James De Alwis.

A descriptive catalogue of Sanskrit, Pali, & Sinhalese literary works of Ceylon online

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supernatural discrimination.

J Sangaha, ' collection,' ' compilation.'

§ This is an important and remarkable admission, and it is con-
sistent with the facts which every section of the Pitakatt&ya discloses.


The Bhikkhus made the collection of the Dhamma*
and the Yinaya, having first consnlted (him who was
called) A'nanda on the former, and Upaiion the latter.

The Theras, Mahjikassapa; Annruddha of immense
retinue ; Upc4li of retentive memory ; A'nanda of
profound learning,! and many other celebrated disciplesj
— in all 500 principal theras, endowed with the six
perceptions, § and mighty powers; who had been
complimented by Buddha (himself); who were versed
in the Patisambhida ; who practised Samadh;|| and
Jhana ;1[ who were perfect masters of the doctrines,
and the sustainers of tliem ; and who had, moreover,
learnt the nine-branched** religion in the very j)resence
of the supreme Buddha; heard and received the entire
body of Buddha's Sermons (comprising < the Yinaya
and Dhamma (in the presence of) from Buddha himself.

* Dliamma, here comprehends the doctrines of the Sntta and
Abhidhanima pitakas, as opposed to the Vinaya, which is on

f Bahussuta, 'much heard.'

I Siivaka, 'hearer,' thence 'a disciple.'

§ Chhalabhiniia — 1, The power to assume any shape. 2, Super-
natural hearing of any s^oiind, however low. 3, The power of
knowing the thoughts of others. 4, The knowledge of previous
states of existence. 5, The power of vision at any distance ; and
6, The subjugation of all desires.

II ' Deep and devout meditation.'

^ Jhana, ' meditation and reflection, so as to bring their object
fidly and undistui'bedly before the mind.'
** Lit. 'nine-bodied'— vide tlie text.


All these pre-eminent, ever venerable theras of
undeviating orthodoxy, and unchangeable (principles),
like Buddha himself, who were the sustainers of the
Dhamma and Vinaya, who were well versed in the
doctrines, and who learnt the supreme dhamma in the
presence of their chief, made the first Compilation.
All the discourses of the Theras are (thence) called
the chief discourses.

The Council of five hundred Theras sat in the
delightful cave Sattapanni, and chaunted the nine-
bodied discourses of Buddha, which, with a view to
their perpetuation,* they apportioned into Sutta,
Geyya, Veyyakarana, Gathii, Uduna, Itivuttaka,
Jdtaka, Abbhuta, (Dhamma), and Vedalla. They also
constituted (the foregoing) into Vagga, Pannasaka,
Sanyutta, Nipataka, A'gama, Pitaka, and Sutta.

As long as the Dhamma shall stand, so long shall
this Compilation last; — and by its means the religion
(itself) of Buddha shall endure for a long time.

The Compilation thus made of the Dhamma and
Vinaya was in conformity to the doctrines — firm,
durable, immovable, and unchangeable. Like the
steadfast Sineru, it could not be shaken by any
association, either of Samanas or Brahmanas, however
much they might be endowed with hair-splitting
ingenuity, (acuteness), and (however) well learned,
and greatly distinguished for dialectic disputation.
Neither Gods, Maras, Brahamas, nor any inhabitants

AvJnasayan, ' That tlicy may not perish.'


of the earth will (ever) perceive in it a single improper
expression. Thus, this perfect Compilation of the
Dhammaand Vinayais well defined; and is conformable
to the dictates (omniscience) of Buddha himself.

The five hundred theras, headed by Mahakassapa,
made the compilation of Dhamma and Vinaya, with
a view to its preservation ; and regarding the doubts
of the people, they made this compilation of the entire
body of Dhamma (in purity) like Buddha himself.

To him who maintains its doctrines, this compilation
is a mandate, and is full of instruction. It is destined
to endure long.

All the venerable members of the faith, the disci-
ples of Buddha, participated in the first compilation
of the Dhamma.

The first (in point of time,) the prior (in respect
of others,) the leading, the principal, and the chief
orio-inal nidana (cause) is to be known without

The end of the Convocation of Kassapa.

