James Cornford.

The book of common prayer with historical notes online

. (page 1 of 43)
Online LibraryJames CornfordThe book of common prayer with historical notes → online text (page 1 of 43)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


m I -

" . .

1 1

- - 1




THE BOOK OF



COMMON PEAYEE,



JBtstotical Notes.



EDITED BY



THE REV. JAMES CORNFORD, M.A,,

Lecturer at the London College of Divinity.




Printers to the Queen's most Excellent Majesty.

LONDON GKEAT NEW STREET, FLEET STREET, B.C.

EDINBURGH, GLASGOW, MELBOURNE, AND SYDNEY.

NEW YORK COOPER UNION, FOURTH AVENUE.



INTRODUCTION.



fTlHE Book of Common Prayer, though it embodies the
principles of the Reformation, was no new creation
of the Reformers. From the earliest times God's people
have used set forms of public worship, and it is out of
these forms that the English Prayer Book has grown.
Our Lord, by His presence at a-nd participation in the
worship of Temple and Synagogue, sanctioned those
services ; and He left His disciples, as the foundation of
all Christian Liturgies, the Lord's Prayer and the Holy
Communion. These formed the basis of the worship of
the Apostolic Church, and have been used by Christians
of all nations ever since.

A brief examination of the early forms of worship will
suffice to shew how closely the English Prayer Book is
connected with them.
The SYNAGOGUE WORSHIP consisted of

Reading of Law and Prophets : with Address.

Prayers.

Psalms and Thanksgivings.

Alms.
EARLY CHRISTIAN WORSHIP consisted of

Reading of Scriptures : with Instruction.

Prayers.

Praises and Thanksgivings.

Communion.

Alms.

The period when Liturgies were first committed to
writing is uncertain, probably not before the 3rd Cent.
We do not possess any of them in their original purity.



Cent. I .-IV






INTKODTJCTION.

The (so called) PRIMITIVE LITURGIES may be divided
into four Classes :

1. The Great Oriental Liturgy (called after S. James),

which prevailed from the Euphrates to the Helles-
pont, and from thence to the southern extremity
of Greece.

2. The Alexandrian (S. Mark), being the Liturgy of

Egypt, Abyssinia, and the country bordering on
the Mediterranean Sea towards the West.

3. The Roman (S.- Peter), which prevailed through-

out the whole of Italy and the Civil Diocese of
Africa.

4. The Gallican (S. John), used throughout Gaul and

Spain, and probably in the Exarchate of Ephesus
until the 4th Cent.

These Liturgies were in the language understood by the
people amongst whom they prevailed.

The Ancient British Liturgy resembled, and was pro-
bably taken from, the Gallican form.

It consisted probably of Psalms, Hymns, and Canticles,
sung partly at night, partly in the early morning, and
again in the evening.

S. Augustine (sent on a mission to England by Pope
Gregory the Great) compiled a new " Use," based on the
Roman and British Liturgies, and incorporating with
them various parts of a Liturgy (probably of Leo and
Cassian) which he had found in use in the south of
France.

His successors tried to supplant the English Use by
the Roman Liturgy, but they were only partially suc-
cessful, and never abolished the old national Use. Much
depended on the Bishops, who had at this time the right
of controlling public worship in their own sees.



INTRODUCTION.

By degrees this right led to the establishment of a
number of Diocesan "Uses"; e.g. "Use" of York, Sarum,
Hereford, Exeter, Lincoln, Bangor, Aberdeen.

The most popular of all the English Uses was that
of Sarum, drawn up by Osmund, Bishop of Salisbury.
It combines:

1. The BHEVIARY, or Service Book, containing the

whole offices of the Canonical Hours throughout
the year.

2. The MISSAL, or earlier " Sacramentary," containing

the Bites of the Sacraments, with offices for
particular days.

3. The EITUAL, termed in English Churches the

Manual, comprising all those occasional offices
which a presbyter or priest could administer.

4. The PONTIFICAL, containing those offices which a

Bishop alone could perform.



The order of events bearing on the publication of our
first English Prayer Book was as follows :

Supremacy of the King discussed and formulated by

Convocation.

