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THE



HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE



BY

JAMES BRYCE, D.C.L.



\ FELLOW OF ORIEL COLLEGE AND REGIUS PROFESSOR OF CIVIL LAW

i IN THE UNIVERSITY AT OXFORD.

- M.P. FOR ABERDEEN



NEW YORK

LOVELL, CORYELL & COMPANY

310-318 SIXTH AVENUE



PEEFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION

n^ & o_

The object of this treatise is not so miicli to g-ive a
narrative history of the countries included in the Ro-
mano-Germanic Emi3ire — Italy during- the middle ages,
Germany from the ninth century to the nineteenth — as
to describe the Holy Empire itself as an institution or
system, the wonderful offsiDring- of a body of beliefs and
traditions which have almost wholly jDassed away from
the world. Such a description, however, would not be in-
tellig-ible without some account of the g-reat events which
accompanied the growth and decay of Imioerial poAver ;
and it has therefore appeared best to give the book the
form rather of a narrative than of a dissertation ; and to
combine with an exposition of what may be called the
theory of the Empire an outline of the political history
of Germany, as well as some notices of the affairs of
mediaeval Italy. To make the succession of events
clearer, a Chronological list of Emperors and Popes
has been prefixed.

The g-reat events of 1866 and 1870 reflect back so much
light upon the previous history of Germanj^, and so
much need, in order to be properly understood, to be
viewed in their relation to the character and influence of
the old Empire that, although they do not fall within
the original limits of this treatise, some remarks upon
them, and the causes which led to them, will not be out
of place in it, and will perhaps add to whatever interest
or value it may possess. As the Author found that to
introduce these remarks into the body of the work
would oblige him to take to pieces and rewrite the last
three chapters, a task he had no time for, he has pre-
ferred to throw them into a new supplementary chapter,
which accordingly contains a brief sketch of the rise of
Prussia, of the state of Germany under the Confederation



G PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION'.

wliicli expired in 1866, and of the steps wliereby the
German nation has regained its political unity in the
new Empire.

The book has been revised throug-hont, and some ad-
ditions made to it, for most of which the Author has to
express his thanks to his learned German translator, Dr.
Arthur AVinckler, of Brunswick. He also desires to ac-
knoAvledge the benefit which he derived, in preparing
the last chapter, from the suggestions of his friend Mr.
A. W. Ward, Professor of History in Owens College,
Manchester, whose eminence as a historian is too well
known to need any tribute from him.

Lincoln's Inn, London,
June 28, 1873.

Note to tlie EightJi Edition.

This Edition has been revised, and a number of cor-
rections made, for most of which the Author is indebted
to the learning of his friend the Italian translator of the
l30ok. Count Ugo Balzani, himself a distinguished au-
thority on Italian history.

December 23, 1886.



OONTElNrTS.



CHAPTER I. PAGB

Introductory, 23

CHAPTER II.

The Roman Empire before the Invasions op the Barba-
rians, 25

CHAPTER III.
The Barbarian Invasions, 31

CHAPTER IV.
Restoration of the Western Empire, 47

CHAPTER V.
Empire and Policy of Charles, 59

CHAPTER VI.
Carollngian and Italian Emperors, 78

CHAPTER VII.
Theory of the Medleval Empire, 87

CHAPTER Vm.
The Roman Empire and the German Kingdom, . . .113



8 CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IX. PAGE

Saxon and Franconian Emperors, 120

CHAPTER X.
Struggle op the Ejtpire and the Papacy, .... 135

CHAPTER XI.
The Emperors in Italy : Frederick Barbarossa, . , 146

CHAPTER Xn.
Imperial Titles and Pretensions, 157

CHAPTER XIII.
Fall of the Hohenstaufen, , . 174

CHAPTER XIV.
The Germanic Constitution— The Seven Electors, . . 187

CHAPTER XV.
The Empire as an International Power, .... 200

CHAPTER XVI.
The City of Rome in the Middle Ages, .... 225

CHAPTER XVII.

