James B. (James Brown) Johnston.

The place-names of England and Wales online

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Tavy, Taw, Teme, etc. Skeat, however, declares the origin
quite unknown. The initial Th- is a Norm, innovation, which
it is really absurd to retain. On the -eses cf. Isis and Ouse ; it
must be Kelt, for ' river.'

Thanet. 80 Solinus Ad-Tanatos, 679 chart. Tenid, Bede Tanet,
a. 810 Nennius, Tanet, 1461 Thenede. Thought to be Keltic
for ' fire,' O.Ir. teine, gen. tened, W. and Corn. tan. But tann
also seems to be Kelt, for ' an oak.' If the former, it will prob.
mean ' place of beacon-fires.'

Thatcham (Berks). B.C. 8. iii. 432 Thsecham, Dom. Taccham,
Taceham. The charter name is O.E. for ' thatched house,' or,
more exactly, as in Sc, 'a thack hoose.' Norman scribes often
wrote t for th, as to them the h was mute. Cf. Thaxtbd.

THAXTED(Dunmow). 1528 Thackstedd. C/. 1298 Thaxton. O.E.
thcec stede, ' thatched,' lit. ' roofed place, steading, or farm.'
Cf. above.

Thelwall (Warrington). 923 O.E. Chron. Delwsel — i.e., 'wall,
rampart made of deals, boards, or planks,' O.E. ]>el, ]>ell. Cf.
Theale (Reading), which Skeat thinks must have meant a place
where a plank was thrown over a stream; also cf. Elmbridge
and Felbridge, and Tilbridge (Upton-on-Severn), 1275 Tel-
drugge (d for 6), plainly from same root.

Themelthorpe (Norfolk). Not in Do7n. 1477 Thymbilthorpe.
Prob. not ' village where thimbles were made,' O.E. thymel, fr.


thuma, ' the thumb ' ; see -thor]3e. It is f r. a man Tyrnhel, in
Onom., also seen in Thimbleby (Yorks), Dom. Timbeibi. But
Great Timble (Yorks) is Dom. Timble, Timbe, and is perh.
' mound, hill like a thimble ' ; only Oxf. Diet, gives no form with
b till loth cny.

Thenford (Banbury). Not in Dom. 1298 Teneford; perh. 'ford
of harm ' — i.e., where some grave accident took place, O.E. teona,
3-6 tene, ' harm, injmy.' There was in 958 chart, a ' Theonfan-
forth,' on R. Stom: (Stafford), but this cannot be the same name.
Dom. Oxon. has Tentone, now Tajoiton (Burford), also Teigtone;
this suggests a first syll. == Teign.

Therfield (Royston, Herts), 796 chart. Thyrefeld. Prob. ' Thy-
ra's field.' Cf. B.C.S. 702 Thyrran mere. Thyra is still a
woman's name in Denmark.

Thetford (SufEk. and Ely). Suf. T. O.E. Chron. 870 Theodforda,
1094 ib. Theotforda, Dom. Tetford, c. 1120 Hen. Hunt. Tedforde
{cf. note on Thatchajvi), 1237 Thefford. Ely T. Dom. Tedford,
Lib. de Hydh Theedford, 1157 Pipe Roll TetforS. ' Ford of the
people,' O.E. ]^e6d — i.e., ' large, wide ford ' (Skeat).

Thingoe (Suffolk) . Dom. Thingehov, Tingehv. ' How or mound
of the thing ' or provincial assembly. Cf. Dingwall and Ting-
wall (Sc.) . The ending -oe is O.N. luiug-r, ' mound, cairn, how.'
See Howden.

Thirkleby" (Thirsk). Dom. Torchilebi, Turchilebi, Tm-gilebi,
Turgislebi, -gisbi. ' DweUing of Thurkill ' or ' Tur chill,' con-
tracted fr. Thurcytel, a common name. See -by.

Thirsk (Yorks). Dom. Treske, c. 1150 Treses, 1202 Tresc, Tresch,
c. 1350 Tlu-esk. Prob. Keltic tre esk, ' house on the water '
{G. uisge) — i.e., the Codbeck. Sec Esk, Usk, etc. If it be Keltic,
it is a very exceptional name in these parts. Cf. Threshfield.

