James De Alwis.

A descriptive catalogue of Sanskrit, Pali, & Sinhalese literary works of Ceylon online

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author of the Mahawansa.

Pitakattaya Palincha tassa Atthakathaucha tan
Mukhapateua auesun pubbe bhikkhu raahaniati
Ilanin disvana sattanaii tada bhikku samagata
Cbirattbitthau dhammassa pottliake-iu likhapayun.



"The profoundly wise (inspired) pr'esta had there-
tofore orally perpetuated the Pali Pitakattaya and its
Atthakatha (commentaries). At this period, these
priests foreseeing the perdition of the people (from the
perversions of the true doctrines), assembled; and, in
order that the religion might endure for ages, recorded
the same in books."

But, from internal evidence alone, Mr. Turnour
was enabled to point out to his coadjutors, that "this
elaborate adjustment of the succession of jDreceptors"
was erroneous. Mr. Turnour says:

"The author of the Dipawanso has certainly spared no
pains in his endeavours to make the links of the Theraparam-
partl chain comjjlete, and consistent with chvonology. He,
however, only gives the succession of preceptors, who were
the guardians of the Wineyo section of the Pitakattayan,
commencing with Upali, whose death is placed in the sixth
year of the reign of Udavo ; while the incongruities I have
dwelt upon in the paper No. 2, have reference to Sabhakami,
who though a cotemporary disciple of Buddho, has been
represented to have presided at the second convocation, a
century after Sakya's death ; when he must, from the date
of his upasampada ordination, have been at last 140 years
old. But even this succession of the Wineyan line of precep-
tors, the chronological particulars of which are pretended to
be given with so mucli precision in the following extracts,
will not stand the test of scrutiny by a person conversant
with the rules that govern the Buddhistical church. It is
an inviolable law of that code, established by Buddho himself
at an early period of his mission, and adhered to to this
day — to which rule there are only two well-known excep-


tions — that no person, -whether a noviciate priest called
Sarnanero, or an ascetic layman, however learned or pious
he may be, can be ordained an upasampada before he has
completed his twentieth year. The two exceptions alluded
to are tlie instances of Sumano and Sopako, who were ordained
upasampada at seven years of age.

" It will be seen that this line of preceptors, extending
from the date of Buddho's death to the third convocation, a
term of 236 years, is made to consist of five successions.
Upali the cotemporary of Buddho, is stated to have been
60 years old in the eighth year of the reign of Ajatasattu,
which is the 16th year a, b. Pie is represented to have
survived Buddho thirty years, and to have died in the 6th of
Udayo's reign in A. b. 30. It is not, however, mentioned
how many years he had been an upasampada, and all
these dates work out therefore without disclosing any

"Dasako is represented to be his pupil and immediate
successor, and he is stated to be 45 years old in the 10th of
Nagasoko's reign, which falls to A. b. 58. He was born,
therefore, a. b. 13, and his preceptor Upali died a. b. 30>
Supposing his ordination had been put off to the last year
of Upali's life, he could not have been more than 17, when
made an upasamjDada. So far from being qualified to be the
custos of the Wineyo, he wanted three years of the age to
make him admissible for ordination. But we are further
told, that he died at the age of 64 in the eighth of Susunago's
reign, which falls to a. b. 80 : having then been an upa-
sampada 50 years, he must necessarily have been ordained
at 14 years of age. But there is manifestly some trifling
error somewhere ; foi-, by the latter dates ho must have been
bom nut a. b. 13, liul a. b. 16.