" This chapter then proceeds with a chronological narrative
of the history of India, specifying also the contemporaneous
dates of the reigns of the mouarchs of Ceylon, and of the
death of those inspired theru, who are considered to have
constituted the connecting links of the chain called the
Theraparampara, or generation of Preceptors,

* Here is a play upon words, an aUiteration of the word agga
which we have rendered 'pre-eminent,' 'supreme' 'chief,' 'first.'


'' The following arc the most important passages of this,
section :

" The sixteenth year after the nibbanan of the saviour (>f
the Avorld was the twenty-fourth of Ajatasattu, and ilie
sixteenth of Wijaya (the raja of Lanka.) The learned Upiili
was then sixty years old. Dasako entered into the upasain-
pada order in the fraternity of Upiili. Whatever may be
the extent of the doctrines of the most revered Buddho
which had been promulgated by that vanquisher as the nine
integral portions of his dispensation, the whole thereof U[)ali
taught. The said Upali thus taught the same, having learnt
in the most perfect manner the whole of the nine portions
of his doctrine, which have been aurieularly perpetuated,.
from Buddho himself. Buddho has declai'ed of Upali in the
midst of the congregated jjriesthood, ' U{)ali, being the first
in the knowledge of winaya, is the cliief in my religion.'
He who had thu.s been selected and approved in the midst
of the assembled priesthood, and who had a numerous frater-
nity, taught the three Pitakas to a fraternity of a thousand
bhikkhiis, of whom Dasako was the chief disciple : he taught
them (especially) to Dcisako, and to five hundred Theras, who
had overcome the dominion of sin, were of immaculate purity
and morals, and versed in the wada (history of the schisms).
The there Upali, who had a great fraternity, continued to
teach the wiuayo for full thirty years after the nibbanan of
the supreme Buddho. The said Upali taught the whole of
the eighty-four thousand component parts of the doctrines
of the divine teacher to the learned Dasako.

"Dasako, having learned the whole of the Pitaka in the
fraternity of Upali, and held the office of Upajjhaya
(conferrer of the sacerdotal ordination of upasampada) pro-
pounded the same. The chief of the great fraternity (Upali)

Dl 'pa WANS A. 141

liaving deposited (tliapetwaua) the whole whiayoiu the charge
of the leai-ned Dasako, died. The monarch Udayo reigned
sixteen years. It was in the sixth year of his reign that the
thero Upali demised.

" A certain trader named Sonako, who had come from the
Kasi country, and was proud of his high descent, entered
the sacei'dotal order in the religion of the divine teacher
(Buddho) at the Weluwana* wihara in the mountain-girt
city i\ajagahau. Dasako, the chief of the confraternity,
sojourned in the mountain-girt city, the capital of the
Magadha nation, thirty-seven years, and initiated Sonako
into the sacerdotal order. The learned Dasako was forty-five
years old, in the tenth year of the reign of the raja Niiga-
dasa, and twentieth of the reign of the raja Pandu (of Lanka).

" The thero Sonako became an upasampadii in the frater-
nity of the thera Dasako, and the thero Diisako taught
Sonako the nine component parts of the faiih ; and having
learned the same from the preceptor who ordained him, he
also taught the same. The thero Djisako having invested
Sonako thera, who was the senior pupil in his fraternity,
with the office of chief over the winayo, died in the sixty-
fourth year of his age.

" At the expiration of ten years and half a month of the
reign of the raja Kalasoka, the thero named Sonako was
forty years old, and he had been a thero learned in the
doctrines for fourteen years ; and at the period of the expira-
tion of ten years and six months, the thero Sonako, Avho was
the chief of a great fraternity, conferred the upasampadii
ordination on Siggawo and Chandawo.

* This word siiriiifies 'tlie bauiboo o;rove.


"At that period a century had expired from the time that'
Bhagawa had attained nibbanan, and certain (bhikkhus) of
Wesali, native of Wajjis, set forth these ten (new) tenets of

This Bhanavara concludes with a brief account of the
sciiisru of the ten innovations* which led to the second
Convocation, held by the orthodox priests of the time.

Bhanavara Fifth,

The first Convocation referred to — the hierarchs
connected with it — how it was held — the ten innova-
tions again referred to — the confusion made by
Vajjiyans in the Dhamma and Vinaya — is thus related :

U ddhammau ubljinayaiiclia apagatan satthu sasane ;

Atthan dhamman cha bhinditva vilomay dipayinsu te

Tesan niggahanatthaya bahu buddhassa savaka ;

Dva dasa satasahassani jina putta samagata.

