James Brooks.

A seven months' run up, and down, and around the world : written in letters to the N.Y. Evening Express online

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A SEVEN MONTHS' RUN,



UP, AND DOAVJST, AlsD ABOUND

THE WORLD.



BY

JAMES BROOKS.



[WRITTEN IX LETTERS TO THE X. Y. EVEXIXG EXPRESS.]



NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON & COMPANY,

549 & 551 BROADWAY.

1873.



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1872, bj

D. APPLETON & CO.,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.



TO THE PUBLIC.



When I left home, late in May, 1871, after an
extraordinary session of Congress, it was for the sake
of health, to free body and mind from work and ex-
citement of all sorts, such as I had broken down
under, in the hot, unhealthy air, and unnatural light
of the House of Representatives and its Committee
rooms. Then, it never entered my head " to scribble "
(for that is the only proper word) the notes which
are here embodied in a book, not altogether with my
approbation, though of course, with my consent. A
life-long habit of work compelled me to work (I
could not help it), and hence, in disobedience of the
orders of my physician, I took to scribbling, always
in pencil, these notes or letters, which others would
have kept in their trunks, but which I sent home,
rude and rough, "and good enough for a newspa-
per," perhaps, which lives but a day, but not good
enough for a book, especially for a book of travels.



iv TO THE PUBLIC.

All of them save one were in pencil on Japanese
mulberry-paper, often pencilled on my hat, some-
times, on my knees, and oftener yet on decks, or, in
the cabins of steamers, roughly rolling and jerking,
and then quickly mailed without being read — from
Yokohama and Yedo, in Japan, to Pekin and Can-
ton, in China, or, from Sumatra or Ceylon, or, from
India to Madras in the south, to Calcutta and Al-
lahabad in the north, and Bombay in the west.
These notes, thus scribbled and thus mailed, have
no literary merit, of course — are not intended to
have any, and if they are good for any thing, it is
because they were pencilled and mailed " on the
spot" fresh and photographic, thereby. To revise
them now, I have neither time nor inclination, not
even time carefully to read them, until I see them
in book-proof, where, when irrevocable, I cannot,
if dissatisfied, remould them, and thus extract for
the sake of style whatever life or vitality there may
be in the notes.

Japan, since July, when I was there, has " pro-
gressed" so rapidly, that, the then, great, mighty, sa-
cred, and invisible Mikado has become as visible as
any European monarch ; and the one- or two-sworded
retainers of the Daimios are putting off their swords
as well as their costumes (pity for that), and becoming
American- and European-ized so rapidly, that, in some
respects, my notes, not a year old now, will soon be-



TO THE PUBLIC. v

come almost as antiquated as Sir Richard Alcock's
book, published not ten years since, the very reading
of which half affrighted me, when first thinking of
entering Japan.

China, unchanged and unchangeable from the
days of Marco Polo, will probably remain thus, until
Americans or Englishmen tempt the Mandarins, by
fat contracts, to build railroads and telegraphs, and
thus to defy the " Fung-Shuey."

The American tourists, who have long been run-
ning over Europe and parts of Africa, will find in
these notes, if not a guide-book, the outlines for one,
and they will see, that they can now run over Japan,
China, and India, as well as Egypt and parts of Italy,
in less than a year.

To tempt my countrymen of the new World, with
their wives and daughters, even to visit this very old
world of the East, and thus to invite them to new
fields of instruction and reflection, I have, not with-
out reluctance, consented to this unprepared publica-
tion.

J. B.

Washington, D. C, April 12, 1872.



CONTENTS.



LETTER L

ON, TO, AND OVER THE PACIFIC.

Tho Start from New York to go round the World. — Thinking' out loud on Paper. —
No fine Writing, Scribbling only. — Car Life on the Prairies and Eocky Mountains,
but no Eocky Mountains. — The "Way the Engineer dodges them. — The Holy Land
of Mormondom, 1

LETTER II.

ON, TO, AND OVER THE PACIFIC.

The Mormon Holy Land. — Geographically like the Holy Land over the Sea. — How
Irrigation has made the Desert a Garden. — The Apostles and Elders of Mormon-
dom. — The Holy Temple. — Brigham Young in the Temple. — The Women and
the Fashions in Salt Lake City. — Beelzebub stirring up Eebellion. — The Grass-
hoppers and the Gulls, 10

LETTER in.

ON AND FROM THE PACIFIC.

