James De Alwis.

A descriptive catalogue of Sanskrit, Pali, & Sinhalese literary works of Ceylon online

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eighteenth year after the death of the supreme Buddho. At

the installation of Piyadassano preternatural manifestations

took place.

"(For these manifestations I must refer to the Mahawanso.)

" That royal youth, who was the grand-son of Chanda-
gutto and the son of Bindusaro was at that time the
(karmalino) ruler of Ujjeni.

"In the course of an official circuit he visited Wessanaga-
ran ; where lived a damsel, the daughter of a Sitthi, who
became celebrated under the name of Dewi. By his
connection with her, an illustrious eon was born. (The said
son) Mahindo and (his daughter) Sangamitta formed the
resolution to enter the order of j)riesthood. Both these
individuals having been thus ordained, overcame subjection

* " Having erroneously written this name "Piyadasino" in a
former paper, (Beng. A. S. Journal) vol. vi. p. 1056, yuu have
been led to suppose it was the genitive case of Piyadasi."



Dl'PAWANSA. 153

to regeneration. Asoko was then reigning in the illustrious
Pataliputto. In the third year of his inauguration he
became a convert to the religion of the supreme Buddho.
(If it be asked) what the dui-ation of the term is, from the
date of the parinibbanan of the Supreme Buddho to the date
of the birth of Mahindo, who was descended from the
Moriyan dynasty, (the answer is) two hundred and five
years. In that year Mahindo the son of Asoko was horn.
In Mahindo's tenth year, his father put his own brothers
to death ; and he past four years in reducing Jambudipo
to order. Having put to death his hundred brothers,
and reduced the dynasty to one (family), they (the people)
inaugurated him in the fourteenth year of Mahindo's age.
Asoko, who was endowed Avith great personal superiority
and good fortune, and was destined to rule the world, was
inaugurated under miraculous manifestations. They installed
Piyadassano on his completing his twentieth year."*

This blianavara concludes with Niajrodha's visit to
the Palace — his preaching to Asoka — the admission
of the lattev to Buddhist religion — his interview with
sixty thousand priests — a city festival — alms-giving —
the offering of garments — inquiry by Asoka into the
division of the diiarama — its enumeration — eighty-four
thousand monumental erections by Asoka.f



* "This is evidently a clerical error, his son Mahindo being then
fourteen years old. It was subsequently mentioned that Asoko-
dhammo was forty-five yeai-s old at his inauguration.

t There is a great deal of confusion and repetition in this
section. I have retained the spelling of Mr. Turnour; and have
not thought proper to interpose any observations on his translation.

X



154 descriptive catalogue.

Bha'nava'ra Seventh

"Begins with the account of Mahiudo and Sangamitta
being admitted into the order of the priesthood, (the former
was at once ordained upasauipada, being of the age of
twenty ; but the latter remained a samaneri for two years,
being only eighteen,) in the sixth year of Asoko's inaugu-
ration. These particulars will be found in the Mahawanso.

"Asokadhammo was fifty-four years old at the time of his
inauguration, and at the time of Asokadhammo being-
inaugurated, Moggaliputtatisso was sixty-six. Mahindo
entered into the order of priesthood in the fraternity of
Moggaliputtatisso. Mahadewo performed the ceremony of
admission, and Mojjhanto, the ceremony of the upasampada
ordination. These were the three preceptors who qualified
Mahindo for the priesthood. The said preceptor Moggali-
puttatisso taught Mahindo, who illuminated (Lanka) dipo,
the whole of the Pitako, both as regards its import and its
doctrine. In the tenth year of Mahindo's (ordination) having
acquired a perfect knowledge of the whole creed, he became
the head of a fraternity, and (pachariyo) a sub-preceptor
(under Moggali). The said Mahindo, having thus acquired
a knowledge of the perfectly profound and well arranged
(Pitakattayan), containing the two doctrinal portions (the
wineyo and the abhidhammo) and the suttako (the parables)
as well as the history of the schisms of the preceptors, became
a perpetuator of the same. Moggaliputtatisso thus perfected
Mahindo the son of Asoko, in the knowledge of the three
wejja and the four patisambhidd, and (thereby) Moggali-
puttatisso permanently established in his disciple Mahindo,
the whole of the Pitakattayan which had been thus handed
down to him.