"Souuko was Dasako's successor ; he was 40 in the lOih
year of Kalasoko's loign, which was a. b. 100; he was born
therefore in GO, and he is stated to have died at the age of
66 in the sixth of the reign of the Nandos, which falls to
A. B. 124. lie Avas therefore only 20 years old when his
preceptor died : but it is specifically stated that he had been
a learned upasampada 44 years when he died ; and conse-
quently Sijnako also could only have been 16 years when

" Siggawo and Chandawo or Chandawajji were the co- disci-
ples and successors of Sonako. Siggawo was 64 years old
in the second of Chandagutto's* reign a, b. 1 64, and he died
aged 76 in the 14th of that reign a. b. 176. He was born
therefore a. b. 100, and yet we are told, that it was in this
very year, the 10th of the reign of Kalasdko, they Avere
ordained npf.sampad^ by Sonako. There is a manifest error,
therefore, in the term of five years assigned for Siggawo's
upasampadaship. As his ordaining preceptor Sonako died
A. B. 124, he must have been at that time only 24 years old,
and at his own death an upasampada of 76 years' standing, —
a term co-equal with his natural life. In various parts of
the Atthakatha, and in the fifth chapter of the Mahawanso
likewise it is stated that they were "adult priests" at the
time the second convocation was held ; and indeed it is speci-
fically stated in page 30, that Siggawo was 18 years old
when he was first presented to Sonako. The pretended
prophecy, delivered to him and Chandivwajji at the close of

* "I assign in these remarks 24 years to the reign of Chanda-
gutto, which will bring Asoko's accession to a. n 214, and hi*
iuaugm-ation, four years afterwards, to a. b, 218,"

Dl'rAWANSA. 125

that convocation, avouIcI consequently be nullified at once,
if their birth be not dated anterior to A. b. 100: manifestly,
therefore, these dates also are an imposition.

"Lastly, Moggaliputtatisso was their disciple ; he was
ordained in the second of Chandagutto A. b. 164, and he was
66 in the sixth of Dhammasoko A. b. 220 ; he was born,
therefore, in a. b. 154, and could only have been 14 years
old at the death of Siggawo, when he became the chief of the
Wineyo preceptors. He is stated to have died in the 26th of
Dhammasoko, A. b. 240, aged 80. This gives A. b. 1 60 instead
of A. B. 154 for his birth, being a discrepancy of six years.

"On pointing out to my Pandits, that, even in this elaborate
adjustment of the succession of preceptors, the number of
lives given is found to be insufficient to fill up a term of
236 years, without bringing the several preceptors into office
before they had attained the prescribed age, they at once
decided, that the author of the Dipawanso has put forth an
erroneous statement, and that the whole ought to be rejected
as unfounded. How the discrepancies are to be rectified
they do not suggest, beyond hazarding a conjecture, that
each preceptor, like Sabhakanii, must have lived to a more
advanced age ; and that each succeeding preceptor conse-
quently had attained a maturer standing at the period of his

Mr. Turnour lias published, in an analysis, some of the
most interesting portions of this work, in the columns
of the Bengal Asiatic Society's Journal. In reprinting
the same here, I have added to it translations of other
portions by myself. Where the matter was such as I
thought not very interesting, I have given a summary
of its contents.

126 descriptive catalogue.

Bha'nava'ra First.

Contents. — The usual adoration — introductory re-
marks — Gotama's attainment of Buddha-hood — his
first work as Buddha — his perception of Lanka, and
its affairs — his fore-knowledge of Asoka and Maliinda
— his departure to Baranasi after seven weeks— the
reception which he gave to "the five priests" — his visit
to Uruvela — how he overcame a Naga at Uruvela,
and was invited to spend the Hemanta (dewy) season
there — his knowledge of the thoughts of Kassapa —
his departure to Uttarakuru, and his perception of the
Yakkhas in Lanka — his first visit to Lanka — the great
wonders which he there exhibited — how he obtained
permission to occupy a place, and how he terrified the
Yakkhas— their removal to Giri-dipa — description of
Giri-dipa — how the Yakkhas were expelled into it —
Buddha's departure to Uruvela after extending his
protection to Lanka.

Bha'nava'ra Second.

Gotama's perception, whilst at Savatti, of a contest
between Nagas — description of their battle — the cause
which led to Gotama's second visit to Lanka — his
departure thereto — how he produced a darkness —
how he reduced the Nagas to terror — his preaching to
them from the sky — their conversion, and offering of
a gem-set seat to Buddha — how he sat upon it, and
the attentions which he received from the Nagas —
the request to him by Mani-akkhika Nsiga to visit
Lanka — his acceptance of the invitation, and dcpar-

Dl'PA"\VAN3A. 127

ture from Jetavana monastery. Buddha's third visit
to Lanka and Kalyani — the offerings to him by Mani
Akkhika — his dhyana meditations at IMaha Megha
park — the acceptance of the said park by former

The following is Tumour's* translation of

Bha'nava'ra Thikd.

