James De Alwis.

A descriptive catalogue of Sanskrit, Pali, & Sinhalese literary works of Ceylon online

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14. Nokaratat viyadain
Karatat ita viyadain
Kiyamin cti padam

Kahasa dauvan himita karapoin.

12. AVhen travel-worn thy husband

Comes home with wearied feet ;
Thy maidens stay — to Avash theui
Be thine the office meet.

13. Be not at doors a watcher

Nor pleasure grounds frequent ;
Nor set unto the household
Example indolent.

14. Extravagant or niggard

If such thy husband prove,
With gentle speech in private
Seek kindly him to move.

Xavam and Medindina, make oblations of food, light and scents to
the household gods.— 12. When thy husband has retui'ued home
afrer a journey, oi'der not thy maidens, but do thou thyself wash
his feet. — 13. Be not guilty of watching at the door, of walking
in pleasure grounds; and be not lazy to (household) work. 14.
Whether thy husband spends too much, or does not spend at all,
speak to him kindly and privately, informing him (of the fact;, and


15. Gcyi eti noyekiibadu
Dakimiu niti iiokara ailu
Daruvan hatada vedu

Nodea nokiya yali nodenapmlii

16. Tama himi situ lesa
Dutuvot veiiata seneliasa
Nuvan ka(n)dulen misa
Yalit nokiyan basin pilivisa.

17. Ilimihata ita kemati
Dena batmalu e niti
Pisa kavamin kemati

Dakiu duk sepa mavaka se iti.

1.5. Thy goods preserve, nor 'minish
Without thy husband's Icen ;
Not measureless to children

Give, e'en though they be men.

16. If from thee to another

Thy husband's love should stray,
In bitter haste reproach not.
Tears best the heart then sway.

17. The food he most delights in,

Which chief prefers, provide ;
For him as mother caring,

Though good, though ill betide.

stating the actual state [of funds]. — 15. Preserve, without dimi-
nution, the various things in the house ; and give not even to
grown-up children without informing (of it to thy husband), and
without measure. — IG. If thou seest thy husband form an attach-
ment to another, speak not [to him on the subject], except after
iii(]uiry, and except in tears. — 17. Feed thy dear husband with
the rice and curry which he ever likes ; and thus be to him a mother


18. Ilimi vetata yana kala
Abavana suva(ii)da manakala
Patapiliyen udula

Yanna serasi lesin Siri kala.

19. Pemiuenakala yaliaua
So('n)da mudu sihin saluvena
Giv kau abaraniua

Malin suva(n)diu sedeva risivaua.

20. Hevapasukota eraata
Aluyama palamunegisita
Himi pubudina kalata
La(n}gama sitineya rekavalkota.

18. When thou to him approachest

Bedeck thyself with care,
Clad in thy silks, and perfumed
Like Lakshmi, goddess fair.

19. So when his bed thou seekest

Soft be thy garb and fine ;
Thy neck and ears be jewell'd,
Sweet flowers thy locks entwine.

20. To rest, to sleep, the latest,

Be first at dawn to rise,
That when thy husband wakens
Thy 'tendance he may prize.

in both adversity and prosperity. — 18. When thou approachest
thy husband, go delightfully dressed and perfumed ; and decked
in silks, like Lakshmi. — 19. When thou goest to bed, be
delightfully attired in fine soft garments, with ear and neck orna-
ments, and decked in flowers and perfumes. — 20. Go to rest after
all (others) ; be first to rise at dawn ; and at the time thy husband


21. Matut cleiia vanavoda
Denagana novi adadada
Nokota senehasa kada
Yamak nokaran himin atmeda.

22. Himi uvada urana
Nokiya tepul daruiia
Vadava sita karuna

Velit nositava detenasaraua.

23. Piya Bamuiiu sakasa
Ova bas di melesa
Si(m)ba duvage sirasa
Yanta ki himisamaga nolasa.

2 1 . The present and the future

Regarding, let thy h)ve
Be studious thy husband
To please all else above.