Dl'PAAVANSA. 155

"Nigrodho was admitted into the priesthood in the third
year of Asoko's reign, his brother (Tisso) in the fourth, and
in the sixth his son Mahindo. Tisso and Sumittako, the
two theros who were descended from the Kunti, and were
endowed with supernatural powers, died in the eighth year
of the reign of Asoko. From these two princes having
entered the order of priesthood, and from (the manner in
which) these two theros died, multitudes of the khattiya
and brahman castes proclaimed themselves to be devotees
in this creed, and great benefits and honors resulted to the
religion of the vanquisher ; and the heretics, Avho had been
influential schismatics, lost all their ascendancy. The pan-
daranga, the jatila, nigantha, chetaka and other sects for
seven years continued, however, to perform the uposatha in
separate fraternities. The sanctified, pious, and virtuous
ministers (of Buddho) would not attend those uposatha
meetings. At this conjuncture, it was the two hundred and
thirty-sixth year (of the Buddhistical era.)

Bha'nava'ra Eighth.

After relating the woi'king of wonders, and the
inquiries made of the priesthood regarding religion,
this section proceeds to give a brief account of the third
convocation of which the following is a translation :

* The heretics, who, seeing the gains (of the Buddhists),
and the very great attentions (paid to them), fraudulently
associated (with them), were sixty thousand. (Owing
to their intrusions the observance of) the Patimokkha*

* The meeting of the priesthood once in 15 days; or, on the
full-moon day and on the new-moon day, — when they usually
recite and explain the rules of discipline.



156 ' DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE.

was discontinued in the Asokarama monastery ; and
a minister who ceased to hold the Patimokkha killed
some of the priests.*

With a view (therefore) to eject the heretics, many
Buddhist priests, about sixty thousand in number,
assembled. In this assembly Moggaliputta thera was
the chief. He was equal to Buddha himself — pre-
eminent, and peerless; and, having been requested by
the king (to declare who would incur) the sin of having
killed the priests, he dispelled the Sovereign's doubts
by working a miracle.

"When the king had learnt the religion from (this)
thera, he extirpated the imposters by removing their
(sacerdotal) garments. (These were) the inimical
heretics, who had entered the priesthood, and who, by
means of their own doctrines, set aside the word of
Buddha, which was as pure as gold. All those doc-
trines were false,! and opposed to the discourses of the
theras. To render (therefore) the orthodox doctrines
pure, and to eject the heretics, Moggaliputta delivered
the Kathavatthupakarana| on the Abhidhamma. For
the suppression of heresies, there was not a better
(Instrument of) reproof than this.

* For a detailed accomit of this proceeding, see the Mahawansa.

f Lit. — 'Bro!>cn, imperfect.'

I A 'book-on-the-substance-of-the-discourses.' This is the
name given to the additional pakarana or 'book' of the Abhi-
dhamma. It was composed by amplifying the pre-existing niatika,
and it is devoted to the consideration of five hundred points of
difference between the Buddhists and the heretics, and five hundred
errors of the orthodox party.



Dl'PAWANSA. 157

This done,* with a view to the stability of religion,
and the purification of its doctrines, this hierarch
assembled a thousand arahanta ; and, having selected
a pre-eminent and highly erudite thera, held a Council
of dhamma.

This third convocation was brought to a termination
in nine months, at the Asokarama monastery, founded
by the pious king of that name.

This section concludes with the dispersion of
missionaries for the promulgation of Buddhism into
different parts of Asia, viz., Gandhdra, Mahinsa,
Aparantaka, Maharattha, Yonaka, Himawanta, Su-
vannabhumi, and Lankadipa,

Bha'nava'ra Ninth

Commences with the history of Lanka, thus : —
"This island Lanka acquired the name of Sihala from
Siliof. Listen to this narrative of mine, being the account
of the origin of this island and this dynasty. The daughter
of a king of Wango, having formed a coimection with a
certain Siho, who found his livelihood in a wilderness, gave
birth to two children. These two children named Sihabahu

* Lit —'the thera having delivered the Kathavattliu-jiakarana
on the Abhidhainma.'

