James Cooke Mills.

History of Saginaw County, Michigan; historical, commercial, biographical online

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Assembling "American" Cash Registers 523

Old Employees of Wickes Brothers in Front of Shop, about 1873 525

Erecting a "Wickes" Gang Saw ?2<>

Punch Erection Floor 527

The Modern Plant of Wickes Brothers 528

Group of Workmen in Wickes Brothers Iron Works, 1914 ?2 C )

Present Plant of Wickes Boiler Company ( -,.

The Wickes Water Tube Boiler \ 5>il

Type of Fire Tube Boiler 532

The Pioneer Iron Works of A. F. Bartlett & Company 533

Group of Mechanics and Moulders at the Bartlett Plant, 1879 534

Pit Eathe in Bartlett Plant Finishing off "Deck" for Saginaw Plate Glass

Company 535

The New Modern Plant of the Jackson & Church Company 537

Machine Shop of Jackson & Church Company 538

Original Shops of the lackson-Church-Wilcox Company, and New

Modern Plant Completed in 1917 539

View in Jackson-Church-Wilcox Plant 540

The "Jacox" Steering Gear 541

Plant of Mitts & Merrill, a Business Established in 1854 543

Foundry and Group of Moulders at the Valley Grey Iron Foundry

( '< impany 546

.Machine Shops of the National Engineering- Company 548

Grinding (rank Shafts, National Engineering Company 549

i [ermann Werner 5ol

Machine Shops of Werner & Pfleiderer 552

'I he New Foundry and Pattern Shop, Werner & Pfleiderer Company. . . 553

r of New Foundry of Werner ec Pfleiderer Company 554

I ni . ersal Kneading and Mixing Machines 555

Machinery and ( ivens Used in Baking and Macaroni Industries 556

Emil Staehle 5?7

New Foundry of S. Fair & Sun. Ine 559

Electric Furnace at S. Fair e< Son, Ine 560

The Mammoth Plant of the Saginaw Plate Glass Company 562 and 563

< Iriginal Plant of the United States Graphite Company 564

Mexican Miners and 1 Inge Piles of Graphite Ore 565

Present Plant (if United States Graphite Company 566

1 'lant of William I 'i ilsi >n & C impany

John Herzog 569

Mammoth Plant of the Herzog Art Furniture Company 570

Making "Sonora" Phonograph Cabinets at Herzog Art Furniture

( ',< impany . . 573

Plant of William I'.. Mershon ,\: t ompany 574 and 575

Edward C. Mershon 576

New Standard 60-inch Band Resaw 577

Plant and Lumber Yards of Germain Manufacturing Company 579

'Jdie East Side Business (/enter from the Top of Bean Elevator 581

Plant of Saginaw Show Case Company . - 582

The Saginaw Mirror Works . . 583

Flouring Mill and Elevators of Brand & Hardin Milling Company. 585

Putter Making at Saginaw Creamery Company 586

Clare H. Parker 5S7

Koehler Brothers Iron Works 589

Where Wolverine Gloves are Made 590

Bean Elevator with Illuminated Waxing Flag 591

Modern Printing Plant of Valley Printing Company 5'*2

Printing, Binding - . Engraving and ( Iffice < )utfitting Establishment of

Seemann & I 'eters 5'>5

Making Feather 1 lusters at Blind Institution 598

Blind ( '< ibblers Making Sin ies fi ir Inmates i if Blind Instituti' ni 599

Blind < iirl at Tapestry Li ■< >m 600

Washington Street, Looking North from Genesee Street, about 1860. ... 602

( fid-Time Advertisements of Saginaw Business Men 605

West Side Business Section. Looking South from Court House, about

1886 608

Washington Street. South from Tuscola, 1887 611

Franklin Street, South from Tuscola, 1887 611

The Saginaw Naval Reserves, on Eve of Departure for the Atlantic Coast,

April, 1917 613

The Xew Hotel Bancroft, ( Ipened in July. 1916 614

Attractive Lobby of Hotel Bancroft 615


Magnificent Ball Room of Hotel Bancroft I ,,-

Cafe of Hotel Bancroft, Elegantly Appointed \

The South Side Business Center at Washington and Center Avenues. ... 620

"Little Jake" Seligman 623

The Bearinger Building, Erected in 1892 626

i harles B. Mott | 6?g

< lharles L. Ortman \

Wholesale Grocer} House of Symons Brothers & Company 632

The Wholesale Establishment of George A. Alderton & Company 635

The Modern Structure of Lee & Cady, Saginaw Branch 636

The Extensive Wholesale House of Melze, Alderton Shoe Company.... 639

Lewis Cornwell '41

William C. Cornwell, Charles E. Cornwell, Elmer J. Cornwell and L. VV.

