James D Reichel.

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599 3582 ^ Lemming Bibliography Page 1 of 19



1 Bibliography of Bog Lemmings

Compiled by James Reichel, Montana Natural Heritage Program, 1996

3 0864 1001 8320 4

Adelman, E. B. 1979. A suney of the nongame mammals in the Upper Rattlesnake Creek
drainage of western Montana. [M.S. Thesis] University of Montana, Missoula. 129 pp.

• Small mammal diversity, niche widtli and niche overlap were studied in the Upper Rattlesnake
Creek drainage, Montana. Snap-trap results, habitat associations and observations are described.
For SYNAPTOMYS: habitat was a wet sedge-bluejoint meadow (subalpine fir/bluejoint-bluejoint
habitat t\'pe); one male caught 9/8/78 in 200 trap-nights; measurements; associated species

Allen, J. A. 1903. Mammals collected in Alaska and northern British Columbia by the Andrew J.
Stone expedition of 1902. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 19:521- 567.

. For SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS: Describes the Type specimen of SYNAPTOMYS

CHAPMANI, sp. nov. (=S. BOREALIS) by an adult male specimen taken in July 1901 in Glacier,
B.C. Gives external and skull measurements and pelage description.

Allen, J. A. 1904. Mammals collected in Alaska by the Andrew J. Stone expedition of 1903. Bull.
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 20:273-292.

• Gives lists of all locations trapped and species at each (arranged in species accounts). 66
SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS were taken at 5 locations trapped. 1/3 were adults, 4 females and 15
males. Measurements were taken and separated by sex. At Seldovia SYNAPTOMYS was found
"most frequently in little marshy meadows, but was also sometimes taken in timber in places like
those inhabited by red- backed mice."

Anderson, R. M. 1932. Five new mammals from British Columbia. Natl. Mus. Can. Bull. 70:99-

• Describes 5 new species of mammals from Canada including Type of SYNAPTOMYS
BOREALIS ARTEMISIAE from Stevenson Creek, SW of Princeton at 2400 ft elevation . Known
only from Similkameen valley from 2400-5600 ft. Description of color, size, skull. Five
individuals (4 males, 1 female) were taken at 2400 ft site, 4 (2 males, 2 females) at a 5600 ft site.
The habitat at the lower site is dry Transition zone, with sagebrush, pine grass, and occasional
PINUS PONDEROSA. The upper site is Engelmann spruce, subalpine fir, and abundant ground
OCCIDENT ALIS, VACCINIUM, LUPINUS. and waist-high dense SALIX. Compares external
and skull measurements of subspecies ARTEMISIAE (6Male, SFemale), CHAPMANI (lOM, 3F),
WRANGELI (2M, 2F), BOREALIS (2M), and DALLI (3?).

Anderson, R. M. 1947. Catalogue of Canadian Recent mammals. Natl. Mus. Can. Bull. 102. 238

• For SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS: Taxonomic review of specimens by location. Gives 9
subspecies all in single species.


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Anderson, R. M., and A. L. Rand. 1943. A new lemming mouse (SYNAPTOMYS) from Manitoba
with notes on some other forms. Can. Field-Nat. 57:101-103.

• Distribution, measurements, descriptions, and taxonomy.

Anderson, S. 1962. A new northern record of SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS in Ungava. J.
Mammal. 43:421-422.

• Record of SYNAPTOMYS for the Ungava peninsula is a new northern record for the species.
Bones of 2 lemmings were found in an owl pellet.

Baker, R. H. 1951. Mammals taken along the Alaska Highway. Univ. Kansas Publ ,, Mus. Nat.
Hist 5(9):87-117.

• Gives lists of all locations trapped and species at each (arranged in species accounts).
SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS taken at 2 of 43 locations trapped. At one 30X60 ft grassy area near
Mclntyre Creek, Yukon, 2250 ft elevation 5 were taken in 66 trap-nights. In thick sedge bordering
a small pond at Deadman Lake , Alaska, 1 800 ft., one was taken.