■j" " Pachchantan," I have translated, " foreign " in the Maha-
wanso, as the word is compounded of "pati" and " antan." It
would be better rendered as " situated on the confines."

Wanawasi is here omitted, probably by an error of transcription.

This passage is important. Matacha Susinianama, pitaeha
Sihasawhayo. If " Siho " was intended for a "lion," "sawhayo,"
which signifies " named " or " called," would not be used.



158 DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE.

and Sewall were of prepossessing appearance. The mother
was named Susima, and the father was called Si'ho, and at
the termination of sixteen years, secretly quitting that
wilderness, he (Sihabtihu) founded a city, to which capital he
gave the name of Sihapura. In that Lala kingdom, the son
of Siho becoming a powerful monarch, reigned supreme in
his capital Sihapura."

This Bhanavara proceeds to relate the history of
Wijaya, his arrival in Lanka, the names of which are
embodied in the following verse.

Ojadipo Vara-dipo Manda-dipo cha tada ahii

Lanka-dipo cha paunatti Taubapanniti iiayati.

And its magnitude is described to be 'thirty six

yojanas in length, eighteen in width, and a hundred

in circumference'

Eattinsa yojanan dighan attharasahi vitthatan
Yojananan satan avattan sagarena parikkhitan*

Gotama's request to Indra concerning Lanka [regard-
ing which we quote the following gathas].

Parinibbana samaye sambhuddho dipa duttamo
Sihabahussayan putto Wijayo nama Khattiyo
Lankadiparaanuppatto jahitva Jambu-dipakan
Byakasi Buddhasettho so raj a hessati khattiyo
Tato amantayi sattha Sakkan devanamissaran
Lankadipassa ussukkau samapajjathaf Kosiya
Sambuddhassa vacho sutva deva raja Sujanpati
Uppalavannassa achikkhi dipassarakkha karauao

* 'Surrounded by the ocean.' It is quite clear that at this
pei'iod at least this island was not a part of India.
T This should be in the singular number.



Dl'PAWANSA. 159

Sakkassa vachanan sutva (leva putto maliiddhiko
Laukadipassa arakkhan thapesi Vasu-devako.

'At the period of the parinibbana of Buddha, who
v/as superior to bipeds, the Khattiya named Wijaya,
son of Sihabahu, left Jambudipa, and arrived in the
island of Lanka. The supreme Buddha, having
declared that Wijaya would be king, summoned Sakka,
the chief of the devas (and said to him) — 'Kosiya,
exert thyself in regard to the island of Lanka.
Sujapati, the king of the devas, on hearing the word of
Buddha, intrusted to Uppalavanna the protection of
the island of Lanka; and he Vasudeva, the great
mighty deva, on hearing the word of Sakka, extended
his protection to Lanka.'

As regards the origin of the name Tambapanna for
this island, the Dipawansa has the following :
Ukkhitta vata vegena disa mulha maha jana
Lanka dipa'mnpa gamma orohitva thale tliita
Patitthitd dharani tale dubbala'ti jighachchhita
Pipasita kilantacha padasa gamanena cha
Ubhohi pani jannulii viaggan katva puthuviyan
Majjhe vutthaya thatvana nabipassanti sobhanan
Surattau pansu bhumi bhage hattha padanhi makkhitan
Is'araa deyyan tada asi Tambapanni 'ti dipitau.
* By the fury of the tempest the large assemblage
of people lost their way, and reached Lanka-dipa;
(where) having disembarked, and landed, they [lit. those
who thus stood on land] were weak and hungry.
When they became thirsty and faint by walking on
foot, they rested on the ground, with both their palms
and knees : and, when they rose and stood up, they



160 DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE.

saw in the interval [the space occupied by them]
iiotliing beautiful. The dust, however, which stuck
to the palms of their hands and feet, was very ruddy.
Thence the celebrated name Tambapanui.'

Analysis continued — The first city is also called
Tambapanui — Wijaya's reign in Lanka [interpolation
regarding Buddha's visit to Lanka] Wijaya's embassy
to his brother Sumitta — King Panduvasa and his
sons — his reign.