Cornwell Ml

The Xew Plant of the Cornwell Company 642

Saginaw Hardware Companj 643

The Mammoth Establishment of Morley Brothers 644

Silverware and Art Section, Morley Brothers 646

1 [ardware and China Section. Morley Brothers 647

George l\ Lewis 64

Perry Joslin 650

Fac-Simile of Notice of Meeting to Support the Daily Courier, 1868 Ml

E. I). Cowles, in 1874 ". 652

The Home of the Saginaw Courier-] terald 653

Batter) of Six Linotype Typesi tting Machines 654

The J lor High-Speed Press 655

The Certificate of Membership in the Assi iciated I 'res- 656

The New 1 lomc of the Saginaw Daily News 658

Composing R n — Battery of Linotypes — Four-Deck Goss High-Speed

Press 659

Newsboys' Room — Managing Editor's ( iffice — Business < Thee — Edi-
torial Department — Library and Conference Room 661

1 'rinting I 'lanl of the Saginaw I Yess 663

Alfred M. Hoyt ' 665

Si in ie i >ld-Time Postmasters of the Saginaws 666

James A. Hudson, William Moll, Levi P.. Kinsey, George G. Hess, I - V Gotee,

Charles P Hess, George Lockley, Dr. .1. S. Rouse, M V. Meredi

The Federal Building at Saginaw ' 669

Sam ( I. Clay (\72

A Saginaw Made Automobile, 1918 M5

( )ffice Building at < ienesee and Jefferson Avenues 676

Interior of < dice < (utfitting Store, The H. B. Arnold Company 677

Emil Schwahn — Charles A. Khuen — Curt Schwahn 678

< lenesee Avenue, East from Washington, 1918 680

Corn is a Profitable ( n ip 683

I >airy Farming is Increasing in Saginaw County 684

A Typical Farm Scene 687

An Example of Successful Fruit ( rrowing 689

I larvesting Grain on Low Lands 692

1 >redge Building Dikes at Prairie harm 694

< rang Plowing by Tractor on the Prairie Farm 695

Harvesting Grain on Large Scale at Prairie harm i „

Threshing Wheat on Farm in Frankenmuth Township \


Home of the Royal Bred Belgian Draft Horses — | , QR

the Best in America \

Sans Peur de Hamal, No. 3446, Owned by the Owosso Sugar Company I x , q
A Granddaughter of Indigene du Fosteau and a True Production )

Maconvale Canary. No. 153,622, Saginaw Valley Stock Farm, Owner. . . . 701

Saginaw the Shipping Center of the Great Lakes Region 704

Barge Towing Schooner in the Old Lumbering I )ays 707

The "Skylark" loading at Saginaw 710

Captain William Blyben ) _ ,

Captain Martin Smith \ /li

Steambarge "Maine" ami Tow Barges 715

Tlie Popular Steamer "Wellington I\. Hurt" enroute from Saginaw to

Bay City, about 1887 ' 717

The "\\ enema" which piled between Saginaw and Alpena 718

A Once Common Type of Steambarge, called "Rabbits" 719

Peter ( '. Andre 721

A Pioneer Engine, "William L. Webber," F. & P. M. R. R 724

A Way Station in the Forest Wilderness 727

Union Station, and Depot Car Used in the Eighties 750

An All-Steel Electric Train on the Michigan Railway 733

Constructing Stone Road through Sand Ridge 735

Route Map of Saginaw, Michigan 756

The Saginaw Telephone Exchange of the Michigan State Telephone Co. . 738

< >ld Currency of the Saginaw City Bank, Circulated in 1857 745

Specimen of the Uncirculated Currency of the Bank of Zilwaukee 746

Script of the City of Saginaw. Circulated in the Eighteen-sixties 750

Note Script of the Tittabawassee Boom Company, in Eighteen-seventies 755

East Side ( Mi'ice ■ >f the Bank of Saginaw 756

Spacious and Conveniently Arranged Banking Office at 510-12 Genesee

Avenue 757

The West Side ( )ffice of the Bank of Saginaw 75^-

The Second National Bank Building 760

The Main Banking Oil ice of The Second National Bank 763

The Perfectly Appointed Office of the People's Savings Bank 7o4

Modern Banking House, Erected in 1909 766

The Conveniently Arranged Office of The Commercial National Bank. . 767

Interior of East Side Office of American State Bank 768

The West Side Office of the American State Bank 769

The Hill Building 770

Main Office of the Hill-Carman Companies 771

William W. Warner 772

The Well Appointed Office Building 773

Offices of the People's Building & Loan Association 774

Judge Jabez C. Sutherland 777

Prominent Judges of the Tenth judicial District, DeWitt C. Gage, John

A. Edget ' 780

Well Known Judges of the Circuit Court, Chauncey H. Gage, Robert B.

