiSLEY Mere (Cheshire). Perh. 'meadow of the heifer or
quey,' 6-9 quoy, only in North dial. ; fr. O.N. kviga, ' a heifer.'

QuoRN (Loughborough). See Quarnford.

QuY (Cambs). c. 1080 Inquis. Cambs. Coeie, Choeie, Dom. Coeia,
1210 Cueye, 1261 Queye, 1272 Coweye, Cowye, O.E. cu -ege,
' cow island.' Cf. Sheppey, and quey (Sc.) for ' a heifer, a
young cow,' O.N. kviga, also Dom. Devon, Coie. See -ey.

Raby (Cheshire and Darlington). Ches. R. Dom. Rabie. Dar. R.
a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Rabi, -by; this might be O.N. for ' dwelhng
made with poles or stakes,' rd ; but this last a.lso means ' a roe-
deer.' See -by.

^ 27



RADCLIFFE 410 RAINFOED

Radclitfe (4 at least). Devon R. Exon. Dom. E/adeliva. Man-
chester R. 1343 Radclive, -cliffe. Also Dom. Bucks Radeclivo.
' Red cliff/ O.E. read (3 roed) clif. Cf. Ratcliffe-upon-Soar,
Dom. Radeclive. Radbrook (For. of Dean), is 1204 Redebroc.

Radfield (Cambs). c. 1080 Inquis. Camb. Radefelde, Radesfeld,
Dom. Radefelle, 1284 Radefeld, 1302 Radfelde. Prob. ' Eceda's
field ' ; though here and in other names in Rad-, as Skeat admits,
an origin fr. O.E. read, 3 reed, ' red/ is always possible. Cf.
1158-9 Pipe Rademora (Staffs). Radholme (Yorks), is Dom.
Radim, an old loc. ' on the roads/ O.E. rad. See -ham v/ith
which -holme often interchanges.

Radford (Wrcstrsh. and Leamington). Wor. R. 1275 Radeford,
Le R. Dom. Redeford, a. 1189 Radeford. Perh. 'red, reddish
ford,' O.E. read, 3 reed, 'red'; but perh., as in Radbourne,
' reedy ford '; O.E. hreod, (h) read, ' a reed.' Also cj. two ntxt.
Radham (Gloster) is 955 chart. Hreodham.

Radlett (Herts), No old forms. Skeat thinks, O.E. rad (ge) Icet,
' road meeting-point.' But Dom. Herts has Radeuuelle, which
is prob. 'well of Rada.' Cf. next; and 1161-2 Pipe Raden
-heoh', ? ' height of Rada,' Bucks and Beds.

Radley (Abingdon), a. 1290 Radeley, c. 1520 Raydeley, Prob,
' red meadow,' as in Radcliffe ; see -ley. But Skeat compares
B.C.S. iii. 85 ' Radeleage ' (Wilts), which he derives fr. Rada or
Rceda, a pet form of one of the many names in Rsed-; whilst
Radbourne (Southam.), is 980 chart. Hreodburne or 'reedy
brook.'

Radnor (Wales, and old hamlet near Congleton). Dom. Raddre-
nore (prob. the central r is an error). O.E. raden ora, ' edge of
the road or ride '; prob. in the first case the Rom. road which
ran fr. Wroxeter to Abergavenny and Cserleon, The W. name is
Maesyf ed or -hyfed, prob. for hyfaidd, ' field of the dauntless one.'

Radstock (Bath). Looks like O.E. rad -stoc, ' place on the road.'
Cf. Stoke. But it may be fr. a man, as in next. Cf. too
Rad way, Banbury, Dom. Rad- Rodeweie, which Duignan thinks
' red way,' because the soil here is reddish marl,

Radston (Northants). c. 1275 Radistone; also Rodeston, Prob.
' town of Rada or Rodo,' names in Onom. There is also a
' Radeston,' ? Salop, c. 1205 in Layam. But Rad wick (Gloster)
is c, 955 chart. Hreodwica, ' reed-built ' or ' thatched dwelling.'

Rainford and Ratnhill (St. Helens). 1189-98 Raineford, 1202
Reineford; 1190 Raynhull, 1246-56 Reynhill, 1382 Raynhull,
Fr. some man with a name in Rsegen- or Regen-. They are
very common, see Onom. — Regenbeald, Regenhild, etc. Rainors
(Cumbld.) is said to have been formerly pron. Renneray, which
is pure N. See -ay. Raines Brook (Warwksh.), a. 1200 Reynes-
broc, is known to be fr. Rainald, the Dom. tenant of the manor.



RAINHAM 411 RAPES

Rainha]\i (Chatham). 811 Roegingaham. Evidently a patrony-
mic, fr. Eceg en or Regen, a name generally found in one of its
numerous combinations, Regenburh, -frith, -heard, etc. Rainton
Thirsk, Dom. Rainincton 1183 Rayntona, will have a similar
origin; only here it is a patronymic. Dorn. also calls it Raininge-
wat, where -wat will be O.E. weed, ' ford.^ Cf . Wath.

Raisthorpe (Yorks). Z)om. Redrestorp. ' J?e^^er's place.' There
is one Eeg^er and one Ratherus in Onom. See -thorpe.