Etasmiij sannipatasmin pamokkha attha bhikkhavo ;

Satthukappa mahanaga durasada mahagani

Sabbakami cha Salho cha Eevato Khnjja-sobhito ;

Vasabhagami Suraano Sana vasicha Sarabhuto ;

Yaso Kakanda putto clia jinadittha ime isi ;

Piipanan niggahatthaya Vesaliyan samagata ;

Vasabhagami cha Sumano Anuruddhassa'nuvattaka ;

Avasesa A'nandassa ditthapubba tathagataii.

Susunagassa putto Asoko'si mahlpati ;

Pataliputta nagaramhi rajjan karesi khattiyo

Tancha pakkhay labhitvana attha thera maliiddhika ;

Dasavatthunay ninditva piipe nimmaddayinsu te.

* For an account of this, see Introduction to Kaclichayanas
Pali Grammar, p. 53.


Niddliametva papa bhikku madditva vadu piipakan ;
Saka-vada sodhanatthiiya attha thera maliiddhika,
Arahantanan sattasatau uchchinitvana bliikkhavo ;
Varan varan galietvana akansu dharamasangahan.
Kiitagara salajan Vesjiliyan puruttame ;
Attha maselii nittbasi dutijo sangaho ayan.
Nikkaddbitii papa bhikkhu therehi Vajji puttaka ;
Annan pakkhan labhitvana adhammavadi bahu jana ;*
Dasa sahassa samjigantva akansu dhammasaiia-ahan
Tasmayan dhammasaiigiti maba sangiti vuchcbati
Maba sarigitika bhikkhu viloman akansu sasanan ;


Bhinditva muhi sangahan aiinan akansu sangaban.
Aniiattba saiigabitan suttan aiinattba akarinsu te —
Atthan dhammancha bbindinsii nikayesu cha pafichasu
Pariyayadesitan vapi atbo nippariyayadesitan ;
Nitatthancheva neyyatthan ajanitvaua bhikkhavo
Aiinan sandhaya bhanitan annattba thapayi^su te ;
Vyanjanacbhiiyaya te bhikku bahun atthan vinasayun.
Cbhaddetva oka desancha suttan vinaya gambhiran ;
Patirupan sutta vinayan tantin cha akarinsu te
Parivaran atthuddhiiran abhidhamman cbhappakaranan ;
Patisanibhidancba niddesan eka desancha Jatakaii
Etta kan vissajitvana aniian va akarinsu te
Namaliiigaparikkharan akappakaranani cha ;
Pakatibhavan vijabitva taiicha annari akansu te
Pubbarigama bhinnavada maba sai^giti karaka ;
Tesancha anukarena bhinna vada bahu ahii.
Tato aparakalamhi tasmin bhedo ajayatha ;
sGokulika Ekabbohari dvidha bhijjittha bhikkhavo

* Buddhaghosa has quoted portions of this section in his Paiichap-


(joknlikanan dv-eva bhedii apara kiilanihi j;iyatha ;
Bahussntiku clia paniiatti dvidlui bhijjittha bhikkhavo.
Chetiyjicha punaviuli mahasai\giti bhedaka ;
Paficha Viidii ime sabbe Mahiisai^giti miilaka.
Atthan dhammancha bliindinsu eka desaueha saugahan ;
OauthaiTi cha ekadesaijhi chhaddetv'annan akansu te
Kamalii'igan pavikkharan akappakaranani cha ;
Pakatibbjivan vijahitva tancha afmau akansu te.
Visuddha-theravadamhi puna bbedo ajayatha ;
' Mahinsasaku Vajjiputta dvidha bbijjittba bbikkhavo
Vajjiputtaka-vadamhi cbatudhii bhedo ajixyatha ;
Dhammuttarika Bhadrayani Cbbannagarika cba Sammiti,
Mabiysasakanan dvo bhedji apara ktUamhi jayatha ;
Sabbatthi vtida Dbammagutta dvidha bbijjittba bbikkhavo
Sabbattbiviida Kassapika Kassapikena'pi Sankantika ;
Sankantito Suttavadi anupubbena bbijjatha.
Ime eka-dasa vadii pabbinnii thei'a-vadato,
Attban dhammaiicba bbindinsu ekadesaScha sano;aban ;
Gantbancba ekadesamhi chhaddetvjina akansu te
Namalii'igan parikkharan akappakaranjini cba ;
Pakatibbuvan vijahitva taiicba aman akansu te *
Sattarasa bbinnavada eko vado abhinnako ;
Sabbe v'atthjidasa houti bbinnavadena te saba.
Nigi'odbo'va maharukkbo there vtidana muttamo,
Anunanadbikanche'va kevalan Jina sasanan ;f