"Omitting the rajas who existed in former kappii, I vrill
in the fullest manner narrate (the history of} the rajas of the
present creation. I shall perspicuously set forth the regions
in "which they existed, their name and lineage, the term of
their existence, and the manner in which they governed :
whatever that narrative may be, attend ye thereto.

"The first individual who was inaugurated a raja, the
protector of the land, was named Mahasanmiato ; he was
superlatively endowed w^ith personal beauty ; that Ivhattiyo
exercised the functions of sovereignty.

"Rojo was his sou, Wararojo, the monarch Kalyauo ;
Warakalyauo, Uposatho, Mandatof the seventh in succession,

* He designates this the third Bh^navaro ; see Bengal Asiatic
Society's Journal, vii. p. 924. Mr. Turnour remarks, "ahhiina-
varo ought to contain 250 gatha. This section is only equal to
87, and some of the verses are incomplete. I can however detect
no want of continuity in the narrative." — The defect in this re-
spect is only in the division of the sections.

f " In the Mahavvanso, I have been misled by the plural Mandata,
and reckoned two kings of that name. I see by the tiki the name
should be in the singular Mandato. The twenty -eight rajas who
lived for an Asankhevvan include therefore Mahasammato."


a supreme ruler of the four dipa,* endowed with great wealth;
Charo, the raja Upacharo, and Chetiyo abounding in riches;
Muchalo ; Mahamuchalo, Muchalindo, Sagaro ; Sagaredewo,
Bliarato, Bhagiratho the Khattiyo ; Ruchi, Maharuchi,
Patapo, Mahapatapo, Panado, Maliapaniido, the Khattiyo
Sudassano, Mahasudassano, and in like manner two of the
name of Neru ; and Achchimiif , (were successively the sons
of each preceding ruler.) The term of existence of these
twenty-eight rajas was an Asaukheyyan ; and the capitals in
which these monarclis, whose existence extended to an Asan-
kheyyan, reigned, were Kusawati, Riijagahan and Mithila."

(Here follows the rule by which an Asankheyyan is to be

" The descendants of Achchima were one hundred ; and
they ruled supreme in their capital called Sakula.^ The
last of these was the Khattiyo Arindamo ; his descendants,
fifty-six mouarchs in number, reigned supreme in their capital

* " Jambudipo, Uttarukuru, Aparagojanan and Piibbawideho."
f " This name also has been erroneously omitted by me in the
Mahawanso. Achchima was there read Pachchima. The Tika,
however, shows that the Dipawanso is correct."

I " In the Tika, it is further stated : The eldest son of Achchim&
was the monarch Wattaparasani, though his name be not preserved,
quitting Mithela in the same manner that the Okkaka family
quitting Baranasi founded Kapilawatthu in a subsequent age,
established himself at Kasawati, raised the Chhata there, and there
his dynasty flom-ished. His lineal successors in that empire were
in number ninety-nine, the last of whom was Arindam, and they
all ruled there under the designation of the Achchima dynasty.
I should infer from this passage that the capital called Sakula in
the Dipawanso should be Kus&wati."


'• The last of these was Duppasalio, a wealthy monarch;
his descendants were sixty rulers, who reigned supreme in
their capital Baranasi.

"The last of these was Ajitajauo ; his descendants, eighty-
four thousand in number, ruled supreme in their capital

"The last of these was Brahmadatto, greatly endowed
with riches ; his descendants were thirty-six i-ajas in number,
who reigned supreme in their capital Hatthipura.

"The last of these was the raja Kambalawasabho ; his
descendants were thirty- two monarchs, who reigned supreme
in their capital Ekachakkhu.

" The last of these was the illustrious Purindadewo ; his
descendants were twenty- eight monarchs, who reigned
supreme in their capital Wajirapura.