Thixenbale (New Malton, Yorks). Dom. Sixtendale, Sixtedale.
' The sixteen dales,' which go to form the townsliip.' O.E. syx-,
sixtyne, ' 16 ' ; there is no form in Oxf. Diet, without t.

Tholthorpe (York). Z)om. Turulfestorp, Turolvestorp, 'Village
of Thurwulf ' or ' Turolf,' 3 in Onom. See -thorpe.

Thoralby (Aysgarth), Dom. Turoldesbi, Turodes-, debi, 'Dwell-
ing of Thurweald ' or ' Turold,' several in Onom. Cf. Tharles-
thorp (Yorks), Dom. Toruelestorp, and Thorlby (Yorks), Dom.
Toreddereby, Torederebi, prob. fr. Thurweard or I'oruerd ;
also Tarleton (Preston), old Thurweald -tim, Li 0,N, the name
is Thorvaldr ; cf. Trodais, Jersey, See -by.

Thormanby (Easingwold). Dom. Tormozbi, Turmozbi {z=ds or
ts). ' Dwelhng of Thurmund, Thurmod, or Thurmot,' all names
in Onom. ; so = next. Cf. Thormarton, now usually Farming-
ton, and Thrumpton (Notts), Dom. Turmodestun.


Thorn ABY - ON - Tees. Dom. Thormozbi {z^ds). 'Dwelling of
Thurmod ' or ' Thurmund.' Cf. above; and see -by.

Thornbury (Glouc.) — 896 chart. Thornbyrig, Dom. Turneberie — and
Thorncombe (Chard). 1417 Thornecombe. Prob. 'burgh/
and ' valley with the thorn-trees ' ; but former may be fr. a
man Thorn, still a personal name. Cf. Thornton. Thorn-
holme (Yorks) is Dom. Thirnon, also Tirnu', a loo. ' at the
thorns.' See -ham and -holme. Cf., too, Thirntoft (N. Yorks),
Dom. Tirnetoft, ' croft, farm with the thorn-tree.'

Thorner (Leeds). Dom. Tornoure, -eure. 'Thorn-tree bank/
O.E. ofr. See -over.

Thorney (Chichester and Cambs). Chi. T., 1048 O.E. Chron.
Thornege, 1066 ib. Thurneie. Cam. T., Dom. Torny, 1158
Torneya, 1169 Thorneia. There is also one on R. Thames near
London. O.E. Thorn-ege is, of course, ' thorn isle.' See -ey.
c. 1170 Wace, Roman de Rou, 1065, writes of the London T.:
' Ee est isle, Zon est espine, seit rainz, seit arbre, seit racine,
Zonee 90 est en engleiz. Isle d'espine en franceiz.' This is
another illustration how hard a Norman found it to reproduce
our Eng. th.

Thorn GUMBAiD (Hull). Dom. Torne. 'Thorn-tree of Gumbeald '
or ' Gundbeald,' both names in Onom.

Thornham (King's Ljrtin). a. 1300 Eccleston Turnham (which is
now the Norfolk pron.). T/i again ! See above and -ham.

Thornthorpe (Yorks) . i)om. Torgrimestorp. ' TAorgfnm-r's place.
See -thorpe. But Thornington (Nhbld.) is said to be old
Thoburnham, or ' Thorburn's ' or ' Thorbeorn's home.' The
latter is found in Lib. Vit. Dunelm.

Thornton (15 in P.O.). In Dom. Yorks it occurs 34 times as
Torneton, Tornitun, Torentun, Tornenton. Either ' village with
the thorn-trees,' O.E. thorn, or ' of Thorn,' a man. Cf. Thorn-

Thorp Arch (Boston Spa, Yorks). Dom. Torp. 'Village by the
shieling or summer-farm,' Norse G. argh. See Angles ark and

Thorpe Aijdlin(g) (Pontef ract) . Old Audelin, cf. Audlem, Dom.
Aldelime; and see -thorpe, ' village, (little) farm.'

Thorpe Contsantine (Tamworth). Dom. Torp, a. 1300 Thorp
Constantin. A family so called fr. Constantine, Normandy.