The Act of Supremacy passed.
The " Great Bible " published. A revision by Cramner

of Coverdale's Bible (1535).
The Bible ordered to be set up in Churches.
Convocation ordered the reading of Scripture in

English in Churches.
Cranmer's Litany in English published.
Accession of Edward VI.
Order of Communion in English, composed by

Cranmer, etc.

The compilers of the first Prayer Book of Edward VI.
were Archbp. Cranmer, Bp. Ridley, and other Bishops and



INTRODUCTION.

Divines. They had before them, besides the Latin Service
Books, " Uses." etc., various editions (from 1400) of :
PRYMERS, or Vernacular Service Books for the peo-
ple, containing the smaller offices, to be used with
Breviary.

BREVIARIES revised at different times; e.g. by Cardinal
Quignon (1535-6).

HERMANN'S CONSULTATION, drawn up by Melancthon
and Bucer for Hermann, Archbishop of Cologne,
and published in his name in German 1543, and
in Latin 1545, from which an English translation
was made in 1547.

The "Great Bible" of 1539. This version is still
retained in the Venite, Psalter, Canticles, Deca-
logue, etc.

Some Greek Liturgies.

The main objects of the compilers of the first Prayer
Book of Edward VI. were :

That the whole realm should have but one Use ;
That the rubrical directions should be simplified ;
That the Psalms should all be repeated in their order ;
That the Lessons should include the whole Bible, or

the greater part thereof in a continuous course ;
That nothing should be read but "the very pure

Word of God," or that which is evidently grounded

upon the same ;
That all which had hitherto been in Latin should be

in the English tongue.

In pursuance of these objects the compilers combined
the offices for the Canonical Hours, and formed them into
a daily Morning and Evening Service, as shewn in the
Table opposite.



E< 6 S s



K s 2
J fi



>



_=: *-* -4-a -w

^ CJ o u



Coll
Collec
Collec



Pfll y

4J O 3 oJS U U

a * ^ ^-5^



in



.

-o S






w-e.!?



3 a

jj"3



5
111



t> cu



ill!









fc



.gjr.g-jtc'o s *

-






INTKODUCTION.

The subsequent history of the B. C. P. is as follows :
Act of Uniformity authorising the First Prayer Book
of Edward VI., which came into use June 9.

Act of Uniformity authorising the Second Prayer
Book of Edward VI., prepared by Cranmer, Eidley,
and others, by command of the king, which came
into use Nov. 1.

Accession of Queen Mary (July 6).
Restoration of the Latin ritual (Dec. 20).

Accession of Queen Elizabeth; revision of B.C. P.
undertaken.

Act of Uniformity authorising her Prayer Book.

Injunctions issued as to the method of conducting
Public Worship, &c.

The Advertisements of Elizabeth, enforcing Uni-
formity.

Accession of James I.
Hampton Court Conference.

Letters Patent authorising the Prayer Book of
James.

Scotch B. C. P. ; specially prepared for Scotland by
Archbp. Laud and others.

Restoration of Charles II.

Act of Uniformity authorising the present Prayer
Book, which came into use Aug. 24.

A summary of the leading changes introduced at each
revision may be seen in the Table opposite.



Jill si
ill-aw I*



H uTI *** -5

53 o> S h ^ M

1 1141 !

< Wp4 O O




d

OQ.O C

5 o o

IJll

S.'S ^

OHO<)



-

s

t^Q



a*

C-v."



of Sick
Dead.
n of W
esday S
'



i



g*4 H Sfl"fl SJ

O tMp^^rt<MO'o'-^ f O

I SgS sll&JlSstel

i^J-g "-"^^'Sggg^g

ooot> wp<<j(S



A 5



INTRODUCTION.

Events subsequent to the last revision of B. C. P. :
Attempted revision in the reign of William III.
American Prayer Book.

Eemoval of Forms of Prayer for Nov. 5, Jan. 30,
May 29.

English Book of Common Prayer adopted by Epis-
copal Church in Scotland (except the Order for
Holy Communion).