" The last of these was the raja Sodhano ; his descendants
were twenty monarchs, and they reigned supreme in their
capital Madhura.

'* The last of these was the raja Dhammagutto, powerful
in his ai'mies ; his descendants were eighteen monai'chs, who
reigned supreme in their capital Aritthapura.

" The last of these was the raja Narindasitthi*! ; his
descendants were seventeen kings, who reigned supreme in
their capital ludapattapura.

" The last of these was Brahmedewo'- raja ; his descend-
ants were sixteen monarchs, who reigned in their capital

* In the TIka there are the following variations of appellation
from the Dipawanso: 1. Brahmastwo. 2. Brahmadatto. 3,
Balad6wo. 4. Hatthidewo. 5. Samuddhadatto.



" The last of these was the monarch Baladatto^ ; his descend-
ants were fourteen rulers, who reigned supreme in their
capital Kosabinagaran.

"The last of these was celebrated under the title of
Bhaddadewo* ; his descendants were nine kings, who reigned
in their capital Kannakochchhanagaran.

"The last of these was the celebrated Naradewo ; his
descendants were seven monarchs, who reigned supreme in
their capital Rajananagaran.

" The last of these was the raja Mahindo ; his descendants
were twelve kings, who reigned supreme in their capital

" The last of these was the monarch Nagade wo ; his descend-
ants were twenty -five rulers, who reigned supreme in their
celebrated capital Mithila.

" The last of these was Buddhadatto^, a raja powerful by
his armies ; his descendants were twenty-five monarchs, who
reigned supi'eme in their capital Rajagahan.

" The last of these was Dipankaro ; his descendants were
tAvelve rajas, who reigned supreme in their capital Takkasila.

" The last of these was the raja Talisakaro ; his descendants
were twelve rulers, who reigned supreme in their capital

"The last of these was the raja Purindo ; his descendants
were nine kings, who reigned supreme in Tamaliti.

" The last of these was the worthy monarch Sagaradewo,
whose son Makhadewo* was pre-eminent for his deeds of

* The Tik& observes in reference to the Mahawanso, that accord-
ing to the Atthakatha, Makhadewo is reckoned among the eighty-
five thousand successors of Sagaradewo, whereas that number
should be exclusive of him.


cliarity ; his descendants were eighty-four thousand monarchs,
who reigned sujireme at Mithila.

" The last of these was Nemi, a monarch who received
offerings from the Dewa and was a Chakkawatti (powerful
sovereign), whose dominions were bounded by the ocean :
thesonof Nemi was Kalakajanako*; his son was Samankuro:
and his son was Asoko ; and his descendants were eighty-four
thousand rulers who reigned supreme in their capital B&ranasi.

" The last of these was the raja Wijayo, a wealthy monarch :
his son was Wijitasano who was endowed with great personal
splendor. Dhammaseno, Nagaseno, Samatho, Disampati,
Rainu, Kuso ; Mahakuso, Nawaratho, Dasaratho, Ramo,
Bilaratho, Chittadassi, Atthadassi, Sujato, Okkako|, Okka-
kamuko, Nii)uro, Chandima, Chandamukho, Siriraja, Sanjayo,
the monarch Wessantaro, Jalo, Sihawahano and Sihassaro.
These were enterprising monarchs, who upheld the pre-emi-
nence of their dynasty ; and his (Sihassaro's) descendants
were eighty-two thousand, who (all) reigned supreme in their
capital Kapilawatthu.

"The last of these was Jayaseno ; his son was Sehahanu
who was endowed with great personal splendor. Unto the
said Sehahanu there were five sons. Those five brothers
were Suddhodano, Dhotddano, Sukkodano, Ghatitodano and
Amitodano. All these rajas were distinguished as Odano.|

* Here also the Tik-i notices in reference to the Mahawanso
that the eighty-five thousand are to be reckoned exclusive of
Samankuro and Asoko.

■\ Vide Mahawanso Introduction, p. xxxv., for the establishment
of the Sakyan dynasty of Okkakamukho.

J This woi'd literally signifies " boiled rice ;" no I'eason is
assigned for adopting the designation.