Bha'nava'ra Tenth.

King Abhaya — Pandukabhaya — Prince Pakundaka
— Pandukabhaya again — Mutasiva — interregnum —
Mutsaiva's children.*

Bha'nava'ra Eleventh and Twelfth.

Inauguration of Devananpiyatissa — his good fortune
— his alliance with Asoka — the offerings of tlie latter
to the former — Mahinda's visit to Lanka — prelimina-
ries connected with his departure — Indra's interview
with Mahinda — particulars connected with his journey
— his arrival in Lanka — Devananpiyatissa's excursion
on a deer-hunt — his invitation and visit to Mahinda —
Mahinda preaches to the king — entrance into the city
— ordination of Sumana — Mahinda's missionary labours
at Anuradhapura — -his stay at Maha Meghavana —
description of this Park— its dedication — acceptance —
preternatural indications - the earth quakes eight times.

* This as well as several other Bhfinavaras are found short of
the required number of stanzas.



Dl'PAWANSA. 1&-1

Bha'nava'ra Thirteenth.

Mahinda's visit to the palace — second visit — his
preaching in the Nandana Park — the ecclesiastical
limits of Lanka — the city included, and why? — limits
fixed — Mahinda's visit to the palace — he preaches in
the Nandana — accepts the Maha Vihara — preaches
at the palace — the departure of the priests to IMount
Missaka, where the king rejoins them — Mahinda's inter-
view with the king — his preparation for Vassa—his
proposal to define the ecclesiastical limits about the
mountain — limits defined — ordination of Prince Arlttha
• — the monastery on the mountain.

Bha'nava'ra Fourteenth.

As the portion Avhich follows the above is sufHciently
interesting w^e give a translation of it below, omitting
repetitions.

'We,' (said Mahinda), who have arrived from Jam-
budipa in the first month of the Gimhana* season, and
on the full-moon Sabbath (day,) have resided in the
celebrated mountain. We purpose returning to Jam-
budipa in the fifth month of our residence in the
mountain, and in Tissarama. O Monarch, permit (us
to do) so.

[The king answered and said]; 'All the people have
taken refuge. (They) have pleased you witli eatables
and drinkables, with raiment and habitations. Where-
fore (then) is your dissatisfaction?'

* The hot season.



162 DESCRirTIVE CATALOGUE.

* Monarch,' (replied Maliinda), 'it is very long since
Buddha, the chief of the bipeds, was (worshipped by)
prostration, by rising from one's seat, by salutation,
and by reverent attention.'

* Lord,' (returned Devananpiyatissa), *what you have
(said) is indeed understood by me. I shall erect a
splendid Thupa. I shall build it for Buddha. Look
out for a suitable locality.'

[Whereupon Mahinda thus spoke] : ' Sumana, come
hither. Go to the city of Pataliputta, and say thus
to king Dhammasoka; Maha raja, thy ally has em-
braced Buddhism. He will build a thupa for Buddha.
Bestow upon him (some) valuable relics.'

The eloquent, and meek (Sumana) of great erudi-
tion, — the sustainer of learning, who had achieved
iddhi, and who was on the mount, instantly took his
bowl and robe, and went to king Dhammasoka, and
delivered the message (thus) : 'Maharaja, hear thou
the word of the spiritual preceptor. Maha raja, thy
ally has embraced Buddhism. Bestow on him some
valuable relics, and he will erect a Thupa for Buddha.'

The king hearing the (above) speech was highly
pleased and became very anxious. He (immediately)
filled (for him) a vessel of relics, (and said) 'O! vir-
tuous, depart quickly.'

Whereupon the eloquent and meek (Sumana)
taking the relics, ascended the sky, and went to Kosiya.*
And, when he had approached Kosiya's presence, the

* Indra.



Dl'PAWANSA. 163

pious (ascetic) spoke thus: *Maha raja, hear thou the
words of the spiritual teacher. The king-beloved of
the gods has embraced Buddhism. Give him valuable
relics, and he will construct a great Tlitipa.'

Hearing his words, and being pleased, Kosiya
bestowed the right collar-bone (of the sage, and said)
*0 virtuous, depart quickly.'