Clerical Subscription Act, making the terms less
stringent.

Revised Lectionary.

Act for Amendment of Act of Uniformity.

Public "Worship Regulation Act.

Irish Church Prayer Book.

Burial Law Amendment Act.

Extension of time for Marriage Act.

J. C.



AN ACT



FOR THE UNIFORMITY OF FVBLICK PRAYERS, AND ADMINISTRATION OF
SACRAMENTS. AND OTHER RITES AND CEREMONIES: AND FOR ESTA-
BLISHING THE FORM OF MAKING, ORDAINING, AND CONSECRATING
BISHOPS, PRIESTS, AND DEACONS IN THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND.

XIV. CAROLI II.



WHEREAS in the first Year
of the late Queen Eliza-
beth, there was one Uniform |
Order of Common Service and j
Prayer, and of the Administra-
tion of Sacraments, Rites and
Ceremonies of the Church of
England, (agreeable to the Word
of God, and usage of the Primi-
tive Church) compiled by the
Reverend Bishops and Clergy,
set forth in one Book, intituled,
The Book of Common Prayer,
and Administration of Sacra-
ments, and other Rites and
Ceremonies in the Church of
England, and enjoined to be
used by Act of Parliament,
holden in the said first Year of
the said late Queen, intituled,
An Act for the Uniformity of
Common Prayer, and Service
in the Church, and Adminis-
tration of the Sacraments, very
comfortable to all good people
desirous to live in Christian
Conversation, and mast profit-
able to the Estate of this Realm,
upon the which the Mercy, Fa-
vour and Blessing of Almighty
God is in no wise so readily and
plentifully poured, as by Com-
mon Prayers, due using of the
Sacraments, and often preaching
of the Gospel, with devotion of
the hearers : And yet this not- j
withstanding, a great number of I
people in divers parts of this
Realm, following their own sen-



suality, and living without know-
ledge and due fear of God, do
wilfully and schismatically ab-
stain and refuse to come to their
Parish - Churches, and other
publick places where Common
Prayer, Administration of the
Sacraments, and Preaching of
the Word of God is used upon
the Sundays, and other days
ordained and appointed to be
kept and observed as Holy-days :
And whereas by the great and
scandalous neglect of Ministers
in using the said Order of Liturgy
so set forth and enjoined, as
aforesaid, great mischiefs and
inconveniences, during the time
of the late unhappy troubles,
have arisen and grown ; and
many people have been led into
Factions and Schisms, to the
great decay and scandal of the
Reformed Religion of the Church
of England, and to the hazard
of many Souls : For prevention
whereof in time to come, for
settling the peace of the Church,
and for allaying the present dis-
tempers, which the indisposition
of the time hath contracted, The
King's Majesty (according to his
Declaration of the five and twen-
tieth of October, One thousand
six hundred and sixty) grant-
ed his Commission under the
Great Seal of England, to several
Bishops, and other Divines, to
Review the Book of Common



ACT FOR UNIFORMITY
Prayer, and to prepare such Al-
teration and Additions as they
thought fit to offer; And after-
wards the Convocations of both
the Provinces of Canterbury
and York, being by His Majesty
called and assembled, (and now-
sitting,) His Majesty hath been
pleased to authorize and require
the Presidents of the said Con-
vocations, and other the Bishops
and Clergy of the same, to re-
view the said Book of Common
Prayer, and the Book of the
Form and Manner of the Mak-
ing and Consecrating of Bishops,
Priests and Deacons : And that
after mature consideration, they
should make such Additions and
Alterations in the said Books
respectively, as to them should
seem meet and convenient ; and
should exhibit and present the
same to His Majesty in writing,
i for his further Allowance or Con-
i formation : Since which time,
upon full and mature delibera-
tion, they the said Presidents,
Bishops and Clergy of both Pro-
vinces, have accordingly reviewed
the said Books, and have made
some Alterations which they
think fit to be inserted to the
same ; and some additional Pray-
ers to the said Book of Common
Prayer, to be used upon proper
and emergent occasions ; and
have exhibited and presented
the same unto His Majesty in
writing, in one Book, intituled,
The Book of Common Prayer,
and Administration of the Sa-
craments, and other Rites and
Ceremonies of the Church, ac-
cording to the Use of the Church
of England : together with the
Psalter or Psalms of David,
pointed as they are to be sung
or said in Churches; and the
Form and Manner of Making,