Banfleld, A. W. F. 1974. The mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
Reprinted, 1981.

• Detailed accounts of 196 species. Includes information on description, habits , habitat,
reproduction, ecological status, and distribution. 46 color plates , 1 00 black and white drawings.
SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS: distribution; description ; short underground burrows and runways
through vegetation; constructs globular nests of grass above ground in winter and below ground in
summer; active all winter and throughout 24 hr day; food includes grasses and sedges which are
cut into short sections and piled in runways; habitat primarily sphagnum-labrador tea-black spruce
bogs but also found in deep mossy spruce woods, wet subalpine meadows, alpine, and sagebrush
(one subspp) habitat; breeding season from May-Aug; litters average 4, range 2-8; uncommon in
NW Can and rare in E Canada; nine poorly differentiated subspp.

Banfield, F. A. 1941. Notes on Saskatchewan mammals. Can. Field-Nat. 55:117- 123?.

• Short accounts of new records. SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS was collected (adult male) fi-om the
edge of a grassy flat bordering a small marshy bay of Emma Lake.

Bangs, O. 1897. On a small collection of mammals from Hamilton Inlet, Labrador . Proc. Biol.
Soc. Wash. 11:235-240.

• SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS collected at Fort Chimo, Labrador; description of single male

Bangs, O. 1898. A list of the mammals of Labrador. Amer. Nat. 32:489-507.

• An early Hst of Labrador mammals. Lists Type specimen of SYNAPTOMYS INNUITUS
(=BOREALIS) fi:om Fort Chimo, Labrador.

Bangs, 0. 1900. Three new rodents from southern Labrador. Proc. New England Zool. Club 2:35-

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• Describes Type specimen of S^^APTOMYS INNUITUS MEDIOXIMUS (=BOREALIS) from
Lance au Loup, Labrador. Adult male with description and measurements.

Beasley, L. E. and L. L. Getz. 1986. Comparison of demography of sympatric populations of

• Both species followed multi-year cycles. Population changes and survival were similar, with
lemmings showing less dramatic changes during the cycle.

Beckstrom, S. G. 1993. Food habits of boreal owl during brood-rearing in southwest Montana.
Unpubl, ms. 15 pp.

• Pellets from 10 nest boxes found CLETHRIONOMYS GAPPERI the most important food item
(53.6%). PHENACOMYS INTERMEDIUS was next most important with 20.7% biomass. Small
mammals in general were 99% of prey biomass. 8 SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS were found in 4
nests, comprising 0.7% of the diet.

Booth, E. S, 1947. Systematic review of the land mammals of Washington. Ph.D. Thesis, Wash.
State Univ., Pullman.

• Good review of knowledge up to that time; has some locations missed by Dal quest (1947). Has
information (by subspecies) for all Washington land mammals and includes: dot maps,
systematics, taxonomy, descriptions, and habitat. For SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS: shows 2
locations in the North Cascade Mountains. Only subspecies then knovm was WRANGELLI but
Booth speculated others would be found farther east (he was right). Description and
measurements. Habitat is described as wet, boggy places in the mountains.

Bursik, R. J. 1993. Fen vegetation and rare plant population monitoring in Cow Creek Meadows
and Smith Creek Research Natural Area, Selkirk Mountains, Idaho. Cooperative Challenge Cost-
share Project, Idaho Panhandle National Forests and Idaho Conser>'ation Data Center, Idaho
Department of Fish and Game . 25 pp.