Around the World only a " Trip." — Snow on the Mountains and Alkali Plains. — Forty
Miles of Snow-sheds. — Sudden Descent from Ice and Snow to Apricots and Straw-
berries. — Sacramento. — New Railroad and Steamboat Routes, ... 18

LETTER IV.

ON THE PACIFIC.

From the Golden Gate to Yokohama. — The "Japan, 1 ' and the motley Crowd on
board. — Is, or is not, the Pacific Ocean a Humbug ? — The Amusements on board.
— The Police of the Ship. — Spoke a Boston Ship. — Meeting a Steamer in Mid-
ocean, exchanging Mails, etc., 24

LETTER Y.

ON THE PACIFIC.

Life and Thoughts on Ship-board. — The Day Lost in Rounding the World. —
"Down East 11 is out West. — A Puzzled Traveller. — Summer Life on this Ocean.
— The Second Exchange of Letters — The Sixteenth Amendment — Curious
Congregation of Passengers, 81



viii CONTENTS.



LETTER VI.

FIRST IMPRESSIONS IN JAPAN.

Arrival in Japan. — First Impressions on the Coast. — The Fishermen in "Georgia
Costume." — Everything New, Everything Odd. — Bamboo Baskets for Hats. —
Straw Overcoats. — Landing on the Hatoba. — The Cues of the Japanese. — The
Brawny Coolies. — Travelling Restaurants. — Strange Street Spectacles. — The Tat-
tooed Men. — The Horse Boy (Betto). — Hair Dressing. — Shocking Black Teeth
of the Married Women, 40

LETTER VII.
THE CITY OF YE DO.

The First Day in Tedo.— The Ride on the " Tocaido."— Strange Sights there.— The
Pretty Tea Girls. — The Tiny Tea Cups. — Rooms with Paper Partitions. — The
Beggars. — The Gin-rick-a Sha. — Ride in State along the " Tocaido." — Hogs in
Baskets. — No Tycoon, only a " Mikado." — How we Stare and how they Stare at
us. — Great Fire in Tedo, 52

LETTER VIII.

LIFE AND SIGHTS IN YEDO.

Sintoo and Buddhist Temples. — The Priests. — The Sacred Cream-Colored Horses.
Theatres in the Temples. — The Opera in Yedo. — Funny Ride thereto in Gin-
rick-a Shas, ... * 64

LETTER IX.
LIFE AND SIGHTS IN YEDO.

Eyes only Useful Here. — Tongue and Ears Useless. — Shopping in Tedo. — Hotels in
Japan. — Grand Hotel in Yedo. — Breakfast with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
at Hamagoten. — Dinner at a Beautiful Country-Seat. — Discussions, Political and
Theological. — "Why the Japanese don't like Christians. — The Schools of Japan. —
Reading, "Writing, and Arithmetic almost Universal, 75

LETTER X.

TRA VELLER '£ LIFE IN THE INTERIOR.

The Great God of Kamakura. — "Statue of Dai-bootz." — Life in Japanese Tea-Houses.
— Ride in a Cango Bamboo Basket. — The Temples around Kamakura. — Beautiful
Scenery. — Fields cultivated like Gardens. — The Life and Rank of Japanese
Farmers. — Visit to the Cave of Inosima. — Fish Life and Fish Dinners. — The
"Mikado" and the "Tocaido." — Politeness and Amiability of the Japanese
Farmers, 8T

LETTER XI.

RETURN TO YEDO.

In Yedo a Second Time. — Now under a British Escort. — The English Dragoons
and Japanese Yakonins. — The British Student Interpreters. — Only a Hundred
Caucasians among a Million of Japs. — Paper Windows. — Uneasy Sleeping. —
Two-Sworded Loafers. — A Thousand British Troops in Yokohama. — Cheap
Shopping in Yedo. — Fashionable Riding, . ...... 98



CONTENTS. ix



LETTER XIL

THINGS IN JAPAN.

Wom«u among the Japanese. — Their Position and Condition. — Promiscuous Bath-
ing-houses. — The Theatre. — Ticketing Straw Shoes therein. — Jap Stump
Orators.— Bamboo in Japan. — Japanese Art — Shopping in " Curio " Street. —
Can spend any Amount of Money. — The Steel of Japan. — The Government of
Japan a Feudality. — Railroads, Telegraph, and Mint in Japan, . . 104

LETTER XIII.

ON THE JAPAN SEAS.