The Renaissance: Change in the Character of the Em-
pire 250

CHAPTER XVIII.
The Ebformation and its Effects upon the Empire, . 263



CONTENTS, 9

CHAPTER XIX. PAGE

The Peace op Westphalia: Last Stage in the Decline
OP the Empire, 277

CHAPTER XX.
Fall op the Empire, 291

CHAPTER XXL
Conclusion : General Summary, 299

SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER.
The New German Empire, S23

APPENDIX, 361



DATES OP

SEYEEAL IMPOETAH"T EYEK"TS

IN THE HISTOEY OF THE ElMPIEE.



B.C.

Battle of Pharsalia , 48

Battle of Actium 31

A.D.

Council of Nicaea 325

End of the separate Western Empire 476

Revolt of the Italians from the Iconoclastic Emperors 728

Coronation of Charles the Great 800

End of the Carolingian Empire 888

Coronation of Otto the Great 962

Final Union of Italy to the Empire 1014

Quarrel between Henry IV. and Gregory VII 1076

The First Crusade 1096

Battle of Legnano 1176

Death of Frederick II 1250

League of the three Forest Cantons of Switzerland 1308

Career of Rienzi 1347-1353

The Golden Bull 1356

Council of Constance ■. 1415

Extinction of the Eastern Empire 1453

Discovery of America 1492

Luther at the Diet of Worms 1521

Beginning of the Thirty Years' War 1618

Peace of Westphalia 1648

Prussia recognized as a Kingdom 1701



«



12- DATES OF IMPORTANT EVENTS.

A,D.

End of the House of Hapsburg 1743

Seven Years' War 1756-1763

Peace of Luneville 1801

Abdication of Francis II 1806

Formation of the German Confederation 1815

Establishment of the North German Confederation 1866

Establishment of the new German Empire Jan. 18, 1871



CHEONOLOGICAL TABLE



OP



EMPEEOES AND POPES.



Year of

Accession.


Bishops of Rome.


Emperors.


Year of

Accession.


A.D.






B.C.






Augustus.


27

A.D.






Tiberius.


14






Caligula.


37






Claudius.


41


42


St^ Peter (according to
Jerome).











Nero.


54


67


Linus (according to Ire-
nseus, Eusebius, Je-
rome).






68


Clement (according to


Galba, Otho, Vitellius,






TertuUian and Rufi-


Vespasian.


68




nus).






78


Anacletus (?).










Titus.


79






Domitian.


81


91


Clement (according to
some later writers).






*




Nerva.


96






Trajan.


98


100


Evarestus (?).






109


Alexander (?).










Hadrian.


117


119


Sixtus I.






129


Telesphorus.










Antonnius Pius.


138


139


Hyginus.






143


PiusL






157


Anicetus.










Marcus Aurelius.


161


168


Soter.






177


Eleutherius.










Commodus.


180






Pertinax,


193



14



CnnONOLOGIOAL TABLE OF



Year of
Accession.



A.D.



193

202



219

223
230
235
336



251
252
253

257
259



269

275

283



296

304



308



310
311
314



Bishops of Rome.



Victor (?).
Zephyrinus (?).



Calixtus I.

Urban I.
Pontianus,
Anterius or Anteros.
Fabianus.



Cornelius.
Lucius I.
Stephen I.

Sixtus n.
Dionysius.



Felix.
EutychianuB.

Caius.



Marcellinus.
Vacancy.



Marcellus I.



Eusebius.
Melchiades.
Sylvester I.



Emperors.



Didius Julianus.

Niger.

Septimius Severus.

Caracalla, Geta.
Opilius Macrinus, Dia-

dumenian.
Elagabalus.

Alexander Severus.



Maximin.

The two Gordians, Maxi-
mus Fupienus, Bal-
binus.

The third Gordian.

Philip.

Decius.

Hostilian, Gallus.

Volusian.

^milian, Valerian, Gal-
lienus.



Gallienus alone.
Claudius II.

Aurclian.

Tacitus.

Florian.

Probus,

Carus.

Carinas, Numerian.
Diocletian.

M a X i m i a n, associated
with Diocletian.



Constantius, Galerius.

Severus.

Constantine (the Great).

Licinius.

Maximin.

Constantino, Galerius,
Licinius, Maximin,
Maxentius, and Max-
imian reigning jointly.