Thrapstone (Oundle). Prob. ' Thorpe on the rock.' See Thorpe.
Cf. Throapham (Yorks), Dom. Trapun, a loc, ? ' at the village.'
See -ham.

Threlkeld (Penrith). Cf. Dom. Trelefelt— *.e., Threlfalds (N.
Lanes). The Threl- is uncertain. It may be contracted fr.
Thorkell. Thurkleby (Yorks) is Dom. Turchilebi. -keld is ' well,
spring.' See Keld.


THRESHriELD (Skipton). Dom. Treschefelt, Freschefolt. A little
doubtful. The Thi-esh- may be Keltic, as in Thirsk. But tli
does interchange with /, as in Fenglesham, and so it may be
' fresh/ See Freshwatek,

Thrimby (Shap). i>o//i. Tiernebi. ' DwelUng of Ticr/ie/ the mod.
name Tierney. Onom. has one Thrim, but nothing like Tierne,
which is the almost exact phonetic representative of G. tigh-
earna, ' lord/ 0. W. tern ; and this may be the word here.
Cf. Stapleford, but also Thurne. See -by.

Throckenholt (Wisbech). O.E. Chron. 657 (late MS.) Throkon-
holt. ' Wood for sharebeams or plough-heads/ O.E. throe. Cf.
Holt. Throckmorton (Fladbury), c. 1200 Troche-, c. 1220
Trokemertum, -mardtune, 1275 Throkemorton, can hardly be
fr. the same root. The ending will be ' mere-town/ ' moor-
town/ or perh. ' boundary-town/ O.E. {gejmcere ; whilst Throe
will be a personal name. Cf. 939 chart. Throcbryge, Hants,
Throcking (Herts) (patronymic), and Throckley (Northbld.).

Throwley (Ham), T. Forstal (Faversham), and Throwleigh
(Okehampton). II. T., a. 1300 Truleg. ' Meadow of the coffin,
tomb, or grave,' O.E. thruh, thru{u)ch, 5 throh, throw, and still
in Sc. and N. dial. Cf. Througham (Glouc), pron. Druffum,
Dom. Troham, later Truham. See -ham and -ley.

Throop (Christchurch) and Thrupp (Mid Oxon and S. Northants)
= Thorpe.

Thrybergh (Rotherham). Dom. Triberga, -ge. Prob. 'three
barrows ' or ' mounds,' O.E. pr» ; and see Barrow. Cf. Sedbergh.

Thundersley (Rayleigh). Dom. Thunreslau, 'Meadow (or
' mound,' see -low) of the god Thunor ' or ' Thor.' See -ley.

Thurgoland (Sheffield). Dom. Turgesland. Prob. ' land of Thur-
god ' or ' Turgot,' a common O.E. name. Thurgarton (Notts)
is Dom. Turgarstune.

Thurlaston (Dunechurch and Hinckley). Dun. T. Dom. Torlave-
stone, a. 1300 Thm'laveston. ' Village of (an unknown) Thur-
laf; but Hin. T. c. 1190 chart. Thurkeleston, ' village of Thur-
kill ' or ' Thurcytel.' Old forms needed for Thurlestone
(Kingsbridge) and Thtjrlstone (Sheffield). Thurlston (S.
Yorks) is Dom. Turulfestone, Turolveston, ' Thurwulf's ' or
' Turolf's town ' ; while Thurstaston (Birkenhead) is Dom.
Turstaneton, ' Thurstan's town.' It is now pron. Thirsaston.

Thurlby (Bourne), a. 1100 chart. Thurleby. ' Dwelling of Thur-
kill ' or ' of Thurlac' See -by.

Thurleigh (Bedford) and Thurlow (Suffolk). 'Meadow' and
' hill of the god Thor ' or ' Thunor,' an old Scandina\aan and
Saxon deity. Cf. Thursday; and see -leigh and -low.

Thurm ASTON (Leicester), c. 1200 Turmotestona. ' Thurmod'a ' or
' Thormood's town.'



