James De Alwis.

A descriptive catalogue of Sanskrit, Pali, & Sinhalese literary works of Ceylon online

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4. Lahumatta tayo rassa.

The three light-measured (are) short.

5. Anne dighti.
The others, (are) long.

6. Sesa byanjana.
The rest are consonants.

7. \'agg:i panchapanchaso mauta.

Each (set of) five to the end of m (constitutes) a class.

8. Au iti niggahitan.
This n f is a dependent.

* Moggnlluyana disputes the correctness of this Suttan, and says,
that the Pali alphabet contains forty-three ciiaractcrs, inchiding
the short e (epsih)n) and o (oniicron.) The Sinhalese Alphabet,
which is nearly as old as the Sinhalese nation, also omits these.
This is evidence of that lanijjuaoje being derived from the Pali.

f The anusvura.



Para samanna payoge.*

Other's names in composition.

1 0. Pubbam'adho-tliitam' assaran sarena viyojaye.

Let the Lastf consonant in the first (word) be sepa-
rated from (its inherent) vowel 4

Such is the sententious brevity with which the
Kules in Kachchayana's Grammar are expressed. The
author adopts three modes of explaining them. First,
Vuttiya or Vartikas, comments to supply the defi-
ciencies in the Suttas, and to render them clear;
secondly, examples ; and thirdly, explanatory notes on
some of the principal grammatical terms, in the shape
of questions and answers. To these again are occa-
sionally added, a note to mark the exceptions to the
Rule. In the examples, mention is made of several
of the places and towns which were rendered sacred
by the abode of Gotama, such as Savatti, Patali,

* Names or technical terms.

t Adhu-thitam " that which stands below [after such separa-
tion.] " Tlic word below must however be understood to mean
preceding; for in composition, which Eastern writers regard as a
tree from bottom to top, the first-written character is considered
as being at the bottom or below the rest.

X There is some confusion, as remarked by Professor 'Weber,
ill the translation of this Sutta in my Introduction (p. xvii,)
It is here rendered plainer — 'Let the last consonant in the first
(woi'd) be separated from (its inherent) vowel.' e. g. Take loha
and agga. Here ka is the last consonant in the first word. When
li is separated from its inherent vowel, say we get Ink — a -{-agga.
ThcQ by the rule sard sure lopam we obtain loJi-agga ; and by the
rule naye param yuttc, — loKagga.

kaciicha'yana ta'li grammar. 43

Baranasi, &c. There is also mucli correspondence
between the Paninya Sutras and those given in Kach-
chayana. e. (j: —

J. ApiuUiiie panchami — Pdrdni III, 4, 52.
Apdddne jyanchami — Kachchdyana.
So likewise : —

2. Bhiivtidayo clhiitavab. I. 3, 1.
Bliuvddayo dhdtavo.

3. Kulatlhvano ratyaiita sauyoge. II. 3, 5.
Kdladdhdna machchanta sanyogc.

4. Kartari krit. III. 4, 6.
Kattari kit.

5. Asmadyuttamali. I. 4, 107.
Amhe nttamo.

Again, the text of Ptinini is altered to meet the
exigencies of the Pali Grammar, thus;

6. Tinas trini trini pratliama madhyamottamah
Dve dvepailiama majjhimnttmna puri$d. [1. 4, 101 .

Tradition with one voice represents that the whole
of the aphorisms were written by one and the same
person; viz., SarijDutta Maha Kachchayana.

From their language, the aphorisms appear to have
been written in very ancient times.

In the commentary on the Riipasiddhi, we find the
following distinct and important particulars regarding

"Kachchayano signifies the son of Kachcho. The
said Kachcho was the first individual (who assumed that
name as a patronymic) in that family. All who arc
descended from that stock are, by birth, Kachchayana.


"(If I am asked) who is this Kachchayano? Whence
his name Kachchayano ? (I answer), It is he who was
selected for the important office ("of compiling the first
Pali Grammar, by Buddho himself; who said on that
occasion): 'Bikkhus, from amongst my sanctified
disciples, who are capable of elucidating in detail that
which is expressed in the abstract, the most eminent
is this Mahakachchayano.'