McKnight, Eugene Wilber 785

Some Successful Lawyers of the Formative Period 788

Timothy B. Tarsney, Chauncey Wisner, C Stuart Draper, William M. Miller
Augustine S. Gaylord, Daniel P. Foote, John J. Wheeler, Frederic L. Eaton, Sr.




The Work of the Mound-Builders — Earth-Works in the Ohio Valley — Finding
Human Remains — Antiquities in Michigan — Copper Mining on Isle Royal — Ancient
Fortifications Discovered — Unique "Garden Beds" — Village Sites in Saginaw
County — Mounds and Ancient Relics — Pottery Exhumed — Caches and Workshops
— Aboriginal Stone Weapons — Ancient Pipes — Ornaments and Charms.

THROUGHOUT the region of the Great Lakes abundant evidence,
often of the most interesting character, of the presence in by-gone
ages of a peculiar race of men. has constantly been brought to light;
and numerous and well-authenticated accounts of antiquities dis-
covered in various parts, clearly demonstrate that a people civilized, and
even highly cultivated, occupied this broad section long before its posses-
sion by the Indians. Our own State of Michigan, from the low monotonous
shores of Lake Erie to the rocky cliffs of Lake Superior, has contributed,
in numerous ways, some of the most remarkable relics and monuments of a
people whose cranial affinities and evidently advanced civilization totally
separate them from the North American Indian, and ally them to some race
of men who inhabited another hemisphere in the remote past. But the date
of their rule of this continent is so ancient that all traces of their history,
their progress and decay, lie buried in the deepest obscurity.

Nature, at the time the first Europeans came, had asserted her original
dominion of the earth; the forests were all in their full luxuriance — the
growth of many centuries; and nothing existed to point out who and what
manner of men they were who formerly lived, and labored, and died in this
land. ( )nly the imperishable implements of their trades, crude and tin-
wiedy though they be, and articles of domestic utility, together with the
bones of the dead, has Mother Earth preserved to us through the ages.
The oblivion which has closed over them is so complete that only conjecture
can be indulged in concerning their mode and habits of life. They seem to
have finished their work on earth before the real life-work of men and
nations began, and left their monuments behind them to puzzle us with
curious investigations and strange questions never perhaps to be answered.
This race of men, belonging to a period antecedent to that covered by
written history, is known as the Mound-Builders, from the numerous large
mounds of earth-works left by them, which form the most interesting class
of antiquities discovered in the United States. Their character can be but
dimly perceived and only partially gleaned from the internal evidence and
the peculiarities of their mounds, which consist of the remains of what were
apparently villages, camps, fortifications, gardens and burial places. Their
habitations must have been tents, structures of wood or other perishable


material, for had stone been used in their construction their remains would
be numerous. They built their fortifications and erected their monuments
on our principal rivers, particularly the Ohio and Mississippi, and their
tributaries; but they left not a word, not a sign — nothing to betray their
origin, nothing to reveal the secret of a great people long vanished from the
earth. The scientific and educational value of these discoveries is far
greater than our present knowledge of them ; but in the past decade many
of the antiquities have been destroyed by road building and less laudable

At what period this race came to this country is likewise a matter of
speculation. From the comparatively rude state of the arts among them, it
must be inferred that the time was very remote. Their axes and hammers
were of stone, their vessels for cooking were of clay baked in the rays of
the sun ; and their raiment, judging from fragments which have been dis-
covered, consisted of the bark of trees, interwoven with feathers. Their
military works were such as a people would erect who had just passed to
the pastoral state of society from that dependent alone upon hunting and
fishing. Their ancient earth-works, moreover, are far more numerous than
generally supposed, from the fact that while some are quite large, the greater
part of them are small and inconspicuous. Along nearly all our water
courses, that are large enough to be navigated by a canoe, mounds are
almost invariably found, covering the base points and headlands of the
bluffs which border the narrower valleys. So numerous are the mounds
that when one stands in such places that command the grandest views of
river scenery, he may well believe that he is in close proximity to some
trace, though it be invisible to his undiscerning eye. of the labors of an
ancient people.