22. If anger'd, him provoke not,

Nor for fresh marriage sigh,
But ever with afFectioa
Strive love to intensify. —

23. The Brahman his sage counsels

Thus giv'n, with yearning heart
His daughter kiss'd, and bade her
Thence with her lord depart."

w. s.

awakes be thou on attendance upon him. — 21. Having regard to
the present and future happiness, be not confused (in your acts) ;
and, not wanting in thy love to thy husband, do nothing that is
distasteful to him. — 22. Even if thy husband be angry, do not
use harsh expressions, but rather promote feelings of affection ,-
and think not of a second marriage. — 23. The Brahman, her father,
having thus advised, and having kissed his daughter's head, desired
her to depart with her husband.'


The Selaliuini Sand]£sa,

' The Sela*-Messeno;cr, ' is another of Tota^'amuva's
celebrated works. Well indeed may it be compared
to the Meo;ha Duta of Kalidasa. The writer's
thoughts, brilliant and original, sparkle as we go along
his elegant and flowing rhymes. His language is free
and fascinating; his illustrations are original and lively ;
and his versification unexceptionable.

Totagamuva undertook this work with grateful
affection for the king and his country. He felt inter-
ested in the welfare of the young family of Parak-
krama Bahu, and sympathised with the Princess
Ulakuda, who pined for want of a son and heir. It is
a Message to Vibishana, the presiding deity of the
Kelani temple, invoking the blessing of a grandson to
the king, or rather a son to the princess.

The poem consists of 107 stanzas. The first four
(called seheli) are introductory, and are addressed to

* " The Sarica (Gracula Religiosa) is a small bird better known
by the name of Mina, It is rejjresented as a female ; while the
Parrot is described as a male bird ; and as these two have in all
Hindu tales the faculty of human speech, they are constantly
introduced, the one inveighing against the faults of the male sex,
and the other exposing the defects of the female." — INIeghu Data,
pp. 92-93.

2 E


the Messenger. We give them below as a specimen.*

1 , Serada sulakala kuru-mijuru tepulen ra(ii)daua
Raja kula rahasc metiniya-siyanehi Sclalihini sa(u)ila.

2. Puhnal kesaru men ranwani tela sarana ynga
Sapu mal kenew tu(la mada ratini mauahara.
Nilupul delew samawaiii piya piya patara
Malin ka]a ruvew ebewin nubin ena wara.

Niluda lada Sida(m)bu'\vo digu warale nilu
Niludawata bi(n)gu pe]a ada ta(m)bara uiln.

"Ilail Sarica, high gifted ! endow'd like sages wise [advise!
Whose bosoms hold state secrets, with whom crown'd heads
Thy words, in tones that ravish, sweet music's notes excel :
Amongst thy kin beloved, long, long, oh may'st thou dwell !

Fair bird ! whose limbs, gold-colour'd, in lustrous tint compare
With pollen full-blown flowers in beauteous corols bear;
AVhose glittering beak is ruddy as champak blossoms red;
Whose wings, dark blue and glossy, like upul petals spread;—
When like a flow'r-clad fairy thou dartedst through the sky,
Did not, to meet thee, swiftly, the youthful Siddhas fly,

* Lit.~-\. O Sarica! in wisdom equal to that of ministers of
Princes— and of speech sweet, and composed of excellent notes,
mayest thou in the company of thy species live lono- !— 2. When
thou, whose (two) feet are of golden hue, like unto the pollen of
a full-blown blossom, whose partially red and glistenino- beak is
like unto a cluster of champaka flowers, and whose black and
delightfully wide-spread wings are like unto the leaves of the blue
lotus ; — (when thou) takest thy airy flight like a flowery figure,
have not youthful goddesses worn thee on their long jet-black
hair? Have not swarms of bees, which make the lotuses their
habitation, approached, and encircled thee ? Have not the god-


Waiiadew liyo nokaloda sawana ambarana
Ena maga dukek nowida saba(n)dini kalaua
Senebasa bendunu teiia nohai'iiia karo diwuna
Wena sejja kumata topa dakina ema pareiana.

3. Lapa noma wan sa(n)da men somi guna gibini
Opa wedi gata hebneli siwmeli pemini
Sepa siri dena weni rasa baseti situniini
Topa dekumen apa pinkala bawa denuni.