Adieu to Yokohama. — The Foreigners and their Life there. — The All Sorts of Clothes
of the East. — The Japanese Passengers on board the Costa Pica. — A Japanese
Prince and his Retinue on board. — A Typhoon dodged. — Frightful Loss of Life and
Property. — An Earthquake felt. — Curiosity satisfied. — Motley Cargo of the
Costa Rica.— Butcher's Meat called Fowl, 112

LETTER XrV.

ON THE INLAND SEA OF JAPAN.

The Beautiful Inland Sea of Japan.— Luxurious Travelling. — Prince Hizen. — Vampire
Cat. — Bay of Nagasaki. — The Oldest European Settlement. — The Roman Cath-
olic Priests. — Pappenburg Island. — Thousands of Christians thrown from the
Precipice. — The Faith of Roman Catholic Missionaries. — Street Scenes in
Nagasaki. — Needle Making. — Porcelain Painting.— Begging Buddhist Priest. —
Street Actors. — Japanese Confectionery. — Japanese "Woman's Toilet-Box. — Re-
ceipt for Blacking the Teeth.— Final Leave of Japan, 120

LETTER XV.

ON, AND OVER TO CHINA.

On the Yellow Sea, bound to Shanghai. — The Great Yang-tze and its Yellow Water.
— Up the Whang-poo.— Reflections on entering the Great Gates of China. —
Thermometer in Shanghai. — Hot Hotter, Hottest. — Air wanted, a Puff or a
Typhoon. — Things In and About Shanghai. — The Summer Costume. — Innumer-
able Mounds or Graves in the Cotton-Fields.— American Flag in the Yang-tze. —
We are taking the Coasting Trade of China, etc^ ..... 129

LETTER XVI.

THE HEALTH OF CHINA.

Where's Chefoo ?— A Watering-Place in China.— Amusements There.— The Amer-
ican and Other Fleets.— The Noisy Salutations of the Fleets.— Church Service
on the Colorado. — The Corean Expedition. — The Race of the Rival American
Barges.— Rain here.— Breakfast by the Russian Admiral. — The English (Urn -
versal) Language. — Entertainments given us by the Russians. — Affinity of
Russians and Americans. — Admiral Rodgers's State Breakfast. — Divine Service
on board the Russian Flag-Ship.— A Busy Week.— The Novel Assemblage at
Chefoo about to disperse, 140



x • CONTENTS.

LETTER XVII.

ON THE PEIHO RIVER.

Tremendous Flood on the Eiver of Peiho. — Whole Villages washed away. — The
People drowned out. — "Widespread Desolation. — Living on the Eiver on a Yankee
Steamer. — The Grand Canal broken loose. — The Crooked Peiho Eiver. — The Way
we wound up the Eiver. — The Year-ago Massacre of Europeans and Catholics in
Tien-tsin. — The then Fright of all Missionaries. — Scare about going there. —
Guns and Gunboats Commercial and Christian Guarantees. — An Exploration of
the Old Under-water Tien-tsin, in a British Launch. — Innumerable Junks. — The
Euins of the Eoman Catholic Cathedral. — The Tombs of the slain Sisters. — Ter-
rors predicted for Tourists to Pekin. — Nevertheless, On, On to Pekin, . 149

LETTEE XVIII.
ON, TO PEKIN.

Arrival at Tung-Chow. — Lodged in a Temple. — Ice in Abundance now. — On to
Pekin that Night. — The Gates of Pekin at Sunset.— The Infernal Eoad to the
Celestial City, in a Mule Cart. — Bump, Thump. — No Getting Out, no Living
In. — The Sights on the Tung-Chow and Pekin "Eoad. — The Wheelbarrow
Gentry. — Caravans. — First Sight of the Bactrian Camel. — The Great Walls of
the City after Sunset. — What John Chinaman thinks of an American-dressed
Woman entering his Capital in an Open Sedan-chair. — Difference of Opinion
as to Pekin and New York Fashions. — Happy Welcome in the Eussian Lega-
tion. — A Cossack Porter opens the Great Gates, ...... 157

LETTEE XIX.

THE JOURNEY TO PEKIN.

How he got to Pekin in a Springless Cart, over a Granite-raved Imperial Eoad,
Thirteen Miles long when first made, and passable, now thirty, or more, from
the Holes in it, and the Crooks to dodge these Holes. — Bones all aching from
Pounding, but Bone-Pounding Good Medicine at Times. — The Fit-Out for the
Eiver Peiho Journey in Sampans. — Hospitality of the Tien-tsiners. — Bad Water.
— Must Liquor or Tea. — Dead Chinamen by millions, and Graves everywhere
bad for Wells. — Catalogue of a Peiho Boat Outfit. — The Terrors of the Eoute all
exaggerated. — The High Water a Help. — Cut across Lots. — The Supplies en
route. — Beggars. — A not Disagreeable Journey. — All Sleeping Unprotected. —
No Eeal Perils. — Coolie Comforts. — Sights on the Eiver. — British Manufactures.
— The Cock keeps Time for the Coolie in the Morning. — Life in a Junk. — Toi-
lettes there. — The Countless Babies here, 164

LETTER XX.