Thurne (Yarmouth). 1477 Thirne. There is in Eng. c. 1300
theme, ' a girl, a maid/ fr. O.N. \erna ; but this will not suit for
Thurne. Thurnham (Lancaster) is Dom. Tiernun. It is prob.
that these names come fr. thorn, the tree, even though it is never
found with an i or u in Oxf. Diet. But ' Thorne ' is found alone
as a place-name in Dom. Yorks. Tiernun, according to all
analogy, should be an old loc. (see -ham), ' at the thorn-trees ';
and Avill be the same name, originally, as Thornholme (Yorks),
which is in Dom. Thirnon and Tirnu'. Cf. Thornbuby and next.

Thurnscoe (Rotherham). Dom. Ternusc, -usche, which must be
Kelt, either for ' chief, head stream,' O.W. tern. Cf. Tintern,
or for ' vehement stream,' W. tern. Also see Usk; and cf.
Thirsk. But the present name, a Norse corrup., is ' thorn-tree
wood,' O.N. skog-r. Cf. Burscough. It is now pron.

Thurrock (Grays). Dom. Thurrucca. O.E. yurruc is ' the bilge
of a ship,' in mod. dial. ' a heap of dirt,' and ' a drain.' This
place must surely have been orig. one where filth and dirty
water gathered. Cf. West Thurrock.

Thursford (Dereham) and Thursley (Godalming). 1305 Thyrs-
forde. ' Ford ' and ' meadow of Thor,' the thunder god. For
spelling with u, cf. Dom. Essex, Turestapla, and Thursday ; and
see -ley. There is a now obs. Thursfield (Newcastle-under-L.),
which was Dom. Turvoldes feld, a. 1300 Thurfredesfeld, and
Torvedeston. ' Town of Thurweald ' or ' Thorold.' Cf. Thoresby
(Notts), Dom. Turesbi.

Thurston (Bury St. E.). Dom. Turstanestuna. ' Town of T^wr-
stan.' Cf. Thurstaston (Birkenhead), pron. Thursiston, Dom.
Turstaneton. There is also a Thurstonland (Huddersfield), Dom.
Tostenland, prob. a scribe's error.

Thuxton (Attleboro'). Dom. Thustuna. The man's name here is
uncertain. The nearest in Onom. is Thochi, var. of Tokig ; but
we have also several called Toc(c)a, a Toce, and a Tocga.

Thwaite (Ej^e). c. 1150 chart. Thwete. O.N. thveit, lit. 'a piece
cut off,' fr. thvita, ' to cut,' then ' a small bit of land.' Cf.
Crossthwaite, etc. Thwaite End (Irton, Cumbld.) is actually
said to have been corrupted into Ayners !

Thwing (Hunmanby, Yorks). Dom. Twenc, Tuinc, Tuenc; 1206
Twenge. Seems to be the rare O.E. twing, ' a mass, a lump,'
lit. what is pressed together, fr. twengan, ' to pinch, squeeze,
twinge.' Cf. Dom. Salop Tuange.

TiBBERTON (Salop, Droitwich, and Glouc). Dr. T., 978 chart.
Tidbriht - ingctun, Dom. Tibbertun, 1275 Tybrytone. Gl. T.
Dom. Tebristone (on st, see p. 26), later Tyber-, Typertone.
' Town of Tidbeorht ' or ' Tidburh.' On 978 see -ing.


TiBTHORPE (Driffield). Dom. Tibetorp, Tipetorp. 'Village of
Tiha ' or ' Tibha.' Cf. Dom. Tibetune (Salop), and also Tipton.
See -thorpe.

TiCH-. See Titch-.

TiCKHiLL (Rotherham). c. 1097 Flor. W. Tyckyll, 1119 cJiart.
Tykyll, Sim. Dur. ann. 1102 Tychiil, 1194 Hoveden Tikehil.
' Hill of the tike/ Icel. tik, ' a bitch, a cur/ Sw. tik, ' a boor/
But Dom. Tichele-vorde (Salop) must be ' farm of Ticel,' an
unknown man: and Ticknall (Derby), chart. Ticcenheal, is
' Tica's nook/ Cf. Dom. Bucks Tichesla and Ticheforde; also


TiCKTON (Beverley). Dom. Tichetone. ' Town of Tica ' or ' Ticca'
Cf. above; also 1166-67 Pipe Tichesoura (Rutld.), and 1460
Paston Tychewell.