Rake (East Liss), Rake End, and the Rakes (Staffs). O.N. rdk,
' a stripe, streak,' Norw. dial, raak, ' footpath,' found in 14th
cny, Eng. as rake, ' a way, a (rough) path '; still dial, and Sc.

Rampton (Cambridge), c. 1080 Inquis. Camb. Ramtune, Dom.
Rantone, 1210 Ramptone. ' Village of rams,' O.E. ramm.
Cf. FoxTON and Shepton.

Ramsbottom (Manchester). A 'bottom,' O.E. botm, north. E.
bodome, is ' a valley, a fertile valley.' Cf. Boddam (Sc.) and
Staebottom. As to the Ram- cf. next and Ramsley (Salop),
a. 1100 Hremesleage, Dom. Rameslege, ' Hrcem's or Ram's lea/

Ramsbury (Hungerford). c. 988 chart. Hremnesburg, c. 1097
Flor. W. Reamnesbyrig. ' Town of Ramni,' a Saxon name
found also in Ramshorn (Sc). The root is O.E. hremn, ' raven.'
Cf. next, and 1179-80 Pipe Rammesberia (Yorks).

Ramsden (Charlbury, Oxfd). O.E. chart. Remnesdiin. 'Hill of
Remni,' see above. Perh. it is c. 1450 Oseney Reg. 134 Ramme
dune. But Ramsden Heath, Billericay, is Dom. Ramesdana,
' Dean, valley of Ramni.' See -den.

Ramsey (Hunts). K.C.D. iv. 300 Hrames ege, Dom. Ramesy,
c. 1097 Flor. W. Ramesia. c. 1130 Eadmer Rammesei, a. 1150
chart. Ramesige. Not orig. ' isle of rams,' O.E. ram{m), but
' isle of Hrcem ' or ' the Raven,' O.E. hrcem, var. of hrcemn,
hrafn, ' raven.' Cf. Hremmesden, now, says Kemble, Rams-
dean (Hants).

Ramsgate. c. 1540 Ramesgate, ' Road,' O.E. geat, ' of Ram,' a
fairly common name. Cf. 940 chart. Hremnes geat (Wilts),
B.C. 8. 356 Rames cumb, near Hallow on Severn, and Ramsden.

Ranby (Lincoln and Retford). Both Dom. Randebi, ''Rand's
dwelhng.' Cf. Ranworth (Norwich), O.E. chart. Randworth.
See -by and -worth. But all names in Rand-, like these and
Randwick (Stroud), 1120 Randwyke (O.E. wic 'dwelhng'),
may be fr. O.E. rand, rond, ' brink, bank,' O.N. rond, ' shield
rim, stripe,' Sw. and Dan. rand, ' rim, border,' also in Du., seen
in the famous Rand (Johannesburg). Cf. Dom. Lines, Rande.

Rapes of Sussex. Dom. In Rap de Has tinges. One of six districts
into which Sussex is divided. Oxf. Diet, says rape may mean
' land measured by the rope,' O.E. rap, O.N. reip ; but that there



EASKELF 412 RAWDON

is no positive proof. Yet c/. Orderic 678 c, Omnes carucatas
quas Angli hidas vocant funiculo [Randolf Flambard] mensus
est et descripsit. Cf. Rope.

Raskelf (Easingwold). Dom. Raschel. O.E. m-5ceZ/c, ' roe-deer's
shelf of rock.'

Rastrick (Brighouse). Dom. Rastric. O.E. rcest hryeg, O.N. rast
hrygg-r, ' rest ' or ' resting ridge.'

Rathmell (Settle). Dom. Rodemele. 'Sand-dune of the rood/
or ' cross/ O.E. rod, with the North, a. A ' mell ' is O.N. mel-r;
see Meole.

Ratley (Banbury). Dom. Rotelei, a. 1200 Rottelei, a. 1300
Rotley. 'Good, excellent meadow/ O.E. rot; or fr. rot, 'a
root, an edible root.' See -ley.

Rattlesden (Bury St. E.). 1161-2 Pipe Radleston, c. 1420
Lydgate Ratlysdene. Older forms needed. ' Wooded valley
of.' ? Rcedweald var. Radoald, Rcedwealh var. Ratuvalah, or
Bcedwulf var. Rathwulf or Radulf, all forms in Onom. See
-den and -ton.

Raughton Head (Dalston, Cumbld.). 1189 Rachton. Doubtful;
no likely name in Onom., and it is phonetically difficult to derive
fr. rache, O.E. rcecc, 3-6 racch, 4-5 rach, 'a hunting-dog'; so
prob. named fr. some unknown man. See -ton.

Ravenglass (S. Cumbld.). Prob. W. yr afon glas, ' the greenish or
bluish river,' afon pron. as in Stratford on Avon. All other
explanations seem to break down. But we have 1189 Pipe
' Ravenewich,' (Cumbld.), dwelling of Raven' or ' Hrafn.'
See next.

Raveningham (Norwich), a. 1300 Eccleston Ravingham. A
patronymic. Prob. most names in Raven-, like Ravenstone
(Bucks), etc., come fr. a man, as in Hrafnsaust and Hrafnseyri



Online LibraryJames B. (James Brown) JohnstonThe place-names of England and Wales → online text (page 41 of 54)