Earth- Works in the Ohio Valley

At Grave Creek, in West Virginia, there is a mound seventy-five feet
high and a thousand feet around at the base: at Miamisburg, Ohio, there
is one sixty-eight feet high and eight hundred at the base, while at Cahokia,
Illinois, is the great truncated pyramid, seven hundred feet long and five
hundred wide. Enclosures are often protected by heavy embankments,
formed of earth and stone, with buttresses and gateways, and are a most
interesting subject of study. Inside, they are laid out into squares, circles
and parallelograms, into figures of serpents, birds, and beasts, and often
exhibit some degree of art. An enclosure in Adams County. Ohio, contains
a huge relievo, in the shape of a serpent, a thousand feet in length, in grace-
ful curves, the mouth wide open in the act of swallowing an egg-like figure,
the tail coiled. In Ohio alone, ten thousand mounds are found and fifteen
hundred ramparts and enclosures. In Wisconsin. Iowa. Missouri and on
the upper lakes, many remains are found in the form of animals, birds, ser-
pents and men. These wonderful works of past generations extend along the
rivers throughout the Southern States, marking the existence and departure
of a great people; but they left no traces in New England.

It is curious to know, moreover, that this ancient race seems to have
been actuated by the same motives and governed by the same passions, in
locating their cities, that their successors were. They saw, as we have since
seen, having trade and speculation in their eye, the commercial advantage
of such physical locations as St. Louis, Cincinnati, and Detroit. They appro-
priated rich \ alleys, like the Scioto and the Grand, for life and business;
and their works were not all a mere labor of defense, nor their occupation
merely that of a soldier. They cultivated the soil and had work-shops
(quarries) for the fabrication of useful articles and ornaments.


Finding Human Remains

The Mound-Builders were early pioneers, for the banks and streams
upon which they built declare the fact. The river channels have been cut
deeper since they laid out their grounds by the banks and built their cities
thereon. Terraces have evidently been formed below their work since they
passed away, for it may still be seen where the streams have destroyed a
portion of their enclosures higher up. Skulls are found at the bottom, show-
ing that mounds were raised over them, and that the body was not after-
ward buried in them, although subsequent burial remains of Indians are
found nearer the top. Almost always there is the evidence of an altar hav-
ing been erected, upon which the body was laid and consumed, with the
rites and ceremonies over some great chieftain, now forever forgotten.

It is through these skulls, more than by any other means, that physi-
ologists have been able to determine that the Mound-Builders, whoever they .
were, were not Indians, the shape and outlines of the head being different
and indicating an entirely distinct race of people. Although the cranial
capacity of various specimens vary greatly, the average bulk of the brain is


[from the Dustin collection]

From left to right (one-third natural sizei: Grooved stone hatchet of fine symmetric form,

broken off in groove; Stone hatchet, not grooved; Grooved axe, weight 1% pounds; Grooved

maul, weight 3Vi pounds.

close to the average Indian cranium, or eighty-four cubic inches. The aver-
age volume of brain in the Teutonic crania is ninety-two inches. Thus it will
be seen that while the relatively large brain capacity of pre-historic man is
indicative of power of some sort, it does not imply a high degree of civilization
and refinement, since it is exceeded slightly by the degraded, brutal North
American Indian. Still the crania of the Mound-Builders present some char-
acteristics, which, in the language of Foster, "indicate a low intellectual
organization." And the tibiae (the inner bone of the leg below the knee)
present, in an extreme degree, the peculiar flattening or compression pertain-
ing to the chimpanzee.

Occasional discoveries of the skeletons of a gigantic race puzzle ethnol-
ogists to determine to what race they belonged. About 1875, in the Town-
ship of Cayuga on the Grand River, in Ontario, five or six feet below the
surface, were found two hundred skeletons in a nearly perfect state of preser-

I I [S I < iin i T SACIXAW I'i T'N I \

vation. A string- of beads was around the neck of each, stone pipes were in
the jaws of several, and many stone axes and skinners were scattered around
in the dirt. The skeletons were gigantic, some of them measuring nine feet,
and few were less than seven feet, some of the thigh bones being six inches
longer than any now known. The place had been cultivated for more than
a century and was originally covered with a growth of pine. There was
evidence from the crushed hemes that a battle had been fought, and these
were the remains of the slain. Decayed remains of houses had been found
near this spot many generations before, indicating that the region had at
some time been inhabited. Who and what filled this ghastly pit? Were they
Indians or some other race.'