TiDMAESH (Pangbourn). 1316 Thedmersshe, 1428 Tydemershe,
c. 1540 Tedmarsh. ' Tydda's, marsh/ 6 Tidas or Tydas in Onom.
Cf. TiDENHAM (on Wye), 956 chart. D3'ddan-hamme, ' enclosure
of Dydda/ but Dom. Tideham, 1253 Tudenham. See -ham.
TiDSLEY or Teddesley Wood (Pershore) is 963 chart. Teodeces-
leage, ' T codec's lea.' Cf. Tewkesbury.

TiDNOCK (Cheshire). Prob. dimin. of W. tyddyn, ' a farm.'

TiDWELL (E. Budleigh, Devon), a. 1300 Todewil, Toddville, Tode-
vil, Tudewille, Toudeville. ' Tuda's ' or ' Todea's pool,' O.E.
wcel, 'a whirlpool, an eddy, a fish-pool.' Cf. Maxv/ell (Sc).
The name prefixed occurs in a great variety of forms — Tida,
Toda, Tuda, Tudda, Tydda. Cf. Tidmarsh.

Tilbrook (St. Neots). Prob. ' Brook of Tila or Tile/ 4 in Onom.
Cf. TiLFORD, and 1179-80 Pijoe, Tillul (? ' Tila's hill') (Yorks).
But some think of W. twll, ' a hole.' This is not prob.

Tilbury. Bede Tilaburg, Dom. Tilleberie, c. 1120 Hen. Hunt.
Tilaburh, c. 1200 Westilleberie (West Tilbury), 1278 Tillebury.
' Tila's fort or burgh.' See above, and -bury.

TiLEHURST (Reading). K.C.D. iv. 157, Tigelhyi'ste, 1316 Tyghel-
hurst, c. 1540 Tylehurst. This must mean ' tile wood or copse,'
O.E. tigel, L. tegula, ' a tile.' They may have been made here.

TiLFORD (Farnham, Surrey), c. 1160 Tileford. ' Tila's ' or ' Tile's
ford.' Cf. Tilbrook. Tiln(e) (Notts), Dom. Tilne, Tille, 1189
Pipe Tilnea, is ' Tila's isle.' See -ay.

Till R. (Northumbld.). a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Tillemuthe, W. twll,
' a hole,' or perh. tyle, ' a steep, an ascent.'

TiLLiNGHAJM (Southminster). B.C.S. 8 Tilhngeham, and Tilling-
TON (Petworth and Stafford). Pet. T., Dom. Telhngedone and
Tedlingha (d prob. error). St. T. Dom. Tilhntone. 'Home'
and ' village of the sons of Tila.' Cf. Dom. Bucks Tehngham.
See -don, -ham, -ing, and -ton.


Tilly Whim Caves (Swanage). M'Clure says Corn, toulen veyn,
' holes in the rocks/ Cf. Duelstone, But one may also con-
jecture W. tuell gwyn, ' clear, bright covert/

TiLMAKSTONE (Dover). 1298 Tilmarmeston. 'Town of Tilman,'
3 in Onom. A ' tillman ' is a ploughman or peasant, found as
an Eng. word as early as Cursor Mundi. Cf. 940 chart. Til-
mannes dene.

TiMBERHANGER (Bromsgrove). Dom. Timbrehangre ; Timbeeland
(Lincoln), 1204 Timberlun; Timberley (Cas. Bromwich), 1301
Timberweissiche (timber-way -syke, O.E. sic, sice, ' rivulet,
ditch'). All fr. O.E. timber, O.N. timbr, 'timber, wood for
building purposes. ■" -hanger is O.E. hangra, ' wooded slope.'
Cf. Clayhakger, and -land here is O.N. lund-r, ' grove, wood,'
Cf. TosELAJSfD. Also see -ley.

TiNGEWiCK (Buckingham). Dom. Tedinwiche, a. 1199 Tingwic.
Seems to be ' dwelling of Teda, -an, Tigga, -an, or Thegn, all
in Onom. More old forms needed. See -wick.

TiNSLEY (Sheffield). Dom. Tinestawe, Tirneslawe; also Tineslege
(under Derby). 'Meadow of Tinna' {cf. Roll Rich. I., ' Tin-
neston,' Kent) ; or, rather, as the liquid r has early disappeared,
' meadow of the thorn-tree,' O.E. yorn. Da. and Sw. torn.
Cf. Thornbury. On -lawe see -low, ' mound/ which is
not= -ley.