Place thee their flowing tresses, their jetty locks among,
While bees from lotus dwellings around in circles hung ? —
Say, has no forest goddess of thee an ear-drop made, —
No hindrances or mishaps thee on thy way delay'd? —
Ah, happy one ! whose friendship, tried by whatever tests,
Where once 'tis placed is rooted, there grows, there ever rests,
Let those who list, enjoyments in other pleasures own,
For us, blest with thy presence, no greater joy is known.

3. And since in thee dwell virtues as with the moon dwells light,
And delicate and spotless as water-lily white
Appears thy graceful body, while thy sweet-sounding voice
Is like the chintamani, that makes the heart rejoice.
That brings its blest possessor each long'd-for boon of wealth
Or whatsoe'er he wishes of happiness or health : —
A consciousness thou bring'st us, in former births our life
Was one of merits fruitful, with righteous deeds was rife.

desses of the forest made thee their ear-ornaments? Elas no
(other) ill befallen thee in thy journey ? Happy friend, who
possessest inviolate and with increasing vigour, any attachment
which thou mayest form ! What is bliss save that which is known
in thy presence ! — 3. When we behold thee, wlio art equal to a
spotless moon, full of (goodness) brilliancy, of an exceedingly
smooth body like a delicate white lotus, of sweet speech; and like
unto a situmini gem, which produces (bestows) wished -for health


4. Mitufii turao duk sepa dekchimn pewati
Bitu situyam ru men pitu nopawiti
Yutu matu Averla matepala eweni guna eti
Situ natukare asa yahaluvva waduua ruti.

4. Like pictures on walls painted so fix'd true friends remain ;
To turn their backs they cannot, nor can their friendship wane ;
Alike amid reverses or fortune's fliv'ring smiles,
Hearts still to hearts united, nor look nor thought beguiles; —
Such to the core thee knowing, imto my words, oh friend !
Much future good involving, with heedful care attend,"

W. S.

Stanzas 5 to 51 are occupied with graphic descrip-
tious of Kotta, its busy streets, palaces and temples;
the intervening scenery between it and Kelani; the
route to be followed in journeying from one city to
the other; the villages and their inhabitants; the
religious rites and customs of the people ; and the
banks of the Kclani-o-anora. From 52 to 76, Kelani, its
temples, diigobas, and other sacred sites (of many of
wdiich, as in Kotta, only traditional traces now remain),
its dancing girls, and singing women, are the subjects of
the poet's theme. The next sixteen stanzas contain

and prosperity — Ave feci that we committed meritorious acts (?.e.)
in a previous existence. — 4. Excellent friends, like a picture on
a wall (which does not or cannot turn away), are immutable both
in prosperity and adversity. Friend of the like character, having
rivetted thy attention, give ear unto my words, both pleasing and
prognostic of future happiness.


a glowing description of the God Vibi^bana. 93 to
104 contain the message and prayer, in tbe course of
whicb admirable sketches are given of the minister
Nallurutanaya, the king Parakkrama, and Ulakuda-
devi, the Princess-Royal. 105 and 106 give shrewd
advice as to the best methods of furthering the suit,
and 107 ends the poem with the author's benediction
on the bird. Two additional stanzas give information
concerning the writer, and the date at which he wrote.*

* In some copies there arc 108 stanzas; — one, descrijitive of
Kutta, being inserted as (lie 10th. This however is considered an
interpolation by some aiithorities.

The text of the Sda-lihini Sandesa, with an ancient sanne,
was first published by Tudave pandit in 1859. The same work,
with an English metrical translation, literally rendered, and with
notes and a glossary for the use of students, was published, in 1865,
by W. C. Macready, Esq., of the Ceylon Civil Service. It forms
a useful volume of 100 8vo. pages, from which we extract the
following specimen: —

CI. "4. ..On Jiei- hif daughter, beauteous and renowned

Princess Ulukude, l...\vho learned is

In poetry and eloquence, 2 .who shews

Great zeal and love f(n- Biddha's Pali law,

Neglecting not the pure observances

Uf the eight Silas on moon's quarter days,

e. 4.. Like one with reason and with wisdom born

The ten good works to ])ractice, and who keeps

The obligations of her marriage vow

And morals pure, '2... raining a rain of wealth

Kindly upon her maids and men, 1 ,../>eA< pleased

To share her joys among her women friends,

xcjx. 4. ..Fair as the new moon whicli th' inhabitants

(Jf earth, loving, adore 3. ..in wisdom like

Divine Saraswati ai)parent made.