FROM PEKIN.

The Guide-Books of Pekin. — The " Ji-hia-kieu-wen-kau " and the " Chen-yuen-chi-
lio. 11 — Three Cities within Pekin, the Manchu or Tartar, Chinese, and Imperial. —
Shopping in Pekin. — Great Fur Market. — Mongolia, Manchuria, Corea, and Sibe-
ria Sables, Ermine, etc., etc. — Precious Stones. — Jade. — Greek Chapel on the
Grounds of the Eussian Legation. — Life among Chinese Eussians. — Catholic
and Protestant Missionaries in Pekin. — Visit to the Eoman Catholic Cathedral. —
French Priests and Sisters of Charity. — School for Chinese Children. — Money
and the Missionaries. — Conflicts between them. — Foreign and Anti-Foreign
Party in China. — Chinese Efforts to create Prejudice against Christians, . 173



CONTENTS. x i

LETTER XXI.

FROM P E K I N.

Paradise in-doors, Tartarus out. — Pekin Holes, Mud, Dust, Dirt. — No Noses in Pe-
kin. — Sights and Smells. — "Wealthy Chinese. — Sumptuary Laws in China. — Se-
dan-chairs. — Marriages and Funerals. — Women of no Account. — Polygamy. —
"Women's Fashions in Pekin.— Dr. "Williams, the Secretary, Bibliophilist, and
Encyclopaedist. — The Chinese retrograding. — Confucianism losing its In-
fluence. — Christianity. — Roman Catholics, when starting here, teaching the Ma-
terial as well as the Spiritual — Conflict of Christ and Confucius. — The Chinese
Classics, 182

LETTER XXII.

THE TEMPLES IN PEKIN.

The Temples in China.— Confucius and the Lama.— The Lessons of Confucius.— His
Influence in the Government of the Chinese. — The Sages of China.— Tablets to
the Disciples of Confucius. — The Competitive Students. — The Despotism and
Democracy of China. — The Diagrams. — The Yang and the Tin. — Intelligence of
the Chinese. — The Lama Buddhist Temple. — Mongolian Priests. — Contrast of
the Lama and Confucius Temples. — A Chinese Mandarin's House. — Tang was
his Name. — Sensation in the Streets. — The Interior of the Mandarin's House. —
The "Wife and Handmaids. — Description of the "Wife's Dress. — Refreshments. —
Walks on the Roof of the House, 190

LETTER XXIII.

TLTE GOVERNMENT OF CHINA.

The Great "Wall of China.— The Overland Route to St. Petersburg.— Turned back by a
Mohammedan Entente.— Now too late or too early in the Season. — Can tele-
graph from here to New Tork in twelve or sixteen Days. — The Government of
China. — Confucius a sort of Ben Franklin or Thomas Jefferson. — No Hereditary
Aristocracy. — Public Sentiment governs here as in Great Britain and the
United States. — Railroads and Telegraphs resisted by Superstitions, to be
overcome. — China making Great Preparations for "War. — Casting Cannon, etc. —
China retrograding. — Corruption the Cause. — Mandarin Titles bought and
sold. — The Literati Mandarins now dishonest. — The Boy Emperor, fifteen
Tears of Age. — His Future not promising. — The Dowager hunting a "Wife for
him.— The Pekin Gazette, 199

LETTER XXIV.

FROM THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA.

On Top of the Great "Wall of China. — Droves of Sheep, Hogs, Ponies, Donkeys. —
Mongolians and Manchus. — Speech-making on Top of the Great "Wall. — Speech
of J. B. to the Great "Wall.— Tartars, a Species of Tankees, leaping over all
Walls.— Outfit for the Trip from Pekin to the Great Wall.— Brick Tea.— Sheep's-
tail Soup.— Eggs in Abundance.— Mule Litters.— Description of the Craft— The
Muleteers. — Mingling Mire, Mud, and Dust. — Sounding for the Bottom of the
Bogs. — Dodging into Farms and Gardens. — Roads in China are Ditches.— The
Pass of Nan-Kow. — First Night's Experience in a Mongolian Inn. — A Brick
Oven to sleep on. — Journey to the Wall over a Rough and Terrible Road. — A
Series of Walls.— A Lunch amid Ruins of the Wall.— The Comfort of a Cup of
Cold Water, 208



xii CONTENTS.