Tentagel (Camelford). c. 1205 Layamon Tintageol, edit. c. 1275
Tyntagel, 1536 Tyndagell; also Dundagel. Corn, dun, din diogl,
' safe fort ' or ' castle.'

Testtern (Chepstow). O.W. for 'castle of the chief.' Cf. above
and K. Yov-tigern, and Caer Guor-thigirn, Nennius ; also G.
tighearna, ' lord,' and THEEviBy.

Tipton (Staffs), a. 1300 Tibinton, Tybeton. 'Village of Tiba.'
St. Tibbe, or Tybba, was patroness of hunting and hawking. Cf.


Tirle Brook (Tewkesbury). 780 cliart. Tyrle, 785 ib. Tyrl. Prob.
fr. E. Fris. tirreln, tirlen, 'to turn about quickly,' the Sc. tirl.
But TiRLEY (Market Drayton) is Dom. Tireleye, Tyrlegh,
'meadow on the E,. Tern,' the liquid n having disappeared;
whilst TiRLEY (Tewkesbury), formerly Trinley, is Dom. Trinleie,
c. 1220 Trinlega, where the Brook name has got confused with
the name of some man. Trimma and Trumwine are nearest in
Onom. See -ley.

TiSBURY (Salisbury), a. 716 chart. Dyssesburg. ' Castle of Tisa '
or ' Tiso,' both in Onom. See -bury.

TiSTED (Hants). 941 chart. Ticcestede, Dom. Tistede. 'Home-
stead, farm of Ticca.' But cf. Stisted.


Ti(t)chbobne (Alresford), Titchfield (Fareham), Titohmarsh
(Thrapston), and Titchwell (Norfolk). 909 chart. Ticceburna,
1298 Tycheburn; O.E. chart. Ticcenesf eld ; 1298 Tychemershe;
1450 Tichewill. ' Burn or brook/ ' field/ ' marsh ' and ' well of
Ticca, Tica, or Ticcea,' all names in Onom. But any of them
might also come fr. O.E. ticcc{n), Ger. zieke, ' a kid.' CJ. Tixall
and Tickenhill (Bewdley). See -borne.

TiTTENSOE (Stoke-on-Trent). Dom. Titesoure, a. 1200 Titesoura,
Titnesovre, a. 1300 Titneshovere. ' Bank, brink, edge,' O.E.
obr, ofr, ofre, ova, ' of Tita,' -an, or ' Titel,' both in Onom. Cf.
BoLSOVER, Edensor, Tittleshall, etc. TiTTESWORTH (Leek)
is a. 1300 Tet(t)esworth, ' farm of Tette ' or ' Teta,' both in
Onom. See -worth.

Tittleshall (Swaflfham). 1425 Titeleshale, c. 1471 Tytlyshall.
' Nook of Tyttla ' or ' Titillus,' both in Onom. See -hall.

Tiverton (Chesh. and Devon). Ch. T. Dom. Tevretone. De. T.
Dom. Tovretone, Exon. Dom. Touretona, Tuuertone, 1166-67
Pipe Tuuerton, later Tuyverton. Thought also to be a. 900
K. Alfred's Will Tuiford= Twyford and -ton, O.E. twi, ' double,
twd, tu, ' two,' and so ' double-ford-town.' In Dom. re is regu-
larly = er ; and in W. still / is pron. v. So the vret or vert is O.E.
ford, 3 vord. Cf. c. 1190 Gir. Camb. Milverd-icus for Milford.
The d of ford has in Tiverton become merged in the t of -ton.
Cf. TwERTON and TeversSall.

TiVY R. (Cardigan), c. 800 Nennius Tivis, or Teibi; and see
Abertei VI . Prob . = Towe y .

TiXALL (Stafford). Dom. Ticheshale, a. 1200 Tikeshale. 'Nook
of Tica.' Cf. TiCKNALL and Dom. Bucks Tichesla. See Titch-
BORNE and -hall.