OF PUBUCK PRAYERS.
Ordaining, and Consecrating of
Bishops, Priests, and Deacons :
AH which His Majesty having
duly considered, hath fully ap-
proved and allowed the same,
and recommended to this present
Parliament, that the said Books
of Common Prayer, ' and the
Form of Ordination and Conse-
cration of Bishops, Priests and
Deacons with the Alterations
and Additions, which have been
so made and presented to His
Majesty by the said Convoca-
tions, be the Book, which shall.
be appointed to be used by all
that officiate in all Cathedral
and Collegiate Churches and
Chapels, and in all Chapels of
Colleges and Halls in both the
Universities, and the Colleges
of Eton and Winchester, and in
all Parish-Churches and Chapels,
within the Kingdom of England,
Dominion of Wales, and town of
Berwick upon Tweed, and by all
that Make or Consecrate Bishops,
Priests or Deacons, in any of the
said places, under such Sanctions
and Penalties as the Houses of
Parliament shall think fit. Now
in regard that nothing conduceth
more to the settling of the Peace
of this Nation (which is desired
of all good men) nor to the
honour of our Religion, and the
propagation thereof, than an uni-
versal agreement in the Publick
Worship of Almighty God ; and
to the intent that every Person
within this Realm, may certainly
know the rule, to which he is
to conform in Publick Worship
and Administration of Sacra-
ments, and other Rites and Cere-
monies of the Church of England,
and the manner how, and by
whom, Bishops, Priests and Dea-
cons are, and ought to be Made,
Ordained and Consecrated ;



xii



ACT FOK UNIFORMITY

Be it Enacted by the King's
most Excellent Majesty, by the
advice, and with the consent of
the Lords Spiritual and Tem-
poral, and of the Commons in
this present Parliament assem-
bled, and by the Authority of
the same, That all and singu-
lar Ministers, in any Cathedral,
Collegiate or Parish-Church or
Chapel, or other place of Pub-
lick Worship within this Eealm
of England, Dominion of Wales,
and Town of Berwick upon
Tweed, shall be bound to say
and use the Morning Prayer,
Evening Prayer, Celebration and
Administration of both the Sa-
craments, and all other the Pub-
lick and Common Prayer, in
such order and form as is men-
tioned in the said Book annexed
and joined to this present Act,
and intituled, The Book of Com-
mon Prayer, and Administra-
tion of the Sacraments, and
other Rites and Ceremonies of
the Church, according to the
Use of the Church of England :
together with the Psalter or
Psalms of David, pointed as
they are to be sung or said in
Churches; and the Form and
Manner of Making, Ordaining,
and Consecrating of Bishops,
Priests, and Deacons : And that
the Morning and Evening Pray-
ers therein contained, shall upon
every Lord's day, and upon all
other days and occasions, and at
the times therein appointed, be
openly and solemnly read by all
and every Minister or Curate, in
every Church, Chapel, or other
place of Publick Worship with-
in this Realm of England, and
places aforesaid.

And to the end that Uni-
formity in the Publick Worship
of God (which is so much de-



OF PUBLICK PEAYEES.
sired) may be speedily effected;
Be it further Enacted by the
Authority aforesaid, That every
Parson, Vicar, or other Minister
whatsoever, who now hath, and
enjoyeth any Ecclesiastical Bene-
fice or Promotion, within this
Eealm of Enaland, or places
aforesaid, shall in the Church,
Chapel or place of Publick Wor-
ship belonging to his said Bene-
fice or Promotion, upon some
Lord's day before the Feast of
St. Bartholomew, which shall
be in the Year of our Lord God
One thousand six hundred sixty
and two, openly, publickly and
solemnly read the Morning and
Evening Prayer appointed to be
read by, and according to the
said Book of Common Prayer,
at the times thereby appointed ;
and after such reading thereof,
shall openly and publickly, before
the Congregation there assem-
bled, declare his unfeigned assent
and consent to the Use of all
things in the said Book contained
and prescribed, in these words
and no other ;