*' Bhagava (Buddho) seated in the midst of the four
classes of devotees, of which his congregation was
composed (viz., priests and priestesses, male and female
ascetics:) — opening his sacred mouth, like unto a flower
expanding under the genial influence of Surio's rays,
and pouring forth a stream of eloquence like unto that
of Brahmo — said: 'My disciples! the profoundly wise
Sariputto is competent to spread abroad the tidings of
the wisdom (contained in my religion) by his having
proclaimed of me that, — ' To define the bounds of his
omniscience by a standard of measure, let the grains
of sand in the Ganges be counted ; let the water in the
great ocean be measured; let the particles of matter
in the great earth be numbered'; as well as by his
various other discourses.

*'It has also been admitted that, excepting the
saviour of the world, there are no others in existence
whose wisdom is equal to one- sixteenth part of the
profundity of Sariputto, By the Acharayos also the
wisdom of Sariputto has been celebrated. Moreover,
while the other great disciples also, who had overcome
the dominion of sin and attained the four gifts of

kachcha'yana pa^li grammar. 45

sanctification were yet living ; lie (Buddlio) allotted,
from amongst those who were capable of illustrating
the word of Tbathagato, thio important task to me, —
in the same manner that a Chakkawatti raja confers
on an eldest son, who is capable of sustaining the
weight of empire, the office of Parinayako. I must
therefore render unto Thathagato a service equivalent
to the honor conferred. Bhagava has assigned to me
a most worthy commission. Let me place implicit faith
In whatever Bhagava has vouchsafed to propound.

'•'This being achieved, men of various nations and
tongues, rejecting the dialects which had become con-
fused by its disorderly mixture with the Sanscrit and
other languages, will, with facility acquire, by confor-
mity to the rules of grammar propounded by Tathagato,
the knowledge of the word of Buddlio: ' Thus the
Thero Mahii Kachchayano, who is here (in this work)
called simply Kachchayano, setting forth his qualifica-
tion; pursuant to the declaration of Buddlio, that
* sense is represented by letters/ composed the gram-
matical work called Niruttipitako."* Mahavansa, p.

Before I notice some of the oljjections urged against
the above tradition, it may perhaps be convenient to

* "Another name for the Riqiasiddhi."— In the above note
Turnour identifies Rupasiddhi Avith Niruttipitaka. But, it would
seem that the latter is an original work of Maha Kachchayaua,
different from his Grammar, and different also from his theological
work entitled the Nettipakaraua. See Kachehayana Vannana.


refer to the various other Pali writers who have given
it the sanction of their high authority.

Kachchayana commences his work, as we have ah-eady
seen, with Attho akkliara safihato ; and it has ah'eady
been shewn from the passage quoted by Turnour, that
that Suttan was declared by Buddha hnnself. This is
more clearly stated as follows in the Sutta Niddesa.

Attho akkhara saiinato-ti adi maha; idan suttan kena
vuttan ? Bhao'awata vuttan. Kada vuttanti — Yama
Uppaia uamaka dve Brahmana khaya-vaya kammattha-
uan gahetva gachchhanta Nadi-tire Khaya-vayanti
kammatthane kariyamane eko udako machchan gan-
hitun charantan bakan disva, udaka bakoti vicharati.
Eko ghate patan disva ghata pato ti vicharati. Tada
Bliagava obhasan munchitva attho akkhara sanfiato-ti
vakyan thapesi. Tesan cha Kammatthanan patitthahi.
Tasma Bhagavata vuttanti vuchchati. Tanfiatv^
maha Kachchano Bhagavantan yachitva Himavantan
gantva Mano-sila tale dakkhina disabhagan sisau
katva puratthima disabhimukho hutva attho akkhara
sannato-tiadikan Kachchayana pakaranan rachi.