As a fiirLher specimen wc quote stanzas 99 to 102.'*

99. Sirisa(u)da wan saw siri diyuiiuwe ra(u)dana
Situ miua wan yadi yadinata danin dena
Sarasawi wan nuwanin pnhalawc pcnena
Nawa sa(u)da wan lew" wcsi adarin wa(n)dina.

99. "To her— his youthful daughter — like peerless Liik.shmi
Or new moon cloudless rising, which men adoring greet ;
Who learn'd as Saraswati, and graced with beauty's charms,
Is filmed alike for wisdom, for liounty, and for alms, —
Whose suppliants see daily, she more and more to them
Is, in generous donations, the wish-conferring gem : —

From almsgiving to suppliant mendicants

The wishing gem resembling, like Siri

In whom reside, in whom increase all charms; —

4... On her, as fitting is, a jewel fair

A son bestow, 3... with glory, wisdom wealth.

And length of years, cheering the hearts of men:

Give this, great God, eye of the triple worlds,

Whose sacred feet are wetted 1.. with the drops

Of perfumed honey from the flower wreaths

Upon the crowns of bending deities."

* Lit. — 1C2. O great God (Vibhishana)— tlie eye of the three
worlds, and whose beauteous feet are laved in tlie sweet nectar
that proceeds from the flowery chaplets of the Daityas! [101]
On Princess Ulakud^, happy and renowned, — 99. who lives, like
Siri, in the enjoyment of great prosperity, — like the Situmini, by
reason of her gifts to supplicating mendicants, — like Sarasvati,
who is famed for her wisdom, — and like tlic new moon which is
alfectionately adored by people ; 100. who possesses a very mind
cherished with (as much) affection towards her friends, as to
jierself; who is like a rainy-cloud, which graciously showei-s
(wealth) upon her maids and servants; who observes inviolate a


100. Yelit4in koie saki scpii samaga sit me
Kuluneu desi dasuu weta wasina watme
Kakimin patini dam yahapat sirit me
Sihineu nipan wan dasa pin pewetme.

101. Mihiri tepala tan wesi Idwikam purudu
Itiri bcti pemeti pela daliamehi Muni(n)du
Noheri poya ata sil rckuma pirisidii
Sasiri Ulakudaya dcwihata pasidii.


100. Toiler — the high-born princess — who, natheless, friendship's
Delights in ; -with her ladies shares joys, to theirs responds ; —
Whose men and maids are by her, witli kindly lilierul hand
Enrich'd, as by the rain-clonds is fertilized tlie hind ;
Who from her inborn wisdom and intellectual ken
Appreciates, adheres to. Religion's precepts ten ;

Who with pure heart unswerving the Patini- Dam obeys,
A model is of virtue, a wife above all praise : —

101. Who gracious in her language, with soft and 'suasive voice
Selects, and fluent utters, words eloquent and choice ;
Who skill'd in arts poetic, evinces earnest zeal

For all that sacred writings, our Sage's laws reveal;
Who each recurring poya neglects no holy rite.
Nor fails tlie eight-fold Sila with fervor to recite : —

course of pure chastity ; and who is born, endowed Avith wisdom
and sound memory, for the observance of the ten meritorious
deeds; — 101. who is accustomed to speech, sweet and apropos;
who is skilled in the art of poetry — evincing great and afTectionate
zeal for Buddha's doctrinal texts; and who never fails the observ-
ance of the sabbath, and the eight pure religious obligations; —
[on this happy and i-enowncd princess] 102 bestow [I pray thee],


102. Dit rupu silu malJam siiwa(n)(la mi wesa
Tet siripayut smn(n)cluni tilo esa
Sit pinawana eti asiri nuwana yasa
Put ruwanak so(n)da duua inenawi nisi lesa.