I A. B. Do hereby declare my
unfeigned assent and consent
to all and every thing contained
and prescribed in and by the
Book intituled, The Book of
Common Prayer, and Adminis-
tration of the Sacraments, and
other Rites and Ceremonies of
the Church, according to the
Use of the Church of England :
together icith the Psalter or
Psalms of David, pointed as
they are to be sung or said in
Churches; and the Form and
Manner of Making, Ordaining,
and Consecrating of Bishops,
Priests, and Deacons.

And that all and every such
person, who shall (without some
lawf-dl Impediment, to be al-



ACT FOE UNIFORMITY OF PUBLICK PEAYEES.



lowed and approved of by the
Ordinary of the place) neglect
or refuse to do the same within
the time aforesaid, or (in case
of such Impediment) within one
Month after such Impediment
removed, shall, ipso facto, be
deprived of all his Spiritual Pro-
motions : And that from thence-
forth it shall be lawful to and
for all Patrons, and Donors of all
and singular the said Spiritual
Promotions, or of any of them,
according to their respective
Eights and Titles, to present
or collate to the same, as though
the person or persons so offend-
ing or neglecting were dead.

And be it further Enacted by
the Authority aforesaid, That
every person who shall hereafter
be presented or collated, or put
into any Ecclesiastical Benefice
or Promotion, within this Eealm
of England, and places aforesaid,
shall in the Church, Chapel or
place of Publick Worship, be-
longing to his said Benefice or
Promotion, within two Months
next after that he shall be in
the actual possession of the said
Ecclesiastical Benefice or Pro-
motion, upon some Lord's Day,
openly, publickly and solemnly,
read the Morning and Evening
Prayers, appointed to be read
by, and according to the said
Book of Common Prayer, at the
times thereby appointed ; and
after such reading thereof, shall
openly and publickly, before the
Congregation there assembled,
declare his unfeigned assent and
consent to the use of all things
therein contained and prescribed,
according to the form before ap-
pointed : And that all and every
such person, who shall (without
some lawful Impediment to be
allowed and approved bf the



Ordinary of the Place) neglect
or refuse to do the same within
the time aforesaid, (or in case
of such Impediment, within one
Month after such Impediment
removed) shall, ipso facto, be
deprived of all his said Ecclesias-
tical Benefices and Promotions :
And that from thenceforth it
shall and may be lawful to, and
for all Patrons and Donors of
all and singular the said Eccle-
siastical Benefices and Promo-
tions, or any of them, according
to their respective Rights and
Titles, to present or collate to
the same, as though the person
or persons so offending or neg-
lecting were dead.

And be it further Enacted by
the Authority aforesaid, That in
all places, where the proper In-
cumbent of any Parso_nage, or
Vicarage, or Benefice with Cure,
doth reside on his Living, and
keep a Curate, the Incumbent
himself in person (not having
some lawful Impediment to be
allowed by the Ordinary of the
place) shall once (at the least) in
every Month, openly and pub-
lickly read the Common Prayers
and Service, in and by the said
Book prescribed ; and (if there
be occasion) administer each of
the Sacraments, and other Rites
of the Church, in the Parish-
Church or Chapel of or belonging
to the same Parsonage, Vicarage,
or Benefice, in such order, man-
ner, and form, as in, and by the
said Book is appointed, npon pain
to forfeit the sum of five pounds
to the use of the Poor of the
Parish for every offence, upon
conviction by confession, or proof
of two credible witnesses upon
Oath, before two Justices of the
Peace of the County, City, or
Town-Corporate where the of-



ACT FOR UNIFORMITY OF PUBLICK PRAYERS.