• Botanical exploration has revealed that Cow Creek Meadows, on the east slope of the Selkirk
Mountains, Idaho, are of extraordinary biodiversity value. Seven rare plant populations are known
from the meadows along with one rare animal (Northern Bog Lemming). In addition, grizzly bear
and woodland caribou are known to use the drainage during parts of the year. Human activities in
the form of cattle grazing, logging, and road building have had an impact on the meadows and are
seen as a potential threat to the sensitive plant and animal populations that occur there. In 1992,
the Idaho Fish and Game's Conservation Data Center and the Bonners Ferry Ranger District,
Idaho Panhandle National Forests, entered into a cooperative agreement to establish monitoring
plots in fen habitats of Cow Creek Meadows and Smith Creek RNA to ascertahi whether logging
and cattle grazing are having negative effects on the sensitive plant populations in Cow Creek
Meadows. Smith Creek RNA is the control area for this study. Nine ECODATA plots were placed
in the Cow Creek Meadows and four were placed in Smith Creek RNA. An inventory of the
vascular and bryophyte floras were made in each area. One hundred and one vascular and
bryophyte species occur in the Cow Creek Meadows, making it one of the most floristically
diverse peatland systems in Idaho. Reanalysis of Cover Microplot data for each ECODATA plot
is recommended at three- to four-year intervals over the next 20 years or more to assess
population and habitat trends. Management recommendations are made, including a proposal to
establish Cow Creek Meadows as a Special Interest Botanical Area.

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Clark, B. K. and D. W. Kaufman. 1990. Short-term responses of small mammals to experimental
fire in tallgrass prairie. Can. J. Zool. 68:2450-2454.

• Short-term response to burning was moving off area by most harvest mice, southern bog
lemmings, and prairie voles; deer mice moved onto burned area.

Clough, G. C, and J. J. Albright. 1987. Occurrence of the northern bog lemming, SYNAPTOMYS
BOREALIS, in the northeastern United States. Can. Field- Naturalist 101:611-613.

• Three specimens of SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS for Maine and one for New Hampshire are
reported. On 1 8-20 July 1 immature female and 1 aduh female (4 embryos) were captured in
pitfalls (117 Sherman live trap-nights, 108 pitfall trap- nights). Both were captured at 1375 m in a
wet sedge meadow dominated by CAREX , sphagnum moss, lichen (CETRARIA NIVALIS),
SALIX UVA-URSI, and BETULA GLANDULOSA. Associated species at the site were
male SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS was captured on 1 1 Aug in a stand of dead fir and spruce at
400 m elevation. Understory was dominated by fir, spruce, mountain ash, and paper birch; shrub
and ground layer was dense raspberry, ferns, some grass and sedge, and sphagnum in scattered
damp areas. The area was trapped in 1982 (360 trap-nights), July 1985 (135 Longworth live trap-
nights) and Aug 1985 (300 snap trap-nights). Other mammals at this site included MICROTUS
PEROMYSCUS MANICULATUS, and SOREX CINEREUS. There are now a total of 7
specimens from 4 locations in Maine and New Hampshire.

Coffin, B. and L. PfannmuUer (eds). 1988. Minnesota's endangered flora and fauna. U. Minn.
Press, Minneapolis.

• Good reference for Minnesota sensitive species with state maps with county of occurrence, status
and basis for status, habitat, identification, recommendations, and selected references.
SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS summarizes the 5 locations in N MN where lemmings are known.
Suggests the species may be difficult to trap. Habitat given as dominated by sphagnum and
graminoids; may include forested bogs or open ericaceous shrublands over total range.
Recommend additional sampling by qualified professionals and preservation of large tracts of

Cowan, I. M., and C. J. Guiguet. 1965. The mammals of British Columbia. Brit. Columbia Prov.
Mus. Handbook 11. 414 pp.

• For SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS: description and measurements; Habitat: usually wet alpme and
subalpme meadows; runways and bun'ows well defined; moves to higher ground in winter; eats
sedges, grasses, saxifrages, and other plants; makes small piles of cuttings in runways; deposits
droppings in special places where 2 cupfuls may accumulate; 2-8 young per litter, usually 4-5;
young bom May-Aug; winter nest of dry grass 8" diameter; no citations for any of this

Cowan, I. McT. 1939. The vertebrate fauna of the Peace River District of British Columbia.
Occasional Papers B.C. Prov. Mus. 1.