Siddattho, the saviour of the world, was the son of Suddhu-
dano ; and after the birth of his iUustrious son Rahulo, finally
relinquished (worldly grandeur) for the purpose of attaining

" The whole of these monarchs, who were of great wealth
and power, were in number one lakh, four nahutani* and
tliree hundred. Such is the mumber of monarchs of the
dynasty from which the Bodhisatto (Buddho elect) is sprung.

"Perishablcf things are most assuredly transitory, it being
their predestiny that after being produced they should perish ;
they, accordingly, being produced, pass away. To arrest
this (eternity of regeneration and destruction, by the [attain-
ment of nibbanan) is indeed to be blessed."

The conclusion of the Maha'ra'jawanso.

" The raja Suddhodano, the son of Sehahanu was a
monarch who reigned in the city called Kapila ; and the raja
Bhatiyo was then the monarch who reigned at Rajagahan,
a city situated in the centre of five| mountains. These two
rulers of men, Suddhodano and Bhatiyo, the descendants
(of royal dynasties) from the commencement of the kappo,
were intimately attached to each other.

* In this sense a nalmtaii is 10,000, making therefore, 140,300
monarchs. Accordinoj to the Tika there were 252,539 n'ljas from
Mahasammato to Okkuko, the Ikswaku of the Hindus.

I This is a passage of the Pitakattayan as pi'opounded by Sakya.

X The names of these mountains are Isigili, Wibharo, in which
is situated the Sattampanni cave in which tlie first convocation
was held; Wi^'putto ; Pandawo and Gejjhakato, the mountain
'.vbere Ruddho dwelt last in the neighbourhood of Rajagahan.


" (By Bimbisaro the sou of Bhatiyo) these five wishes were
conceived in the eighth year of his age. ' Sliould my royal
parent invest me with sovereignty : should a supreme of men
(Buddho) be born in my dominions : should a Tathagatho
select me for the first person to whom he presented himself:
should he administer to me the heavenly dhammo ; and should
I comprehend that supreme dhammo— these will be blessings
vouchsafed to me.' Such were the five wishes conceived by

"Accordingly, on the demise of his father, he was inaugu-
rated in the fifteenth year of his age : within his dominions the
supreme of the world was born : Tathagato repaired to him as
the first person to whom he presented himself : propounded
the heavenly dhammo : and the monarch comprehended it.

" Mahawero was not less than thirty-five years old, and
the monarch Bimbisaro was in the thirtieth year of his age.
Gotamo therefore was five years senior to Bimbisaro. That
monarch reigned fifty-two years, thirty- seven of which he
passed contemporaneously with Buddho.

"Ajatasatto (his son) reigned thirty-two years : in the
eighth year of his inauguration, the supreme Buddho attained
nibbanan. From the time that the omniscient Buddho, the
most revered of the world and (he supreme of men attained
Buddhohood, this monarch reigned twenty-four years."

Bha'nava'ra Fourth.

Pariiubbute cha sanbuddhe bhikkhu sangho samagato
Araha* khind sava suddha sabbe [te ?J guiia paraga
Te sabbe vichi nitvana uchchiuitva varan varan

* This is in the singular number. I ni)pi-chend it should be


Pauclia satauan theranan akansu sanglia sammataii
Dliutavadanam'aggo so Kassapo jina sasaue
Bahussutaiiam' A'nando vinaye Upali pandito
Dibba chakkhumhi Anuruddho Vangiso patibbanako
Punno cha dhammakathikanan cbittakathi Kumai'a Kassapo
Vibhajjanainbi Kachcliano Kotthito patisambhido
Anile' p'atthi maha thera agga dhamme patitthita
Thehichanuehi therehi katakichchehi sadbubi
Panchasatehi therehi dharama vinaya sangaho
Therehi kata sangaho thera vadoti vuchchati
Upalin viuayaa puchchhitva dhaniman A'nanda yavhayan
Akansu dhamma sangahan vinayan chapi bhikkhavo
Mahakassapa there cha Anuruddho maha gani
Upali there satima A'nando cha bahussuto
Ailiie bahu abhiiinata savaka satthu vannita
Pattapati sambhida chhala bhiiina mahiddhika
Samadhijjhaua manuchiuna saddhamme paramingaty
Sabbe pan cha sata thera navangan jina sasanan
Uiforahetvaua dharesun buddha setthassa sautike
Bhagavato sammukha suta patiggahita cha san>mukha
Dhammaucha vinayan chapi kevalan buddha desitan
Dhammadhara vinaya dhara sabbepi agata'gama
Asanliira asankuppa satthukappa sada garu
Aggasantike gahetva agga dhammau tathagata
Agganikkliittaka thera aggan akansu sangahan '
Sabbopi so thera vado agga vado ti vuchchati
Sattapanni guhe* ramme thera pancha sata ganI