* It is remarkable that the rejnetition of an act is conveyed by
a repetition of the same stanza, a circumstance which proves the
truth of the tradition, that the Dipawansa was compiled by royal
chi'oniclers, to whom it was assigned as a task.

t In reprinting this sheet we have inadvertently adopted ij for
the niggiihita.


Kantaka viya rukkliamlii nibbatta viida scsaka
Pathanie vassa sate natthi dutiye vassa satautare ;
Bliinnasattaiasa vada uppaniia Jina sasane
A'chariya vadan nittliitan.

They (the sinful priests) made an absurd mixture
by departing from the sense and phraseology of the
dhamma and vinaya, the doctrines of Buddha.

With a view (therefore), to degrade them, many
priests, disciples of Buddha, (in all) twelve hundred
thousand, assembled together. In this congregation
there were eight pre-eminent principal bhikkhus, who
had a large retinue, who were (unapproachable, /. e. )
without their equals, and not inferior to (Buddha
himself; viz.) Sabbakami Salha,Revata, Khujjasobhita,
Vasabhagami, Sumana, Sambhuta of Sana, and Yasa,
son of Kakanda, all who had seen Buddha. They
assembled at Vesali with a view to reproach the sinful

Vasabhagami and Sumana were the disciples of
Anuruddha, and the rest of A'nanda. They had all
seen Buddha.

[At this time] Asoka, the son of Susunaga, a
Khattiya prince, reigned in Pataliputta.

The (abovenamed) eight pre-eminent theras, having
gained (this prince) to their side, censured the ten
indulgences, and (oppressed) inflicted pains and penalties
on the sinful innovators. Having (thus) overcome
the sinful bhikkhus, and suppressed their heresies ;
these illustrious eight priests, with the object of
purifying their own discourses, assembled seven



liuudred araluuitas —pre-eminent ])hikklius; and held a
Council of dhanima.

This second Sangitl was brought to a close in eight
months, at the Kutagara Hall, in the renowned city
of Vesdli.

Many individuals (viz.) ten thousand sinful Vajjian*
bhikkhus, Avho had been expelled by the theras, assem-
bled together; and, having formed another party, held
a council of dharama. This is thence called Maha

The bhikkhus who held theMahii Sangiti reduced the
religion into confusion,! set aside$ the first compilation, §
and made another. 1| They placed in different places
the Suttans which occurred in different other places,
and distorted the sense, and the wordsH of the five

* Vajji— the inhabitants of Vesali, a territory on the north of
Petna in which the Lichchhavi Princes were settled. It is however
not stated where the Council was held. Doubtless it was at a
distance from the principal seat of Government and Buddhism,
which at this period was at Vesali.

f Viloman akansu, 'made to bristle,' 'ruffled,' 'crossed,' 'reversed,'
' confused.'

X Bhinditvd — ' having broken,' 'split,' 'set aside.'

§ Sangahan. From the context I would render this word ' com-
pilation ' and not ' rehearsal.' The acts here related, taken in
connection with the original import of the word, can only refer to
a written and not a mental collection.

II Akarinsu 'made,' 'done,' 'effected,' The same word is used
in the following sentence, wherein I have rendered it 'placed.'

^ Dhanmia here means phraseology of the Scriptures, as opposed
to their attha, 'sense' or 'import.'


nlkaya. They did so, ignorant of (the difference
between) the general discourses, and those (delivered)
on particular occasions, and also (between) their na-
tural and implied significations. They expressed* in
a sense different from that which was declared, and
set aside various significations under the unwarranted
authority (shadow of) words. f They omitted a
portion of the Sutta, and Vinaya of deep import, and
substituted|(theirown)version§ of them and the text. I]
They left out the Parivaran annotations,1[ the six
books** of the Abhidhamma, the Patisambhida, the
Niddesa,andaportionof the J atakasft without replacing

* Thapaylnsu — ' They made to stand.'

t Vyanjana, 'letters,' and in some of the Buddhist writings,
' words' or 'sentences.'