• For SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS: On 28 June found a colony in muskeg and 4 were taken .

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Habitat was 50 feet square and the "mossy carpet was honeycombed with tunnels." Fecal pellets
were strewn about the tunnels, concentrated where feeding was occurring. 1-1.5 inch cuttings of
grass were piled throughout the colony. Also caught here were MICROTUS

Cross, E. C. 1938. SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS from Godbout, Quebec. J. Mammal. 19:378.

• Single immature taken, with description and measurements.

Dalquest, W. W. 1948. Mammals of Washington. University of Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. 2:1-

• Distributional accounts which include brief descriptions and accounts of habits; dot and associated
shading on maps; key to spp. SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS shows known 2 locations and a
possible location (later verified by Wilson, Johnson and Reichel 1980).

Dearden, L. C. 1958. The baculum in LAGURUS and related Microtines. J. Mammal „ 39:541-553.

• Describes variation in the baculi of LAGURUS. Compares baculi across Microtine genera
PHENACOMYS, and MICROTUS (drawings). SYNAPTOMYS is shown to be most closely
related to DICROSTONYX.

Dice, L. R. 1921. Notes on the mammals of interior Alaska. J. Mammal. 2:20-28.

• Records of unusual specimens taken in Alaska. Two SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS taken, one in
scrub willows and one in horsetails.

Downing, S. C. 1940. First Ontario record of the subgenus MICTOMYS. Can. Field -Nat. 54:109-

• One immature male 25 July 1939 at Moosonee, Ontario. Taken on an open bank of a small creek
draining a bog. Surrounding area had spruce trees and deep mossy ground cover. Measurements
and description.

Dutcher, B. H. 1903. Mammals of Mt. Katahdin, Maine. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 16 :63-72.

. Describes 36 mammals known from Mt. Katahdin. For SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS, 2 were
trapped in balsam scrub by a spring at 4500 ft. during >270 trap-nights.

Edwards, R. L. 1963, Obser\'ations on the small mammals of the southeastern shore of Hudson
Bay. Can. Field-Nat. 77:1-12.

• Caught 25 individuals at 5 sites (185 trap-nights); most were caught in open, very wet places. No
scat piles or cuttings were associated with this species. Only 2 showed breeding activity, a male
with scrotal testes on 23 Aug and a female with 3 embryos on 1 Sept. Most mice appeared to be
yearlings. There appeared to be two litters per year, with some young breeding the same summer
they were bom. Description & measurements.

Foresman, K. R. and D. E. Pearson. 1990. Ecology of the northern bog lemming [ abstract]. Sci.

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Glacier Natl. Park 1990, Ann. Rep. Coop. Park Studies, p. 41.

• Relocated lemmings at Shoofly Meadows site [Adelman 1979] and found lemmings in Numa
Ridge Bog in 1990.

Gaines, M. S., C. L. Baker and A. M. Vivas. 1979. Demographic attributes of dispersing southern
bog lemmings (SYNAPTOMYS COOPERI) in eastern Kansas. Oecologica (Berlin) 40:91-101.

• There was a positive correlation between lenmiing colonizing removal grids and density of control
grids. 41% of losses of control grids were accounted for by dispersal. Residents differed from
dispersers by: 1) higher % males; 2) lower % of adult females colonizing grids were in breeding
condition; reversed for subadult females; and 3) higher % subadults.

Gaines, M. S., R. K. Rose and L. R. McClenaghan, Jr. 1977. The demography of SYNAPTOMYS
COOPERI populations in eastern Kansas. Can. J. Zool. 55:1584-1594.

• Annual and multi-year population cycles were found. Adult and juvenile survival was higher in
winter than summer. Breeding was higher in summer than winter, but occurred during both

Garton, E. R. 1977. Late Pleistocene and Recent mammals remains from two caves at Bowden,
West Virginia [abstract]. Proc. W. Virginia Academy Sci. 49: 41.