Constantino (the Great)
alone.



Year of
Accession.



A.D.

193
193
193

211

217
218

222



235



237

OOfi



244
249
251
253

253



260
268

270
275

276
276

282

284

284

286



305
306
300
307
308



309



323



EMPERORS AND POPES.



15



Year of
Accession.


Bishops of Rome.


Emperors.


Year of
Accession.


A.D.






A.D.


336


Marcus I.






337


Julius I,


Constantine II., Con-








stantius II. , Constans.


337






Magnentius.




353


Liberius.










Constantius alone.


353


856


Felix (Anti-pope).










Julian.


361






Jovian.


363






Valens and Valentinianl.


364


366


Damasus I.


Gratian and Valentin-








ian I.


367






Gratian and Valentin-








ian II.


375






Theodosius.


379


384


Siricius.


Arcadius (in the East),
Honorius (in the








West).


395


398


Anastasius I.






402


Innocent I.










Theodosius II. (E.).


408


417


Zosimus.






418


Boniface I.






418


Eulalius (Anti-pope).






423


Celestine I.










Valentinian III. (W.).


424


433


Sixtus Til.






440


Leo I. (the Great).










Marcian (E.).


450






Maximus, Avitus (W.).


455






Majorian (W.).


455






Leo I. (E. )


457


461


Hilarius.


Severus (W. ).


461






Vacancy (W.).


465






Anthemius (W.).


467


468


Simplicius.










Olybrius (W.).


472






Glycerins (W.).


473






Julius Nepos (W.).


474






Leo II., Zeno, Basiliscus








(allE.).


474






Romulus Augustulus








(W.).


475






(End of the Western line








in Romulus Augustus


476)






{Eenceforth, till a.d.800,








Emperors reigning at








Constantinople. )




483


Felix III*










Anastasius I.


491


,


* Reckoning the Anti-pope


Felix (A.D. 356) as Felix II.





16



OHRONOLOOICAL TABLE OF



Year of
Accession.


Bishops of Rome.


Emperors.


Year of
Accession.


A.D.






A.D.


492


Gelasius I.






496


Anastasius II.






498


Symmachus.






498


(Laiirentius, Anti-pope).






514


Hormisdas.










Justin I.


518


523


John I.






526


Felix IV.










Justinian.


527


530


Boniface II.






580


(Dioscorus, Anti-pope).






532


John II.






535


Agapetus I.






536


Silverius.






537


Vigilius.






555


Pelagins I.






560


John III.










Justin n.


565


574


Benedict I.






578


Pelagius II.


Tiberius II.


578






Maurice.


582


590


Gregory I. {the Great)










Phocas.


602


604


Sabinianus.






607


Boniface III.






607


Boniface IV,










Heraclius.


610


615


Deus dedit.






618


Boniface V.







EMPERORS AND POPES.



17



Year of
Accession.



A.D.

625

638
640



643
649
654
657



672
676

678
682
683 (?)
685
685 C?)
687
687
687



Popes.



701

705
708
708



715



731

741

752
752

757
767

768

772



795



816
817

824
827
827



Honorius I.
Severinus.
John IV.



Theodorus I.
Martin I.
Eugenius I.
Vitalianus.



Adeodatus.

Domnus or Donus I.

Agatho.

Leo II.

Benedict II.

John V.

Conon.

Sergius I.

(Paschal, Anti-pope),

(Theodorus, Anti-pope).



John VI.
John VII.
Sisinnius.
Constantino.



Emperors.



Greg



ory n.



Gregory III.
Zacharias.

Stephen (II.).
Stephen 11. (or III.).
Paul I.

(Constantino, Anti-pope),
Stephen in. (IV.).
Hadrian I.



Leo ni.



Stephen IV.
Paschal I.
Eugenius II.
Valentinus.
Gregory IV.



Year of
Accession.



Constantine III., Hera-
cleonas, Constans IL



Constantine IV. (Pogo-
natus).



Justinian II.



Leontius.
Tiberius III.



Justinian IL restored.



Philippicus Bardanes.
Anastasius II.

Theodosius III.

Leo III. (the Isaurian).

Constantine V. (Cop-
ronymus).



Leo IV.