J Patirupa — placed another figure or 'counterpart.'

§ From a comparison of the Ceylon and Nepal versions of the
sacred writings I find the latter has three sections, the Vaipulya,
the Nidan, and the Upadesa ; all which are additions to the original
discourses. Compare the following list taken from Hodgson's
Illustrations, with the list from Buddhagosa's atthakatha, given
in Introduction to Kachchayana's Pali Grammar, p. 61. Hodgson
says ; " The Bauddha scriptures are of twelve kinds, known by the
following twelve names, 1 Siitra; 2 Geyya; 3 Vyakarana; 4 Gath.^ ;
5 Udan ; 6 Nidan ; 7 Ityukta ; 8 Jataka ; 9 Vaipulya ; 10 AdLhiita
dliarma; II Avadan ; and 12 Upadesa."

II Tantin. The text; see my remarks hereon in the Intro-
duction to Kachch. Pali Grammar, p. v.

^ Atthuddhdran, 'explanatory discourses.'

*'^ Pakarana, ' compilation,' ' something made methodically," ' an
original composition.'

ft The version of the Jatakas in Ceylon is, I believe, deficient.


any thing in their stead. They moreover, disregarded*
the nature of nouns, their gender, and (other) accidents,!
as well as the (various) requirements of style,! ^"t*
corrupted the same by different forms.

The originators of the Maha Sangiti were the first
seceders. Many followed their example. Since then,
there was a breach in that association, and the Priests
were divided into two sections — the Gokulika and
Ekabbohdrika. Subsequently the Gokulikas branched
off into two others, viz., Bahussutika and Pannatti.
Subsequently still, there arose a schism (called) the
C hetiya. Then there were altogether five schisms
which had sprung up from the Maha Sangiti— the
same, which was the first, (being a sixth )

These heretics (also) distorted the sense and the
phraseology (of the scriptures); omitted a portion of the
(original) compilation, and of the gathas, and substi-
tuted others (in lieu of them). They (further) dis-
regarded the nature of nouns, their gender, and other

* A'kappakarana — also 'decorations, embellishments, niceties of
style or composition, or figures of speech.'

t The peculiarities here noticed, when compai'od with those,
of the Gatha dialect of the Nepal Scriptures (see Essay thereon
by Babu Rajendralal Mitra in the Bl. A. S. J. for 1854, p. 604,
et seq.), there can be no doubt of the identity between this fourth
code of the Buddhists and the Nepal version. The dilTerences
of style therehi illustrated by Mr. Mitra exactly correspond with
the defects of composition hci'e described.

I Parikkaran — 'attributes,' 'decorations,' 'accidents.'

Dl'r AAV ANSA. 140

acciclents, as well as the various requisites of style, and
corrupted the same by different substitutions.*

In the doctrines of the orthodox priests there was
again a breach (which resulted in the establishment) of
two sects called the Mahinsaka and Vajjiputtaka.
From the latter arose four sects, called Dhammuttarika,
Bhadray ani, Chhannagarika, and Sammiti. Afterwards,
two (more) schisms, the Sabbatthivada and Dhamma-
gutta arose out of the Mahinsaka ; and from the Sab-
battika gradually pprang up the Kassapika, and from
the latter the Sankantika, and from it the Suttavadi
schism. These eleven emanated from the orthodox party.

They (likewise) made a compilation by distorting
the sense, and the phraseology of the sacred discourses ;
and by omitting a portion of the text and of the gathas.
They too disregarded the forms of nouns, their gender,
and other accidents, as well as the various requirements of
style, and corrupted the same by different substitutions.

The schisms of the seceders were (thus) seventeen,
the vadaf of those wdio had not seceded, was one ; and
with it there were altogether eighteen sects.