102. Eye of the world — worlds triple — whosebeauteous feet are wet
With nectar- drops sweet-scented from floral cliaplets set
On crowns of bow'd D&ityas, — oh Vibishana I give,
With glory, wisdom, power, and destined long to live —
To Ulakuda-Dewi — belov'd, renovvn'd, most fair,
Oh give, as best thou seest, to her a son, an lieir ! —
Th' inestimable blessing in season due bestow ;
To king, princess, and people, thy favor great thus shew."

W. S.

Parayi Sandesa,

' The Pigeon-Messenger' is also a poem by the same
writer. It is a work of great merit, and is generally
of a piece with the last in style, although in many
parts inferior to it in imagery. It was a Message to
Krishna, invoking blessings upon the army, the king's
brother of the name of Parakkrama of Mayadnnu, who
had the government of Jaffna, and upon Chaudrawati,
a near relation of king Parakkrama Bahu VI.

The poet's attachment to the family of his sovereign
seems to have been very great. Even in this poem
there are tender allusions to the royal family. That
Chandrawati might soon enter the bonds of matrimony,

as it seemeth best, an invaluable son, acceptable, replete with
wisdom, wealth, years and renown.


and that, allied to a noble prince, she might become
the mother of a virtuous son, are amongst the warmest
aspirations of the writer, and the topics of his song.
No date is given to this work ; but from the slight
difference of style to which allusion has been made,
we are led to suppose that it was written shortly after
the last,

Similar in plan to the Sela-lihini Sandesa, this poem
commences with an address to the Paravi, his messen-
ger. The opening stanzas (seheli,) we here quote: —

Serada parevi(n)du sa(n)da pa(n)duwan surat saranin
Pahala kirimuhudin saha pabala pelasak wan
Mituru turu sarahana mamituru nawa wasatayuru
Nu(m)binena sa(n)da nada mada mada pawaneleli
Hebipul Kiimudu he(n)ge nogaluda atingili.
Sui'aga(n)gi nalanelu(m)bu delisaudahasa novetapata.*

"Long be thy life extended, sweet Paravi, dear friend !
Who with thy plumes cream-tinted and feet of reddest hue
Art like a chank with corals, Milk-ocean's product fair,
Or sun with stars bright shining in azure autumn sky. —
When hither gently wafted, on breeze delightful borne.
Did not the nymphs who saw thee thy form believe to be
AfuUbloom'd snow-white lily from Swarga blown to eai'th ?
Did not the raja-hansas thee deem, when gathering round,
A lotus-bud fresh fallen from heaven's own river clear ? —

* Lit. — Mayest thou, O noble Paravi ! live long ; My friend !
who by reason of thy yellow -white hue, and deeply red feet, art
like unto a chank with coral plants produced fi-om the milky-
ocean, and unto the clear autumnal sky bespangled with the sun
and the stars ! When thou wast slowly moving in the sky, and in

2 F


Sudubudu nivesinena topa deka lew esa(n)da
Sudubudu res pidekeji nokaloda puda

Sa(n)dekin Nadunuyaniuena maleka suraiia(m)be
Sa(n)dekin lobiu watala nodamuda i(ra)be
Nidukiii avudasakisa(u)da ataramaga nu(m)be
Itikiu apata sepanam dekma mayi uu(m)be

Did not the world, deluded, thee for Buddha's raj mistake,
His ray of purest white, and hasten offerings to make ? —

Did not goddesses embrace thee, caress with fond delight,
And imagine thee a flower from Nandana's gardens bright ? —
Hast thou scatheless hither come, hath unhinder'd been thy flight?
Then trebly welcome friend to us thy bliss -producing sight."

W. s.

The route of the intended journey is then sketched
out; Kotta, the chief city; the reigning sovereign, the
temples and dewalas are described; and particular
notice is taken of Pepiliyana-vihara, founded by the
king in honor of his mother — to which ftiet a stone
inscription on the spot still bears witness. Attidiya
and Moratu Eliya [plain] are then noticed, and the
scenery from thence to Panadure and on to Kalutara,

a delightfully gentle breeze, were not (goddesses) deceived in thee
for a beautifully full-blown white lily dropt from (heaven) ?
Did not raja-liansas approach thee under a belief that thou wast a
lotus-bud fallen off from the celestial river ? Did they (the world)
not make offerings to thee under an impression that thou wast a
white ray emitted from Buddha's pure court ? Did not goddesses
kiss thee with delight under the mistaken idea that thou wast a
flower from Nandana, the heavenly park? Hast thou arrived
scatheless in thy aerial journey ? Noble friend, to us thy sight
is bliss !