Tockenham (Swindon) and Tockington (Glouc). B.C.S. 481
Toccanham, Dom. Tochintune, 1298 Tokynton. ' Home ' and
' town of Tocca.' Cf. Tocketts (Yorks), Dom. Tocstune, also
Toscotune; and Tockwith, Dom. Tocvi, ' Tocc's wood,' O.N.
T6M- vith-r, Dan. ved. Cf. Le Van Tocque, Jersey.

Todenham (Chipping Norton), c. 804 chart. Todanhom. ' En-
closure of Toda ' or ' Tuda.' Of the latter, there are many in
Onom. Cf. Dom. Bucks Todeni. There are also 3 Todding-
tons, Dom. Todintun (Glouc), 1314 Todinton (Lanes). See
-ham and -ton.

ToDMORDEN. ' The Morden of the tods or foxes.' Tod, common
still in Sc, is fr. Icel. toddi, ' a bunch of wool,' referring to the
fox's tale. Cf. c. 1170 Newminster Cartul. Todholes. There are
2 Mordens, at Mitcham andWareham. This is O.E. mor, denu,
' moorland valley.'

Tod WICK (Sheffield). Dom. Tatewic. ' Dwelhng of Tata.' Cf.
Tadcaster. See -wick.


Toft (Dunchurch, Beccles, and Cambridge), Toft Hill (Bp.
Auckland), Toftwood (Dereham). Ca. T., Dom. Tofth,
1302 Thofte. O.N. toyt, adopted into O.E., ' cleared space for
the site of a house,' then ' homestead, (small) farm ' ; also some-
times ' a knoll or hillock." J. H. Turner gives 5 places ending
in -toft in Yorks — Altofts, Arnoldstoft, Langtoft, Thirntoft,
Willitoft. In these cases Dom.. spells -toft or -tot. In the
defunct Elestolf it inserts an I. Duignan records none fr. Staffs
or Worcester. It recurs in Ametot. Jersey.

ToLLESBURY (Witham) . ' Burgh of Tolla.' Cf. Tolesby (N. Riding)
Dom. Tollesbi. Tollerton (York), Dom. Tolentun, Tolletun,
is also Tollantun, the n of the gen. being changed to its kindred
liquid r, perh. through Norse influence. Tolthorp (Yorks),
Dom. Toletorp, is fr. the same name. Cf. Tolworth (Surbiton).
See -worth. Tollerton (Notts), Dom. Troclauestone, 1166
Pipe Turlaueston, 1294 Thorlaxton, c. 1500 Torlaston, is
difficult. The forms represent either Thurlac or Thorlaf.

ToLPiDDLE (Dorchester). Prob. ' clump of trees beside the small
or puddly stream,' fr. toll sb,* which Oxf. Diet, says is now
dial. fr. Kent to Hants. Tliis toll, first found in 1644, is of
unknown origin. See Piddletown. Tollerdine (Wore),
1327 Tolwardyn, means, thinks Duignan, not ' toll-farm,' but
' farm free fr. toll or tax,' O.E. toll has this meaning. See
-war dine.

ToNBRTDGE or Ttjnbridge. Dom. Ton(e)bridge, c. 1097 Flor.
Wore. Tunebrycgia. Prob. ' bridge of Tuna,' common in Onom.
A little stream called the Tun here joins the Medway. It may
be a later back formation, or ? W. tonn, ' land unploughed.'
Cf. 1303 R. Brunne Handl. Synne 10586: ' So long he [Tumna]
leuede yn that estre (place) that for hys name he hy3t (was
called) Tuncestre.' This last name seems now lost.

ToNG (Bradford and Shifnal). Br. T. Dom. Tuinc. Tonge
(Middleton, Manchester), 1227 Tonge, 1285 Toung, Tong, 1551
Tongue. Tong Park (Shipley). O.E. tunge, O.N. tunga, Dan.
tunge, ' tongue, tongue of land, promontory.' Cf. Dom. Wore.
Tonge, and Tongue (Sc). Tong Fold (Bolton) is now pron.

Tooley Street (London), c. 1650 St. Tulie's Street. Corrup. of
' St. Olave's Street.' The Danes were settled here, and Olaf
was patron saint of Norway. Cf. tawdry, fr. St. Audrey's or
Ethelreda's fair.