• Found SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS in a limestone cave; no time correlation could be done since
they were in a cave-stream deposit.

Godin, A. J. 1977. Wild mammals of New England. Johns Hopkins University Press , Baltimore.
304 pp.

• Popular account of the mammals of New England. Covers description, distribution, ecology,
behavior, age and sex determination, list of specimens examined, records and reports for each
species. Literature references and museum sources cited.

Godin, A. J. 1977. Wild mammals of New England. Johns Hopkins University Press , Baltimore.
304 pp.

• Popular account of the mammals of New England. Covers description, distribution, ecology,
behavior, age and sex determination, list of specimens examined, records and reports for each
species. Literature references and museum sources cited. SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS "occurs in
cold sphagnum bogs, in bluebunch fields matted with weeds, and in dense hemlock and beech
woods" [ does not match other literature for the area, ie. Clough and Albright 1987]. Lemmings
may build runways above ground or burrow in leaf litter. Nest is lined with leaves, grasses, and
sometimes fur, and located either above or below ground. May be in small colonies or burrows of
other small mammals. Known to eat raspberry seeds and the ftingus ENDOGONE.

Green, M. M. 1930. Notes on some small Canadian mammals. Can. Field-Nat. 44:69.

• Two SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS were taken near Pine Falls in Apr 1929. They were in an open
tamarack bog with SOREX HOYI and SOREX CINEREUS. In May 1929 a male was taken 50
miles north of Pas and had side glands 1 1X7 mm. A female taken 8 May had 3 embryos 30 mm

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Groves, C. R. 1994. Effects of timber hanest on small mammals and amphibians in old-growth
coniferous forests on the Priest Lake Ranger District, Idaho Panhandle National Forests,
[Unpublished report to the Priest Lake Ranger District]. 18 pp. The Nature Conser^ ancy,
Boulder, Colorado.

• Abstract: Summary of field data collected in survey of small mammals and amphibians in old-
growth coniferous forests on the Priest Lake Ranger District , Idaho Panhandle National Forests.
Abundance and species richness were estimated on pitfall trapping grids with drift fences at 1 5
sites representing five replicates of three treatments. 5 shrew species, 1 pocket gopher sp., 6 sp. of
mice and vole (including Northern Bog Lemmings) , and 3 amphibian sp. were found over a three
year period.

Groves, C. and E. Yensen. 1989. Rediscovery of the northern bog lemming ( SYNAPTOMYS
BOREALIS) in Idaho. Northw. Nat. 70:14-15.

• A single adult male was captured on 14 July 1988 at Cow Creek, Boundary Co., Idaho at 1304 m
elevation. The site was at the edge of a sphagnum bog next to an Englemann spruce tree.
Dominant vegetation in the bog included: DESCHAMPSIA CAESPITOSA. CAREX
MICROPHYLLA, and SPHAGNUM spp. Other small mammals captured at the site included:
and MICROTUS PENNSYLVANICUS. The lemming was taken during 2 nights of trapping with
32 museum special snap traps and 16 pitfalls . The other Idaho SYNAPTOMYS site on Gold Peak
Road (Johnson and Cheney 1953) was re-sampled in 1987 but no SYNAPTOMYS taken; it was
logged sometime between the original capture and the re-trapping attempt in 1987. States that
records of SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS captured by Larrison (Larrison 1967; Larrison and
Johnson 1981) were actually misidentified PHENACOMYS INTERMEDIUS.

Guthrie, R. D. 1968. Paleoecology of a Late Pleistocene small mammal community from interior
Alaska. Arctic 21:223-244.

• SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS is currently present at the site but was not found in Late Pleistocene
deposits. Guthrie is unsure if it is a post-glacial immigrant or was present but not found.

Hall, E. R. 1981. Mammals of North America. 2nd edition. 2 vol. John Wiley and Sons.