*It is said that 'sense is represented by letters/ &c.
By whom was this suttan declared ? It was laid down
by Bhagava. (To explain) when it Avas declared: —
Two Brahman (Priests) Yama and Uppaia, having
learnt (from Gotama) the khaya-vaya branches of
Kammatthanan,* went away ; and, whilst engaged in

* Such studies as Abstract Meditation, &c., preparatory to the
attainment of the paths leading to Nibbau.

kachcha'yana pa'li grammar. 47

abstract meditation, repeating 'khaya-vaya' on tlie
banks of the Nadi, one of them saw a crane proceeding
to catcli a fish in the water, and began muttering*
udako bako, ' water-crane.' The other, seeing a ghate-
patan, 'a cloth in a pot,' began muttering ghata-pato.
At this time Bhagava by means of a light which he
issued, declared the sentence, Attho akkhara safinato —
*The sense is represented by letters.' Their Kam-
matthanan was also effectual. VvHierefore it is said that
this Suttan was declared by Bhagava. When Maha
Kachcahyana learnt this, he proceeded with Bhagava's
permission to Himavanta. lieclining in the Mano-sila
region with his head towards the south, and facing the
east, he composed the Kachchayana-pakarana, consist-
ing of (the Suttans) attho akkhara saniiato, &c.'

In the atthakatha to the Anguttara Nlkaya, ]\Iaha
Kachchayana is spoken of ;t and the Tika to the same
work contains further particulars, which are embodied
in the following extract from

The Kachciia'yaxa Vanjvana'.
A'chariya pana lakkhana vutti udaharanasankhatan
imau Kachchayana gandha pakaranan Kachchayanat-
therena eva katanti vadanti. Teua aha eka nipata
Antyuttara tikayan 'Maha Kachchayatatthero pubba
patthami vasena Kachchyana pakaranan, Maha Nirutti
pakaranan, Netti pakaranan, chati pakaranattayan
sangha majjhe pakasesi.

* Or nitlier ponderlnji oa vviiat be had observed.
I Vide extract tliere-iroiu infra.


* Teachers say that this Kachchayana gandha paka-
rana, which numbers hxkkhana (Rules), vutti (supple-
mentary notes), and Udhaharana ( Examples), was
composed by Kachchayana thera himself. Wherefore
the Tika to tlie Anguttara of the Ekanipata says, 'the
thera Maha Kachchayana, according to his previous
aspirations, published in the midst of the priesthood
the three compositions, viz. Kachchayana Pakarana,
Maha iS'irutti Pakarana, and Netti Pakarana.'

The literary qualifications of the tliera Kachchayana,
seem to have been indeed such as to warrant the belief
that he devoted his time to the elucidation of the
language of Dhamma. He was, as is abundantly
j)roved in the Pali Avorks, a distinguislied member of
the Buddhist fraternity. He is also mentioned in the
Tibetan Buddhistical Annals, as one of the disciples
of Gotama; and it is expressly stated of him, that 'he
recited the Sutra on emancipation in the vulgar
dialect.' By 'the vulgar dialect,' Mons. De Koresi
doubtless meant the language to which Colebrooke
had previously given that appellation — the Magadhi.
Gotama himself states that of all his pupils Maha
Kachchayana was the most competent to elucidate his
Dhamma. In the very language of the snge, which is
here quoted from the Ekanipata of the AnguttaNikaya,
— Etanao-oan Bikkhawe mama savakanan bikktinan
sankhittcna bhasitassa vittharena atthan vibhajantanan,
yadidan Maha Kachchano — 'Priests, he who is Maha
Kachchayana is the chief of all the bikkhus, my pupils,
who can minutely elucidate the sense of what is

kachcha'yana pa'li grammar. 49

concisely expressed.' That this supremacy refers both
to tlie literary, and the theological attainments of
Kachchayana appears from the following comment,
which we extract from the Atthakatlia to the Anguttara

Anne kira Tatagatassa sankhepa vachanan attha
vasena va puritun sakkonti vyanjana vasena va; ayan
pana thero ubhayenapi sakkoti : tasma aggo-ti vutto.

'Some are able to amplify the concise words of
Tathagata either by means of letters, or by [shewing]
their sense. But this thera can do so in both ways.
He is therefore called the chief.'

In the Nyasa or the Mukha-matta-dipani, which is
supposed to be the earliest commentary on Kachcha-
yana's Pali Grammar, and is, as may be proved, older
than the liupasiddhi, the author of this Grammar is not
only identified with the Kachchayana thera, whose
'intellectual supremacy was extolled by Buddha', but
his memory is thus respected by an 'obeisance.'

Kaelichayanan cha muni vannita buddhi-massa
Kachchayauassa mukha matta mahau karissaii
Parampara gata viiiichchaya nichchayan cha.