fence shall be committed, (which
Oath the said Justices are hereby
impowered to administer,) and
in default of payment within ten
days, to be levied by distress and
sale of the goods aud chattels of
the offender, by the Warrant of
the said Justices, by the Church-
wardens, or Overseers of the
Poor of the said Parish, render-
ing the surplusage to the party.
And be it further Enacted by
the Authority aforesaid, That
every Dean, Canon, and Pre-
bendary of every Cathedral, or
Collegiate-Church, and all Mas-
ters, and other Heads, Fellows,
Chaplains, and Tutors of or in
any College, Hall, House of
Learning, or Hospital, and every
publick Professor and Reader in
either of the Universities, and
in every College elsewhere, and
every Parson,Vicar, Curate, Lec-
turer, and every other person in
holy Orders, and every School-
master keeping any publick or
private School, and every per-
son instructing or teaching any
Youth in any House or private
Family, as a Tutor or School-
master, who upon the first Day
of May, which shall be in the
year of our Lord God One thou-
sand six hundred sixty-two, or
at any time thereafter shall be
Incumbent, or have possession of
any Deanry, Canonry, Prebend,
Mastership, Headship, Fellow-
ship, Professor's place, or Read-
er's place, Parsonage, Vicarage,
or any other Ecclesiastical Dig-
nity or Promotion, or of any Cu-
rate's place, Lecture or School;
or shall instruct or teach any
Youth, as Tutor or School-
master, shall before the Feast-
day of Saint Bartholomew, which
shall be in the Year of our Lord
One thousand six hundred sixty-



two, or at or before his, or their
respective admission, to be In-
cumbent, or have possession
aforesaid, subscribe the Declara-
tion or Acknowledgement fol-
lowing, scilicet,

' T A. B. Do declare, That it
' -L is not lawful upon any pre-
' tence whatsoever to take arms
' against the King ; and that I
' do abhor that traiterous Posi-
' tion of taking Arms by his
' Authority against his Person,
' or against those that are com-
' missioned by him ; and that I
' will conform to the Liturgy
' of the Church of England, as
' it is now by Law established.
' And I do declare, That I do
' hold there lies no obligation
' upon me, or on any other per-
' son, from the Oath, commonly
' called The Solemn League and
' Covenant, to endeavour any
' change, or alteration of Govern-
' ment either in Church or State ;
' and that the same was in itself
' an unlawful Oath, and imposed
' upon the Subjects of this Realm
' against the known Laws and
' Liberties of this Kingdom.'

Which said Declaration and
Acknowledgement shall be sub-
scribed by every of the said Mas-
ters, and other Heads, Fellows,
Chaplains, and Tutors of or in
any College, Hall, or House of
Learning, and by every publick
Professor and Reader in either
of the Universities, before the
Vice-Chancellor of the respec-
tive Universities for the time
being, or his Deputy : And the
said Declaration or Acknow-
ledgement shall be subscribed
before the respective Archbishop,
Bishop, or Ordinary of the Dio-
cese by every other person hereby
enjoined to subscribe the same ;
upon pain, that all and every of



ACT FOE UNIFORMITY OF PUBLICK PRAYERS.



the persons aforesaid failing in
such subscription, shall lose and
forfeit such respective Deanry,
Canonry, Prebend, Mastership,
Headship, Fellowship, Profes-
sor's place, Reader's place, Par-
sonage, Vicarage, Ecclesiastical
Dignity or Promotion, Curate's
place, Lecture and School, and
shall be utterly disabled, and
ipso facto deprived of the same :
And that every such respective
Deanry, Canonry, Prebend, Mas-
tership, Headship, Fellowship,
Professor's place, Reader's place,
Parsonage, Vicarage, Ecclesias-
tical Dignity or Promotion, Cu-
rate's place, Lecture and School,
shall be void, as if such person
so failing were naturally dead.

And if any School-master,
or other person, instructing or
teaching Youth in any private
House or Family, as a Tutor or
School-master, shall instruct or
teach any Youth, as a Tutor
or School-master, before Licence
obtained from his respective
Archbishop, Bishop, or Ordinary
of the Diocese, according to the
Laws and Statutes of this Realm
(for which he shall pay twelve-



Online LibraryJames CornfordThe book of common prayer with historical notes → online text (page 1 of 43)