Sumana, the Samanera, having thus gone to Kosiya,
and received the right collar-bone, returned to the
celebrated mountain.

****** Thereupon the king of immense forces,
with his brother, preceded by the bhikkhus and sanghas,
repaired to meet the relic of the illustrious Buddha.
On the day which completed the fourth month (of the
seasons), in the full moon niglit of Komudi,* the Maha
Vira, who had come (thither) took his place on the
frontal globes of the elephant.

There (in honor of) Buddha's arrival at Pachchanta,
the elephant roared, the earth quaked, like a stroked
basin, and chanks and musical instruments were jjlayed.
Immense was the noise of drums; and the king, at-
tended by his retinue, made offerings unto the great
being.

The royal elephant, which had its face towards the
west, went away from amongst (other) elephants, and
entered the city through the eastern gate; when both
men and women made offerings (unto the relic) with
all kinds of scents and flowers.

* Kattika, 'Oct.— Nov.'



164 DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE.

The elephant, when proceeding through the southern
g<ate, (halted) in the ancient capital, the region conse-
crated by Kakusandha, Koniiganiana, and Kassapa

flt ^ ^ ^ % ^ 7k ^

I3uddhas: wliere the kinw enshrined the relics of
Sakyaputta ; and at this event the gods rejoiced, and the
earth quaked miraculously and frightfully.

The Samanera, called Sumana, with his brother
(or cousin,) having consnlted the Ministers of State,
and the inhabitants of the country, constructed bricks
for the thupa.'

Analysis continued : Kakusandha Buddha's visit
to Lanka — his missionary operations — Konagamana
Buddha's visit to Lanka — success of his operations —
Gotama's mental perception of Lanka — the cause of
Sangamitta's visit to Lanka— preliminaries connected
with her visit— permission granted to her by Asoka»

Bha'nava'ra Fifteenth.

Sangamitta's departure with the Bodbi branch —
Asoka staying behind — how evil spirits surrounded the
Bodhi— offerings thereto by gods and Nagas — Lankd's
king's offering to the same — ordination of Anula.

Bha'nava'ra Sixteenth.

The size of Lanka (repetitions) names of Lank£ —
and of Anuradhapura — the relics of former Buddhas
deposited in Lanka — the names of mountains in afore-
times — Konagamana's relics deposited in Lanka —
the name given at that period to the spot on which the



Dl'PAWANSA. 165

Bodhi now stands — Kakusandha Buddha's visit to,
and stay in, Lanka — his aspirations whilst in Lanka —
the prayers of the people of Lanka — Kakusandha's visit
to Mahfitittha Park— his acceptance of the Park — the
planting of his memorial tree in Lanka — the oflferinga
to the same by devas — (repetitions) the planting of
Gotama's Bodhi in Mahti Meghavana — the computa-
tion of time from the death of Gotama to the reign of
Devananpiyatissa— the exchange of presents between
that sovereign and Dammasoka — the second inaugura-
tion of Devananpiyatissa— the erection of a chetiya
by him — reign of Uttiya— the cremation of JSIahinda
— the designation given to the place.

Bha'nava'ra Seventeenth.

Lanka abounded with good and great — theri-param-
pani or the succession of preceptresses, — which is thus
translated by Tumour.

" She who was renowned under the appellation of Pajapati,
and was of the Gotamo family, endowed with six abifina and
with supernatural gifts, the younger sister, born of the same
mother, of Maharaaya (the mother of Buddo) : and who, with
the same affection as Maya herself nourished Bhagawa at
her breast, was established in the highest office (among
priestesses.)

"The following are the priestesses who (in succession)
acquired a perfect knowledge of the wineyo, viz. : Khema
Xlppalawanmi, two of each name, and Pataachari, Dbamma-
dinna, Sobliita, Isidasika, Wisakha, Asoka, Sapahi, Sangha-
dasi, gifted with wisdom, Nanda and Dhammapala, celebrated
for her knowledge of Wineyo.



1G6 DESCRirTIVE CATALOGUE.