Toothill (Ongar, Alvanley, Chesh.). It may be a tautolog^y, as
toot or tote is found in Eng. for ' an isolated, conspicuous hill, a
look-out hill,' fr. 1387. The O.E. totian is found only once,
meaning 'to protrude, peep out'; but the vb. tote, 'to peep
out, peer, gaze,' is common fr. a. 1225. There is also O.E. tota,
' a spy, a look-out, a tout/ often a proper name. See next.


Tooter, too, is found as a sb. fr. Wyclif , 1382, ' one who gazes, a
watchman,' as in Tooter Hill (S. Lanes). Cf. Tothill, and
Cleeve Toot (Bristol). The name toot to-day seems chiefly
S. Wstn. ; but we have a Tote-hill, Hartington (Northumbld.),
and a Tuthill stairs (Newcastle) .

Tooting (London). 727 chart. Totinge, Dom. Totinges, 1228
Toting', 1229 Thotinges. Patronymic. ' Place of the sons of
Tata.' Four called Tota and 2 Ttita in Onom. For pi. ending
in Dom. cf. Barking, Woking, etc. ; and see above. But Toton
(Notts), Dom. Tolvestune, 1189 Pipe Turuerton, is fr. a man

TopcLiFFE (Thirsk). Dom. Topeclive, 1301 Topclive. 'Cliff of
Topa, Tope, or Topp,' all forms in Onom. Cf. Cleveland.

ToppESFiELD (Halstead). 1298 Toppesfelde. 'Field of Toppa.'

See above.
ToPSHAM (S. Devon), c. 1072 Toppeshamme, 1297-98 Topesham.

' Enclosure of Toppa or Topa.' See above. The -ham here is

O.E. hamm, ' enclosure, place hemmed in.'

ToRCROSS (Kingsbridge), Torpoint (Cornwall), etc. Tor or Torr
must be Kelt., though already found as torr in an O.E. Dorset
chart, of 847. As a name, it is chiefly confined to Cornwall,
Devon, and Peak (Derby) district. Corn, toor, tor, ' hill, promi-
nence ' (though this form is denied existence by Oxf. Diet.),
W. twr, O.W. twrr, ' heap, pile,' as in Mynydd Twrr, old name
of Holyhead Mtn., G. torr, ' a heap, a pile, then, a hill, lofty or
conical, a mound, a heap of ruins.'

ToRKSEY (Lincoln). 873 O.E. Chron. Turces ig(e), Turices ige,
a. 1130 Sim. Dur. Torchasia. 'Isle of Turca or Turc,' but
hardly of ' the Turk.' Cf. B.C.S. 165 Turcan den. See -ey.

ToRPENHOW (Wigton, Cumbld.). c. 1200 Thorphinhow. ' Mound,
cairn,' O.N. haugr, ' of Thorfinn,' a common name in Cumbld.
in 12th cny. Cf. Brant How and Maeshow (Sc).

Torquay. Kelt, tor cau (in W. pron, kay). ' Hill by the hollow.'
See ToRCROSS. Quay is a quite recent spelling of kay or key, ' a
wharf,' and the pron. key instead of kay is recent, too. Of
course, Torquay really has nothing to do with quay.

Torrington (Devon). 1156 Pipe Torentun, 1219 Torintun. Perh.
' town of Tora,' gen. -an, one in Onom. But Torentun in Dom.
Yorks, 1179-80 Pipe Torenton, always seems for Thornton.
Cf. Dom. Chesh., Torentune.

ToRRiSHOLME (Morccambc). Dom. Toredholme. ' Meadow by the
sea of Thored,' a common O.E. name. See -holm. Cf. Tort-
worth (Glouc), Dom. Torteuord, 1364 Tortheworth, where the
name seems to be Torth or Torht, which is var. of Thored ; also
found in Onom. as Thord, Thorth, and Tori.


TosELAND (Hunts). Dom. Toleslund. 'Grove/ O.N. lund-r, 'of
Toll,' a N. name. Cf. Timberland. But Tostock (Bury St.
E.) and 1167-68 Pipe Devon, Tosby, imply a man's name like
Tos. See -by and Stoke.

ToTHTLL (London). 1250 Patent R. Tothull, c. 1590 Totehill, 1598

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