ta J

* Guha is a feminine noun. In the locative it should be guha-
yan, as Buddhagosa has correctly rendered it in the Atthakatlia —
"sattapanne guhayan." It is heie treated .as a masculine or ueuter
noun, for •which I find no authority.



Nisinna patigiijjinsu navangaii satthu sasanan
Suttan Geyyan Veyyakaranan Gathudanitivuttakan
Jatak 'Abbliuta Vedallan navauga satthu sasanau
Pavibhatta iman thera saddhamman avinasanan
Vagga paiinasakan uama sanyuttaucha nipdtakau
A'gama pitakau nama akansu sutta samniatan
Yava titthati saddhammo sangahonavinassati
Tavata sasanaddhanan chiran titthati satthuno
Kataucha dhamma Vinaya Sangahan sasana rahan
Asankampi achalan dalhan appati vattiyan
Yo kochi samano vapi brahmano cha bahussuto^
Parappa vada kusalo valavedhi samagato v

Nasakkd pati vattetun sineruva suppatitthito )
Devo maro cha brahma va ye kechi patliavi nissita
Napassauti auuppattan kinchi dubbhasitan padan
Evan sabbaAga sampannan dhamma Vinaya sangahan
Suvibhaltan supatichchhannan satthu sabbanilutaya cha
Maha Kassapa pamokkha thera pancha sata cha te
Kata dhamman cha vinayan sangahan avinasanan
Samma sambuddha sadisan dhammakayan sabhavato
Natva janassa sandehan akansu dhamma sangahan*
Anuiiiia vado saratto saddhammd anurakkhato
Thitiya sasanaddhanan thera vado sahetuko
Yavatd ariya atthi sasane buddha savaka
Sabbe pi samanuiiiianti pathaman dhamma sangahan
Mula nidanan pathaman adi pubbangaman dhura
Pancha sata katd aggd ajaniya ana kulan...ti
Maha Kassapa sangahan uitthitan.

* There are many doubtful expressions in tliis extract; but I
have not thought proper to revise the text.


'When Buddha had attained nibbana, the assembled
priesthood, who were all pure Arahantas of eminent
virtues and whose clinging to existence was extinct,
having consulted together, and selected pre-eminent
theras, held a Council of five hundred.

Kasappa, who was the chief, amongst the Dhuta-
vadas* in the Buddhist faith; A'nanda, amongst
those who had much heard (the original discourse's);
Upali, amongst those who were versed in the Vinaya;
Anuruddha, amongst those gifted with divine per-
ception; Vangisa, amongst those who were of prompt
speech; Punna, amongst the preachers; Kumarakassapa,
amongst those who could (adorn) expatiate on a
subject ; Kachchana, amongst those who were able to
consider a matter in all its bearings; Kotthita, amongst
those versed in the Patisambhida;t and others of
pre-eminent virtues; as well as various other pious,
sanctified theras, (in all) five hundred, made a collec-
tion| of the doctrines of the Dhamma and Vinaya.
The compilation so made by them is called Thera
Vada,§ ' the discourses of the Theras.'

* Observers of thirteen religious ordinances. See Telesdhutinga,
in Clough's Siigihalese Dictionary, p. 242,

•}• Four eminent qualifications, peculiar to the highest order of
Ai'ahantas ; a knowledge of ethics ; of dhamma or religious doctrines ;
of the philological comments and expositions thereon ; and a

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