'Also (bowing down to) Kachchayana, whose in-
tellectual attainments had been complimented by
Buddha, I shall comment upon the positive conclusions
(Rules), Avhicli have been handed down by tradition as
the very oral (teachings)* of this Kachchayana.'

* Mukliamatta 'the very (word of) mouth,' a term which does
not necessarily imply the absence of writing.



AVith reference to the name Kachchayana in
the above extract, the following passage occurs
in the Nirutti-sdra-Manjiisa, wherein also the Avriter
acknowledges the consummate scholarship of the

Kasi Kammadina vyaparena kachchati dippatiti
Kachcho, thera pita tassa apachchan putto Kachcha-
yano Neruttukanan pabliava bhuto pabhinna pati
sambhido etadagga thane thapito khinasavatthere tan
pana natvana.

'By reason of the occupation of ploughing, &c.
[comes] Kachchati ' he shines.' Thence, Kachcho, (the
name of) the thera's father. His son is Kachchayana
— a thera, Avho was an arahanta, who was placed in
the highest position, who had attained the patisam-
bhida,* and who was the first cause (source) of all
JSTeruttika, [Grammarians or] philologers.'

Although it is stated! that Kachchayana was resi-
dent at Avanti, the pachchanta or ' the foreign regions'^,
it is however expressly stated that this Grammar was

* See SivuplHsimbiy a in Cloiigh's Dictionary. Turnour has de-
fined this to be 'the attainment of the four gifts of sanctifioation.'

■f- In the Chammakkhandaka section of tlie Maha Vagga.

J Mr. Muir, in his Sanskrit texts, says that "the people whom
Yaska designates Prachyas, or men of the East, must have been
the Kitakas or the Magadhas, or the Angas, or the Vangas." —
p. 371. In the Buddhist annals, however, the word Pachchanta is
used to designate all the countries beyond the Majjhima desa,
which is thus defined in the Maha Vagga: 'Here the Pachchanta
are these countries. On the east [of JMajjliinia] is the market

kaciiciia'yana pa'li grammar. 51

written in the Himavanta ; and, from the mention of
the principal towns celebrated by the presence and
abode of Gotama, and especially that which had risen
from a small village to the importance of a populous
city in the time of the sage, I mean Pataliputta,*
it may be inferred the writer took for his examples
such of the names as were then of recent celebrity.

It must also be borne in mind, that although tradi-
tion in one voice ascribes the authorship of the Pali
Suttans in the Sandhikappa to Sariputta Maha Kach-
chayana, yet that writers are divided in their belief as
to the Vutti having been written by that distinguished
hierarch of the Buddhist Church, as stated in the

town called Kajangala, and on the west Malia Sala. Beyond
them is the great country of Pachchanta, and this side of it is the
Majjha. On the south-east is the river called Salalavati. Beyond
it is the Pachchanta country, and this side of it the Majjlia. On
the south is the town called Setakanni. Beyond it is the Pach-
chanta country, and this side of it is the iSIajjha. On. the west is
the Brahman village called Thuna. Beyond it is the Pachchanta
country, and this side of it the Majjha. And on the north is the
mountain called Usuraddhaja. Beyond it is the Pachchanta
country, and this side of it is the JMajjha.' For the original of this
see Childers' Khuddaka pdiha, p. 20.

* It is stated in the Buddhist annals (see the first Banavara of the
Parinibban Suttan) that this city, which in modern times has received
the name of Patna, was built during the lifetime of Gotama, for the
purpose of checking the Vajjians; and it is also stated that at the
time it was built by Sunidha and Vassakara, two ministers of the
reigning prince Ajatassatta, Gotama predicted its future opulence
and grandeur, as Avell as its partial destruction by fire and water.

52 descriptive catalogue.

Kachcha'yana Bheda Ti'ka'.

The followino; extract from it contains the tradition
as to Avho were the authors of the supplementary notes
and examples in Kachchayana's Grammar.

Teua'ha Kachchayana Dipaniyan.

Sandhimhi eka paniiasan
namamlii dvi satan bhave,
Attha rasadhi kanchena
karake pancha talisan ;
Samiise attlia visan'cha
dvasatthi Taddliite matan,
Attha rasa satakkhyate
kite sutta satan bhave ;
Unnadimlii cha paniiasan
neyyan sutta pabhedato ; —
Sabbau sampin(la manantu
cha sata sattati dvecha'...ti.