Constantine VI,

Deposition of Constan-
tine VI. by Irene.

Charles I. (the Great).

{Following henceforth
the new Western line.)

Lewis I. (the Pious).



A.D,



641



668



685



694
697

705



711
713

716

718



741



775
780



797

800



814



18



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF



Year of
Accession.


Popes.


Emperors.


Year of
Accession.


A.D.






A.D.






Lothar I.


840


844


Sergius II.






847


Leo IV.






855


Benedict III.


Lewis II. (in Italy).


855


855


(Anastasius, Anti-pope).






858


Nicholas I.






867


Hadrian II.






872


John VIII.


Charles II., the Bald (W.








Frankish).


875






Charles III, the Fat (E.








Frankish).


881


882


Martin II.






884


Hadrian III.






885


Stephen V.






891


Formosus.


Guido (in Italj').


891






Lambert (in Italy).


894


896


Boniface VI.


Arnulf (E. Frankish).


896


896


Stephen VI.






897


Roman us.






897


Theodore II.






898


John IX.










Leiuis {the Chilcl).^


899


900


Benedict IV.


Lewis III. of Provence








(in Italy).


901


903


Leo V.






903


Christopher.






904


Sergius III.






911


Anastasius III.


Conrad L


911 (?)


913


Lando.






914


John X.










Berengar (in Italy).


915






Henry L {the Fowler').


918


928


Leo VI.






929


Stephen VIL






931


John XI.






936


Leo VII.


Otto L {the Great),
crowned E. Frankish








king at Aachen.


936


939


Stephen VIIL






941


Martin III






946


Agapetus 11.






955


John XII.


Otto I., crowned Em-








peror at Rome.


962


963


Leo VIIL






964


(Benedict V. , Anti-
pope V).






965


John XI n.






972


Benedict VI.










Otto IL


973


* The ni


imes in italics are those of Ger


man kings who never made ac


y claim to


the imperi


al' title.







EMPERORS AND POPES,



19



Year of
Accession.


Popes.


Emperors.


Year of

Accession.


A.D.






A.D.


974


(Boniface VII., Anti-
pope ?).






974


Domnus II. (?).






974


Benedict VII.






983


John XIV.


Otto III.


983


985


John XV.






996


Gregory V.


~




996


(John XVI , Anti-pope V).






999


Sylvester II.










Henry II. (the Saint).


1002


1003


John XVII.






1003


John XVIII.






1009


Sergius IV






1012


Benedict VIII.






1024


John XIX.


Conrad II. (the Salic).


1024


1033


Benedict IX.










Henry III. (the Black).


1039


1044


(Sylvester, Anti-pope).






1045


Gregory VI.






1046


Clement II.


^




1048


Damasus II.






1048


Leo IX.






1054


Victor n.










Henry IV.


1056


1057


Stephen IX.






1058


Benedict X.






1059


Nicholas II.






1061


Alexander II.






1073


Gregory VII. (HUde-
brand).


(Rudolf of Swabia,








rival. )


1077


1080


(Clement, Anti-pope).


(Hermann of Luxem-








burg, rival.)


1081


1086


Victor III.






1087


Urban II.


(Conrad of Frauconia,








rival. )


1093


1099


Paschal II.






1102


(Albert, Anti-pope).






1105


(Sylvester, Anti-pope).










Henry V.


1106


1118


Gelasius II.






1118


(Gregory, Anti-pope).






1119


Calixtus II.






1121


(Celestine. Anti-pope).






1124


Honorius II.










Lothar II.


1125


1130


Innocent II.
(Anacletus, Anti-pope).






1138


(Victor, Anti-pope).


* Conrad IIL


1138


♦Th


ose marked with an asterisk we


re never actually crowned at R


ome.



20



CHROXOLOGICAL TABLE OF



Year of
Accession.


Popes.


Emperors.


Year of
Accession.


A.D.






A.D.


1143


Celestine II.






1144


Lucius 11.






1145


Eugenius III.


Frederick I. (Barba-








rossa).


1152


1153


Anastasius IV.






1154


Hadrian IV.






1159


Alexander III.






1159


(Victor, Anti-pope).




/


1104


(Paschal, Anti-pope).