LETTER XXV,

RETURN TO PEKIN.

The Ming Tomba. — The Grand Approach to them. — All going to ruin. — The Summer
Palace of the Emperors. — " Yueng-Ming-Yuen-Ching," the man-of-all-work. —
Letters of Credit no Service in Pekin.— No Coin or Currency in China. — Sycee. —
The Xorth of China. — The Emperor gives Audience at 5 a. m. — The Marble Bridge
and the Lotus. — The Temple of Heaven.— The Temple of Earth.— The Sacrifices
in these Temples by the Emperor, 220

LETTER XXYI.

RETURNING SOUTHWARD.

A Traveller retracing his Steps. — Tung Chow, on the Peiho River.— The Wheel-
barrow Traffic. — Death to the Coolies. — Processions en route. — Of Funerals
and Weddings. — A Good Story told of Gov. Seward. — Mistaking a Funeral Pro-
cession for an Ovation to Himself. — Expense of Travelling as a Grandee. — A Tem-
ple for a Hotel. — Running the Gauntlet of the Junks to Tien-tsin. — The Noisy
Monosyllables of the Chinese. — Huge Pyramids of Salt. — Home, Sweet Home. —
The Szechuen. — Under a Yankee Captain from Maine. — The Grapes of the
Peiho. — The Rolling Screw Steamers of the Yellow Sea. — Rivalry of British and
American Steamers. — Chinese Customs collected by Foreigners. — The American
Flag driven off. — Manufactures driven off, 286

LETTER XXVII.

THINGS IN SHANGHAI.

Shanghai. — Its Enterprises and Surroundings.— The Hot Sun of Shanghai. — Turning
White Men Yellow. — The City Government of Shanghai. — Eastern Hours for
Breakfast and Dinner. — The Great Commerce of Shanghai. — Much of it passing
into Chinese Hands. — Tea Trade. — Tea-Tasters. — Telegraphs to, and from Shang-
hai. — Tea Steamers up the Yang-tze. — Foreign Schemes to dodge the Fung
Shuey. — Hostility to Electricity. — The Telegraphs from Shanghai ria Nagasaki
and Yladivastock, in Russia, 247

LETTER XXVUI.

FROM THE ENGLISH COLONY OF HONG KONG.

How Screw-Steamers roll. — Cabins, Hot, Hotter, Hottest. — Chow Chow excellent. —
Sleep in a Stew Prison. — The Great English (P. & O.) and French Lines of Steam-
ers in the East.— Hong Kong. — Typhoons here. — The City the Refuge of the
Refuse Chinese. — Curious Intermixture of Population. — The Coolie Emigration
here. — The Dialects of China. — Pidgen English. — Chinese Kitchens and Cooks,
etc., etc., 255

LETTER XXIX.

THINGS IN CANTON.

What Canton is. — Its People, Streets, Sewers, etc., etc. — The Temples of Canton. —
Sacred Hogs, Confucius and the Stalls. — Caging Students ambitious to be Man-
darins.— Do Chinamen eat Cats, Dogs, and Rats ? — The Manufactories of Can-



C0XTEXT8. xiii

ton. — The Silk Gauzes. — An Improvised Breakfast on a Pagoda. — No Beasts of
Burthen in the City. — All Coolie Work. — A Sabbath in Canton. — Boat Life
there. — Ducks and their Owners. — Gates and Police. — No Going Out Nights. —
No Courting-.— No Clubs 265



»e •



LETTER XXX.

THOUGHTS ON THE CHINA SEAS.

The Imitative Powers of the Chinese.— Their Love of Money. — Population of China
over-estimated. — Pisciculture in Canton. — Chinese Dialects. — War Talk. —Super-
stitions of the Ignorant.— Singapore. — The Malay Divers. — Foreign Commerce.
— The Census. — The Jungle. — Agriculture, etc., etc., .... 276

LETTER XXXI.

FROM CEYLON AND THE BAT OF BENGAL.