On the other hand, ornaments and implements made of copper, silver,
obsidian, porphyry and greenstone, finely wrought, are found in various
mounds in the region of the Great Lakes. There are copper and stone axes,
chisels and knives, bracelets, pendants and beads, toys of bone and mica,
elegant patterns of pottery, all showing a people not deficient in art and
mechanical ingenuity, and exhibiting a style and finish beyond anything
furnished by the modern tribes of Indians on this continent. Porphyry is a
hard material to work and required a hard tool to cut it. Did the Mound-
Builder know how to temper his copper tool as the Egyptian did? Obsid-
ian, or volcanic glass, was used by the Mexicans and Peruvians for arrows
and instruments, and is a product of the mountains of Cerre Gordo, in Mex-
ico, and of a mountain in Yellowstone National Park containing a vast
weapon and implement quarry. I Joes this indicate a communication and
reciprocity between people wide apart — between that mysterious nation.
whoever they were, who erected those wonderful buildings in Central Amer-
ica ages ago, and the people we know as the Mound-Builders? < >r does it
lead to the conclusion that these artisans and mechanics belonged to still
another race of men, of higher intelligence and civilization, who dwelt here
before or after the other race? These questions, and works of art left by
an ancient people, perplex and instruct antiquarians. They examine them,
theorize over them, soke the mystery today, upset their theory tomorrow,
believe and disbelieve, and finally retreat into darkness again and almost
fancy they hear the chuckle of the old Mould-Builder at their discomfiture.


[from the Dustin collection]
Rims of vessels showing varying ornamentation, being sections of tops of large and small pieces.
Two-fifths natural size.


Antiquities in Michigan

The Mound-Builders were also early pioneers in Michigan, and were
the first miners in the Upper Peninsula. But how they worked, whether
as members of a joint stock company on a percentage, or as individuals,
every man for himself, no one can tell. We do know, however, that they
went deep down into the copper ore, and dug, and raised, and probably
transported large quantities of it, hut by what means and where is shrouded
in mystery. Some of the copper from these ancient workings found its way
into the mounds of the < >hio and Mississippi Valleys, and the chain of evi-
dence by which this is determined is the fact that the copper so found, or
some of it, has little globules of silver attached to it, which, it is said, dis-
tinguishes no other copper in the world. The silver found in other copper
ore is associated with the mass rather than with the copper itself, and is
brought out only by lire.

The ancient mining at Isle Royal, in Lake Superior, has excited the
wonder and amazement of the scientific world. The island is about fifty
miles in length, from five to nine miles in breadth, has a ragged, rocky
shore cut up into dee]) gorges, and is covered with a growth of timber. The
pits are from ten to thirty feet in diameter, from twenty to sixty feet in
depth, and are scattered throughout the island following the richest veins ol
ore with marvelous precision, showing that the pre-historic miners had great
knowledge and skill in the art of mining. The pits were connected under-
ground, and drains were cut to carry off the water. There is one dee]) cut
in the rock, covered its entire length by timbers that have long since decayed,
and is now a mass of rotten wood. At McCargoe's Cove there are nearly
two miles of pits very closely connected; quantities of stone hammers ami
mauls, weighing from ten to thirty pounds have been found, some broken
from use and some in good condition; and copper chisels, knives and arrow
heads have been discovered. The copper tools seem to have been hardened
by fire, but owing to corrosion it is difficult to determine their original work-
manship, though there is evidence to show that they were originally of care-
ful artisanship and polished.

'fhe working out of the copper was no doubt done by heating a mass
of the solid ore, and then pouring on water — a very slow and tedious pro-
cess. The rock being sufficiently disintegrated they then attacked and sepa-
rated it with their great stone mauls. Even with a large force constantly
employed in this labor, it must have taken a long series of years to accom-
plish the work exhibited. Although two hundred men with their rude meth-
ods of mining, it has been estimated, could not accomplish any more work
than two skilled miners can at the present day, with modern pneumatic drills
and high explosives, at one point alone on Isle Royal, the amount of labor
performed exceeds that done on one of the oldest mines on the south shore
of the lake, which has been operated with a large force for more than
twenty years.

When and by whom were these pits opened? Who can tell? Forests
have grown up and fallen and mouldered over them, and great trees, three
hundred and four hundred years old, stand around them today, counting so
much, and only so much time in fixing the age of these mines. Some of
these trees, four feet or more in diameter, are now growing in the pits, on
the sides, and on the excavated debris which surround them. In one case,
the partially decayed stump of a red oak was found at the edge of a pit.
This tree had not been blown down, but had grown and decayed where
the stump stood, only the red, interior portion of the stump remaining
sound. A careful enumeration of the annual rings composing the undecayed
centre of the tree, gave the number of three hundred and eighty-four, to



which was added two hundred rings, as representing the decayed outer por-
tion of the stump, and five hundred and eighty-four years was arrived at as

Online LibraryJames Cooke MillsHistory of Saginaw County, Michigan; historical, commercial, biographical → online text (page 2 of 88)