1168


(Calixtus, Anti-pope).






1181


Lucius III.




%


1185


Urban III.






1187


Gregory VIIL







1187


Clement IIL










Henry VL


1190


1191


Celestine IIL


*Philip, Otto IV.








(rivals).


1197


1198


Innocent III.










Otto IV.


1208






Frederick II.


1212


1216


Honorius III.






1227


Gregory IX.






1241


Celestine IV






1241


Vacancy.






1243


Innocent IV.










(Henry Raspe, rival.)


1246






(William of Holland,








rival.)


1246-7






* Conrad IV.


1250


1254


Alexander IV.


Litrrregnum.
* Richard (earl of Corn-
wall), * Alfonso (king


1254






of Castile) (rivals).


1257


1261


Urban IV.






1265


Clement IV.






1269


Vacancy.






1271


Gregory X.


* Rudolf L (of Haps-








burg).


1278


1276


Innocent V.






1276


Hadrian V.






1277


John XX. or XXL






1277


Nicholas III.






1281


Martin IV.






1285


Honorius IV.






1289


Nicholas IV.






1292


Vacancy.


* Adolf (of Nassau).


1292


12f>4


Celestine V.






1294


Boniface VIIL


* Albert L (of Haps-








burg).


1298


*Th


ose marked with an asterisk w(


;re never actually crowned at I


Lome.



EMPERORS AND POPES.



21



Year of
Accession.


Popes.


Emperors.


Year of
Accession.


A.D.






A.D.


1303


Benedict XI.






1305


Clement V.


Henry VII. (of Luxem-








burg).


1308


1314


Vacancy.


Lewis IV. (of Bavaria).
(Frederick of Austria,








rival. )


1314


1316


John XXI. or XXII.






ias4


Benedict XII.






1342


Clement VI.


Charles IV. (of Lux-
e m b u r g). (Giinther .
of Schwartzburg,








rival).


1347


1352


Innocent VI.






1362


Urban V.






1370


Gregory XI.






1878


Urban VI. (Clement


* Wenzel (of Luxem-






VII., Anti-pope.)


burg).


1378


1389


Boniface IX.






1394


(Benedict, Anti-pope).


* Rupert (of the Palat-








inate).


1400


1404


Innocent YW.






1406


Gregory XII.






1409


Alexander V,






1410


John XXII. or XXIII.


Sigismund (of Luxem-
burg). (Jobst of Mo-








ravia, rival.)


1410


1417


Martin V.






1431


Eugene IV.


* Albert II. (of Haps-








burg).t


1438


1439


(Felix v., Anti-pope).










Frederick HI.


1440


1447


Nicholas V.






1455


Calixtus IV.






1458


Pius II.


-




1464


Paul II.






1471


Sixtus IV.






1484


Innocent VIII.






1493


Alexander VI.


* Maximilian I.


1493


1503


Pius III.






1503


Julius IL






1513


LeoX.










X Charles V.


1.519


1522


Hadrian VI.






1523


Clement VII.






1534


Paul III.






1550


Julius III.






* Those


marked with an asterisk were r


lever actually crowned at Rome




t All the


'. succeeding Emperors, except (


Jharles VII. and Francis I., bel


ong to the


house of £


apsburg.






X Crown


ed Emperor, but at Bologna, n


3t at Rome.





22



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE,



Year of
Accession.


Popes.


A.D.
1555
1555


Mar cell us IL
Paul IV.


1559


Pius IV.


1566
1573


Pius V.
Gregory XIII.


1585
1590
1590
1591
1593
1604
1604


Sixtus V.
Urban VII.
Gregory XIV.
Innocent IX.
Clement VIII.
Leo XI.
Paul V.


1631
1633


Gregory XV.
Urban VIII.


1644
1655


Innocent X.
Alexander VII.


1667
1670
1676
1689
1691
1700


Clement IX.
Clement X.
Innocent XI.
Alexander VIII.
Innocent XII.
Clement XI.


1720
1734
1730
1740


Innocent XIII.
Benedict XIII.
Clement XII.
Benedict XIV.


1758


Clement XIII.