occupy the poet up to stanza 66. Towns, villages,
temples, streams, tanks and ponds, and scenery of sky,
land, and sea, with all objects worthy of note from
Kalutara to Bentota, on to Galle and Matara, and
thence to Dondra head, are themes for stanzas 67 to
147; and the reader will observe that the route v/hich
was known 400 years ago, is, with very slight deviation,
the principal line of communication now existing
between Kotta and Dondra. The latter is then de-
scribed (similarly to Kelani in the Sela-lihini Sandesa)
in 33 stanzas. The 181st stanza commences a descrip-
tion of the god Krishna, which ends with the 195th.
The Message, to the god, with prayers on behalf of the
king, his brother the sub-king at Miiyadunu, and the
royal ai-my, hi'ing the poem to the concluding stanza,
the 212th, in which the author gives his name. The
whole is full of most interesting topographic and historic
notices. As a further sample of the author's style we
here give stanzas 71 to 73.

71. Ean teti ayuru fa(n)gu pun piyayuru udula
Man ati karana a(n)gan6 ra(n)ga dena ipila
Un seti balasiti salelun nope ela
Bentotinetara setapewa Kalikowila.*

"Bentota cross, and nigh the stream where Kali's temple stands
For sleep repair, observing well the gay and sprightly bands
That fascinated nightly there the dancing girls behold,
Whose heaving bosoms to their gaze seem rounded cups of gold.

* Lit. 71. Cross Bentota, and sleep thou at Kall-kovila, where

sprightlv youths, unmoved witness, the lovely hopping uautch girls.


72. Eta dadarada eguwaua wana wasayata
A(n)duru rupun wan sa(u)da "wana wasayata
Gosin tosin Bentota Wanawasayata

Wadu mituri(n)du re dina wana wasayata.

73. Evu Riwi himi wil kata kirana ran pata
Evu kiyawana bi(n)gu revu watiui siyapata
Sivu digineta esa(n)dehi nala suwa(n)da yuta
Yavu mamituru we(n)da rauni(n)dun betin sita.

When next the Moon possession shall have taken of the sky,
And to solitude hath Darkness his foe compell'd to fly,
To Bentota with gladness then, oh friend ! direct thy way,
And at Wanawasa quietly repose till break of day.

AVhen to the Plain her lord the Sun his message sends of light,
And with the hum of bees its lines her lotus-lips recite.
To Buddha great then worship give with true and faithful heart,
And on the fragrant balmy breeze that fills all space depart."

vr. s.

whose full heaving bosoms resemble golden cups. 72. When
the Moon shall have taken possession of the sky, and the Enemy
of Darkness has retired into solitude ; noble friend! gladly enter
thou the Wanawasa [temple] of Eentota for (thy) rest at night.
73. [But] when the Consort of the Plain shall, with her lotus-
mouth, and the hum of bees, have read the Epistle of Light,
forwarded by her lord, the Sun,— then in the soft fragrant breeze
which fills all sides, do thou depart, after worshipping Buddha with
a faithful heart.


The Sidat-Sangara

is the only standard Grammar of the Sinhalese.
There are several editions of this work, and one, with
an English translation, published in 1853. The text
has been also published by Pandit Tudave, with a
gloss, and vocabulary.

Sidat-Sangara means 'a compilation of First Prin-
ciples.' This Grammar is designed ' for beginners,'
and is stated to have been compiled 'on the standard
of previous works on Grammar.' We thus learn that
many Siiihalese Grammars were extant in this Island
from a very early period ; a fact which, without this
direct testimony, is rendered highly probable from the
evidence which is furnished by the literature of the land.

The work under notice contains twelve chapters.
The first treats on Signs, or Orthoepy, and Orthography ;
the second on Permutation ; the third on Gender; the
fourth on Declension ; the fifth on Compound words ;

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 17

Online LibraryJames De AlwisA descriptive catalogue of Sanskrit, Pali, & Sinhalese literary works of Ceylon → online text (page 15 of 17)