* "In the Gatha, says Mr, Mitra, we tind the old forms of
tlie Sanskrit Granniiar gradually losing their impressive power,
and prepositions and periphrastic expressions supplying their
places, and time-hallowed verl)s and conjugations juxtaposed to
vulo'ar slangs and uncouth jiniviucialisins."

f The word vada, which we Iiave iliiferently translated at
diilerent places to convey 'heresy,' ' schism/ &c., means simply as in
this place, 'discourse,' 'discussion,' 'demonstrated conclusion,'
' doctrine,' ' principle.'


Like the great Nigrodha (among) trees, the ortho-
dox discourses alone are supreme among doctrines;
and they are moreover the pure (very) word of Buddha,
without retrenchment or addition. The doctrines
which have arisen from it are like the thorns of a tree.

There were no (heresies) in the first century (anno
Buddhas) but in the second, seventeen sprung up in
the religion of Buddha.


End of the A'chariya Va'da.

This section then proceeds to narrate the division
amongst the preceptors. The life of Moggaliputta
Tissa thera is thus translated by Turnour.

"In the second year of the reign of Chandagutto, Avhen
Siggawo was sixty- four years old, which was the fifty-eighth
year of the reign of Pandukabhayo, the raja (of Lanka)
Moggaliputto was ordained an upasarapada in the fraternity
of Siggawo ; and the said Moggaliputtatisso, having acquired
the knowledge of the wineyo in the fraternity of Chandawajj i,
was released from the sins inseparable from liability to
future regeneration. Both Siggawa and Chandawajj i taught
the whole of the Pitako, which embraces botli (the wineyo,
discipline, and dhammo, doctrine), to the pre-eminently
endowed Muggaliputto. Siggawo of profound wisdom died at
the age of seventy-six, having constituted the pre-eminently
endowed Moggaliputto the chief of the wineyo Chandagutto
reigned twenty four years. In the fourteenth year of his
reign Siggawo died.

"In the sixth year of the roign of Dliammasoko, Mogga-
liputto was sixty -six years old. Mahindo was then ordained


an upasarapada iu Lis fraternity, and acquired a knowledge
of the Pitako.

"Upali attained his seventy-fourth, Dasako his sixty-
fourth, the thero Sonako his sixty-sixth, Siggawo his seventy-
sixth, and Moggaliputto his eightieth year. The following
are the periods that all of these theros were upasampada, of
whom at all times the learned Upali was recognized as the
first chief, viz., Dasako was an upasamjmda fifty, Sdnoko,
forty-four, Siggawofive,* and Moggaliputto, sixty-eightycars.

"Udayo reigned sixteen years, and in the sixth year of
Udayo's reign, Upali died.

" Susanago, the opulent monarch, reigned ten years, in the
eighth year of Susanago's reign Dasako died.

"Atf the demise of Susanago he had ten brothers, who
collectively reigned twenty-two years, in great celebrity.
In the sixth year of their reign Sonako died.

"Chandagutto reigned twenty-four years, and in the
fourteenth year of his reign Siggawo died.

"The celebrated Dhammasokotheson of Bindasaro reigned
thirty-seven years. In the twenty-sixth year of his reign,
Moggaliputto died, having caused religion to be glorified,
and having completed the full measure of human existence,

"The learned Upali, the chief of a great fraternity died
at the age of seventy-four, having appointed his learned
disciple Dasako to the office of chief wineyo.

"Dasako, died at the age of sixty-four, having appointed
his senior learned disciple Sonako to the office of chief of
the wineyo.

* " This is evidently a mistake.

t " The reign of Kalasoko is omitted, who Avas the father of the
Nandos -who are here designated the brothers of Susanago.


"Soiiiiko, who was endowed with the six abimui, died at
the age of sixty-six, having appointed his arahat son (disciple)
Siggawo to the office of chief of wineyo.

"Siggawo who was endowed with the six abinna died at
the age of seventy-six, having appointed his son (disciple)
Moggaliputto to the office of chief of wineyo.

"Moggaliputtatisso died at the age of eighty, having
appointed his disciple Mahindo to the office of chief of

The conclusion of the fifth Bha'naaya'ro.

Bha'nava'ra Sixth.

" Piyadassano* was inaugurated in the two hundred and

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Online LibraryJames De AlwisA descriptive catalogue of Sanskrit, Pali, & Sinhalese literary works of Ceylon → online text (page 11 of 17)