1769


niPTTiPnt, \'TV



1775



1800



1823
1839
1831
1846



Pius VI.



Pius VII.



Leo XII.
Pius VIII.
Gregory XVI.
Pius IX.



Emperors.



* Ferdinand I.

* Maximilian II.

* Rudolf II.



* Matthias.

* Ferdinand II.



* Ferdinand III.

* Leopold I.



* Joseph I.

* Charles VI.



* Charles VIL (of Ba-
varia).

* Francis I. (of Lor-
raine).



* Joseph II.



* Leopold II.

* Francis II.

Abdication of Francis
II.



Year of
Accession.



A.D.

1558
1564

1576



1613
1619



1637



1658



1705
1711



1743
1745
1765



1790
1793



1806



* Those marked with an asterisk were never actually crowned at Rome.



THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE.



CHAPTEK I.

INTEODUCTORY.



Of those who in August, 1806, read in the English
newspapers that the Emperor Francis II. had an-
nounced to the Diet his resignation of the imxoerial
crown, there were probably few who reflected that the
oldest political institution in the world had come to
an end. Yet it was so. The Empire which a note is-
sued by a diplomatist on the banks of the Danube ex-
tinguished, was the same Avhich the crafty nephew of
Julius had won for himself, against the powers of the
East, beneath the cliffs of Actium ; and which had pre-
served almost unaltered, through eighteen centuries of
time, and througli the greatest changes in extent, in
power, in character, a title and pretensions from which
all meaning had long since departed. Nothing else so
directly linked the old Avorld to the new— nothing else
displayed so many strange contrasts of the i:)resent and
the i3ast, and summed ui> in those contrasts so much of
European history. From the days of Constantine till
far doAvn into the middle ages it was, conjointly with
the PaiDacy, the recognized centre and head of Christen-
dom, exercising over the minds of men an influence such
as its material strength could never have commanded.
It is of this influence and of the causes that gave it
power rather than of the external history of the Empire
that the following images are designed to treat. That
history is, indeed, full of interest and brilliancy, of
grand characters and striking situations. But it is a
subject too vast for any single canvas. Without a ml-



24 THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE.

nuteness of detail sufficient to make its scenes dramatic
and give us a lively sympathy with the actors, a narra-
tive history can have little value and still less charm.
But to trace with an}^ minuteness the career of the Em-
pire Avould be to write the history of Christendom from
the fifth century to the twelfth, of Germany and Italy
from the twelfth to the nineteenth ; while even a narra-
tive of more restricted scope, which should attempt to
disengage from a general account of the affairs of those
countries the events that i^roperly belong" to imperial
history, could hardly be compressed within reasonable
limits. It is therefore better, declining so great a task,
to attemi^t one simi:)ler and more practicable, though
not necessarily inferior in interest; to speak less of
events than of principles, and endeavor to describe the
Empire not as a State but as an Institution, an institu-
tion created by and embodying* a wonderful system of
ideas. In pursuance of such a plan, the forms which
the Emi:)ire took in the several stages of its growth and
decline must be briefly sketched. The characters and
acts of the great men who founded, guided, and over-
threw it must from time to time be touched upon. But
the chief aim of the treatise will be to dwell more fully
on the inner nature of the Empire, as the most signal
instance of the fusion of Boman and Teutonic elements
in modern civilization : to show how such a combination
was possible ; how Charles and Otto were led to revive
the imi^erial title in the West ; how far during the reigns
of their successors it preserved the memory of its origin,
and influenced the European commonwealth of nations.

Strictly speaking, it is from the year 800 a.d., Avhen a
King of the Franks was crowned Emperor of the Bomans
by Pope Leo III. that the beginning of the Holy Bo-
man Empire must be dated. But in history there is
nothing isolated, and just as to explain a modern Act of
Parliament or a modern conveyance of lands we must go
back to the feudal customs of the tliirteenth century, so
among the institutions of the Middle Ages there is
scarcely one which can be understood until it is traced
up either to classical or to primitive Teutonic antiquity.
Such a mode of incpiiry is most of all needful in the case
of the Holy Empire, itself no more than a tradition, a
fancied revival of departed glories. And thus, in order
to make it clear out of what elements the imperial sys-



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