England, Continuous England. — The Steamer Congregation in Ceylon. — A Grand Ori-
ental Hotel. — Buddhism born here. — Sapphires, Rubies, and Pearls. — The Cinga-
lese great Cheats. — A Monkey Story. — Curious Boats and Boatmen in Galle. —
Men here mistaken for Women, and vice versa. — Madras, and Things there. —
The Latin Races here crowded off by the Anglo-Saxon. — Englishmen here patron-
ize the Shastra and the Yeda, as -well as the Bible. — Their Race kept distinct. — A
Handful of Englishmen governing a World. — Juggling in Madras. — Golcondaand
Juggernaut. — Cyclones and the Church at Sea. — Hymns, etc. . . . 233

LETTER XXXII.

BRITISH INDIA.

England Forever and Ever— 200,000,000 British Subjects— Standing Army of 320,000
Soldiers. — Vast Imports and Exports. — East Indians. — Monkeys or Men. — Trade
and Commerce of India. — The Holy Ganges. — English Water- Works on it. —
Calcutta no longer the " Black Hole" — Hot, not Unhealthy. — The Punkah Fan
the Great Institution of India. — The Punkah Everywhere — Tudor and His Ice
the Great Things of the East. — The Hancocks, the Websters, Nothing. — The
Tudor Every Thing. — Wenham Something. — Boston Nothing. — The Hoogley
River and the Cyclones. — Enchanting Approach to Calcutta. — The King of
Oude. — A Seventeen Days 1 Hindoo Holiday in Calcutta. — Polygamy and Poly-
andry. — Hindooism, Buddhism, Brahminism and Mohammedanism. — The 320,-
000 Standing Army Government of India not a Bad One, .... 202

LETTER XXXIII.

THINGS AND THOUGHTS IN CALCUTTA.

The Impudent Crows of Calcutta. — How they chatter. — A Drove of Elephants em-
barking for War.— The " Central Park " and " Hyde Park " of Calcutta— Funny
Liveries. — The Trade of the Metropolis of India. — Exports, Cutch, Coir, Jute,
Indigo, and so on. — The Cocoa-nut Tree. — American Trade. — Assam Tea. — The
Opium Trade, a Government Monopoly. — The Flocks of Servants in Calcutta. —
No Women Servants. — All Men. — Men as Washerwomen. — The Woman invisi-
ble. — English Women going to India. — The Chit and the Coolie. — The Ladies 1
Chit. — Charming Social Life in Calcutta, 303



xiv CONTENTS.



LETTER XXXIV.

THE RUN ACROSS INDIA.

Things in India. — Eail from Calcutta to Bombay. — The Raging Sui of India. — The
Parsees of Bombay. — Fire Worshippers. — Sunday Evening's Work in Cal-
cutta. — India Railroad Cars. — How they are cooled, and hoAV they are convert-
ing the Pagans. — The Telegraphs of India. — Journalism in India. — Coal in
India. — The Way Coolies work. — Indian Muslins and Cashmere Shawls. — The
Plains of the Ganges. — The Pagan Temples of India.— Hindoos more intelligent
than Mohammedans. — Allahabad. — Jubbalpore. — The Passage of the Ghauts. —
Entrance into Bombay, 314

LETTER XXXT.
SIGIITS IN AND ABOUT BOMBAY.

Bombay. — What it is as a City. — Calcutta the Court ; Bombay the Mart. — New In-
fluences of the Suez Canal. — The Treasures of India here. — Cashmere Shawls. —
The Bombay Fashionables on a Drive. — The Parsees. — The way they don't bury
their Dead. — India Gods. — Where manufactured. — The Temples of India. — The
Wonderful " Elephanta." — Dining Out in the East. — The Route to Persia and
Aden. — The Census and Exports of Bombay. — Extent of Railroads in India. —
Sound Banks and a good Currency, 329

LETTER XXXVI.

ON THE ARABIAN AND RED SEAS.

Lascars, Africans, Chinese, Portuguese, and Englishmen, managing a Steamer. —
The Infernal Sun of India. — The Reservoir of Surplus Englishmen. — How India
exhausts European Life. — The British Soldier's Luxurious Life in Peace. — The
Native Troops of India. — The Grip of England upon India. — Effect of Christian-
ity upon Hindoos and Mohammedans. — The Hindoo Pantheon and 333,000,000
Gods. — The Brahmin Castes. — Bankers below Barbers. — Arabs and their Ocean
Craft. — Railroad from London to Bombay. — Time, Five Days. — England encore,
toujours, forever and ever. — The Red-Hot Red Sea. — This Unfinished Part of
the Earth. — Aden the Fag End of Creation. — The Divers of Aden. — Strings
of Camels Led by their Noses. — The Proper Time to Travel in the East. — Fares



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