"The theri Sanghamitta, Uttara, who was gifted with
■wisdom, Hemapasa, Dassala, Aggamitta, Dasika, Pheggu-
pabbatta, Matta, Salalii, Dhammadasija — these juvenile
priestesses came bither from Jambudipo, and propounded the
Winayapitako in the capital designated Anuradhapura — they
propounded not only the five divisions of the Wineyo, but
also the seven Pakaranani.

"The females who were ordained upasampada by them
in this island were Soma, devoted to dhammo, Goridipi,
Dhammadasiyi, Dhammapala versed in the wineyo, Mahila
conversant in the dhutawada, Sobhana, Dhammat«i, Passa-
nagamissa, also versed in the wineyo, and Satakali profound
in the theri controversy, and Uttara.

" Under the instructions of Abhayo* celebrated for his
illustrious descent, the aforesaid priestesses as well as
Sumanaf renowned for the doctrinal knowledge among her
sisterhood, a maintainer of the Dhutanga, a vanquisher of
the passions, of great purity of mind, devoted to dhammo
and wineyo, and Uttara endowed with wisdom, together
with their thirty thousand priestesses, were the first priest-
esses who propounded at Anuradhapura, the wineyo, the five
Nik aye (of the Suttapitako) and the Suttapakarane of the-
Abhidhammo.

"Mahala equally illustrious for her knowledge of the
dhammo and for her piety, was the daughter of the monarch
Kakawanno. Girikali, profoundly versed by rote, was the
daughter of his Poorohito (the almoner of Kakawanno) ;
Kaladasi and Snbbapapika were the daughters of Gutto.
These priestesses, who always maintained the orthodox texts,



* "Abhayo, the brother of Dewfinanpiyatisso."
I "Vide Index of the Mahawauso for this name."



Bl'PAWANSA. 167

and of perfect purity of mind, were versed in the dhammo
and wineyo, and having returned from the Rohana division
maintained by the illustrious ruler of men Abhayo*, pro-
pounded the Wineyo, at Anuradhapura."

[Analysis continued] the reign of King Siva — reign
of Suratissa and Elara.



Bha'nava'ra Eighteexth.

Reign of Dutthagamani — the building of a large
Palace — the arrival of priests from Asia— the erection
of preaching halls — death of Dutthagamani.

Bha'nava'ra Nineteenth

Treats of the religious acts of Saddhatissa — that he
placed a glass pinnacle on the Thupaf — the reigns of
Thtilathana and Lajjitissa — the reigns of Khalhlta
and Kammaharattaka— the reigns of AYattagamani
and a Damila king — Wattagamani (continued).
Reduction of Buddha's discourses to writing ;:{: — the
reign of Mahtichuli Maha Tist-a— reign of Chora Naga
— [Chula] Tissa— Annla — Siva Watuka — Katthahara
— Tilaya Damila — Kutikanna-Tissa — the acts of the
last named.



* " Vide Index for Gamini Abhayo, the name of Dutthagamani
before he recovered the kingdom."

•f For the original see my Attanagaluvansa, p.. xxvi.
X See extract, ante p. 121.



1g8 descriptive catalogue.

Bha'xaya'ra Twentieth.

Abhava the son of Kutikanna — the desu*e of the
king to see the interior of the thupa — the desire
realized by the help of Indra — the light offering by the
king— the offerings to the chetiya — the flower offerings
by the king — donations — the erection of a building for
the observance of the Sabbath — King Niiga — A'lnatta-
gamani — Tissa — Chulabhaya — Sivali — Ilanaga and
Siva — Yasa— Lala Tissa, and Subha.

Bha'nava'ra Twenty-first

Contains an account of King Vasabha — his acts —
construction of subterranean aqueducts for irrigation^
King Tissa — Gajabahu — Gamani and Mahalla Naga —
A'yutissa — the opening of the Raniani Tank — Bhatika-
tissa — the acts of Tissa — King Vankanasika— the
history of Vankanasika, Tissa, Gajabahu, &c. — Khujja-
naga — Kunjanaga, Sirinaga — King Abhaya — his acts
— King Sirinaga — Wijaya — Sanghatissa — Sanghabodhi


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Online LibraryJames De AlwisA descriptive catalogue of Sanskrit, Pali, & Sinhalese literary works of Ceylon → online text (page 12 of 17)