• Identification and distribution information for mammals of North America. SYNAPTOMYS
BOREALIS: description and measurements; distribution; 9 subspp.

Hall, E. R. and E. L. Cockrum. 1953. A synopsis of the North American Microtine rodents. LTniv.
Kansas Publ., Mus. Nat. Hist. 5:373-498.

• Good for synonymies, distribution, subspecies, key, and citations of original descriptions. For
SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS: places in subgenus MICTOMYS and lists 9 subspecies and their
distributions. Gives external measurements as totakl 18 -135; tail:19-27; hind foot:I6-22; ear:12-
13; weight 32-34 g (n=2). Pelage description.

Hall, F, S. 1932. A historical resume of exploration and survey - mammal types and their

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collectors in the state of Washington. Murrelet 13:63-91.

• Gives original citation and information from it on the description of SYNAPTOMYS TRUEI (=S.
BOREALIS) from the Skagit Valley of Washington in 1859.

Hamilton, W. J., Jr. and J. O. Whitaker, Jr. 1979. Mammals of the eastern United States. Cornell
University Press. Ithaca, NY. 346 pp.

• Listed by order. Useful information concerning distribution, habits. Provides range maps and
illustrations. For SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS: distribution and description only.

Harper, F. 1961. Land and fresh-water mammals of the Ungava Peninsula. Univ. Kansas PubL,
Mus. Nat. Hist. 27: includes pp. 55-62.

• For SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS: measurements and description. On 16 June an adult female was
trapped on a mossy log in swamp among tall and low willows, dwarf birch, CAREX?, sphagnum,
and liverwort. She had 7 embryos (13mm), enlarged mammary glands (2 pair pectoral, 2 pair
inguinal, with drawing), and lateral glands slightly developed (10x4. 5mm). On 17 July a male was
trapped on a rock in a brook flowing through mossy woods. Surrounding vegetation included
white spruce, tamarack, alder, willow (tall and low), Labrador tea, VIBURNUM EDULE,
his mouth. Testes were 8X5mm; lateral glands greatly developed 14X8 and 2mm thick; a less
developed glandular area was located between each ear and foreleg. Another male found dead on
13 June had testes 7.5X6mm and lateral glands greatly developed 15X7mm. On the lemmings
were found a flea (MEGABOTHRIS ASIO ASIO) and 3 species of mites (HEMOGAMASUS

Heaney, L. R. and E. C. Birney. 1975. Comments on the distribution and natural history of some
mammals in Minnesota. Can. Field-Nat. 89:29-34.

• Observations on the distribution and natural history of 18 species. SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS
found 10 mi S of Big Falls, an extension of the range in the central U.S. approximately 50 miles to
the south of previous records ( Wetzel and Gunderson 1949).

HeUer, E. 1910. Mammals of the 1908 Alexander Alaska expedition. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool.

• For SYNAPTOMYS BOREALIS: collected 8 specimens. 3 are from Cordova in "a tangle of rye-
grass, stumps, and salmonberry bushes." Five are from Port Nell Juan in open tundra in very
swampy situations near the beach.

Hinton, M. A. C. 1926. Monograph of the voles & lemmings (Microtinae). Vol. 1 . British Mus.
Nat. Hist., London.

• Taxonomic discussion of the subfamily. Places SYNAPTOMYS in the group Lemmi and says it is
the most primitive of the true lemmings (SYNAPTOMYS, LEMMUS, MYOPUS). Divides the
genus in two subgenera (SYNAPTOMYS. MICTOMYS) of which MICTOMYS is the most
primitive. Long descriptions of skeletal and dental ( rootless cheek teeth) differences with
excellent drawings of cheek teeth. Says S. BOREALIS has 8 mammae and S. COOPERI 6. Gives

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Online LibraryJames D ReichelAnnotated bibliography of bog lemmings → online text (page 1 of 3)