Imani sutta sankhyani fiyase agata sutta sankhyahi
nasamenti; kasmati che? pakkhepa suttan gahetv
gananta dasadhika sata sata suttani honti. Imani
suttani Maha Kachchayanena katani ; vutti cha Sangha-
nandi sankhatena Maha Kachchayanen'eva kata —
payogo Brahmadattena kato...ti. Vuttan ch'etan.

"Kachchayana kato yogo
vutti cha Sanghauandino,
Payogo Brahmadattena
ilyaso Vinialabuddhiiiii ". . - ti.

*It is said in the Kachchayana Dipani — that the
distribution of Suttani may be regarded (as follows.

kachcha'yana pa'li grammar. 53

viz. that) there are fifty one (Suttiini) in the (book
which treats on) Combination ; two hundred and
eighteen on Nouns; forty-five on Syntax; twenty-
eight on Compounds; sixty-two on Nominal Deriva-
tives; one hundred and eighteen on Verbs; one hundred
on Verbal Derivatives; and fifty on Unnadi. The
aggregate (number is) six hundred and seventy-two.

' These numbers of aphorisms do not correspond
■with the numbers aj^pearing in the Nyasa. To explain
wherefore: By the computation of the interpolated
aphorisms there are seven hundred and ten aphorisms.
These aphorisms Avere composed by Mahd Kachclia-
yana. The Vutti were made by Maha Kachchayana
himselfj (who was also) called Sanghanandi ; — and
the illustrations by Brahmadatta. So it is expressly

stated — that

'The aphorisms were made by Kachchayana
The Vutti by Sanghanandi* —
The illustrations by Brahmadatta —
And the nyasa by Vimahibuddhi.'

To sum up all the evidence on the subject: In the
first place, tradition asserts that the writer was Kach-
chayana, one of Gotama Buddha's disciples. 2. It is

* It will be observed, that the writers statement, that Sangha-
nandi was identical with Maha Kachchayana, is not borne out by
the authority quoted. From the distinct mention of different
names for the authors of different parts, viz., the Grammar, its
supplements, its notes, and its principal comment, the Nyasa;
it would seem that Sanghanandi (also called Sankhanandi) was a
person dillercnt from IMaha Kachchayana.


written in a very ancient stjle — that of the algebraic
aphorisms of Ptinini. 3. The Rules laid down are
adapted to a language, which was certainly more refined
than the Magadhi of the third Ecumenical Convoca-
tion, and therefore as the writer himself states, to the
language of Buddha.* 4. The allusions to places, etc.,
in the examples are those which were rendered sacred
by the abode of Gotama.

Such are the facts and circumstances connected
with the age and authorship of this Grammar, on
which, without a thorough examination of tlie entire
work, and unwilling to believe that so many writers
have stated that which was not the fact, I was induced
to uphold Tradition, and to support the same in my
Introduction. But I was not over sanguine as to the
correctness of my views. Even then I expressed the
belief that future researches might enable me to adduce
more satisfactory proof, which would tend materially
to qualify the inferences and conclusions I had drawn.
Later researches, I am happy to say, have consider-
ably shaken them.

Professor Weber of Berlin in his Review f of my
work, above referred to, has also expressed " his disbelief
in the identity of the author of this Grammar Avith

* See my Notes in the Appendix to the Introduction of Kach-

f See the Journal of German Oriental Society, vol. xix. p. 619.
This Essay was translated into English and published in Pamphlet
form by Williams and Norgale; and wherever reference is made
to the Review in this work, it will be to tlic English Translation.


SEiri[)utta, on the ground of his extensive acquaintance
Avith previous works on Grammar; of the highly sys-
tematic arrangement he has adopted ; and of the want,
in the older documents of the language, of the complete
attano-pada forms which he recognises."

Now, "the extensive acquaintance with previous
works on Grammar " proves scarcely anything; since
the age of many of them, for instance Panini, is not yet
settled, and which I am still inclined to believe was
ante-Buddhistical. JSeither is lucid arid systematic
arrangement, especially in view of similar evidence of
arransxement in the canonical works of Buddhism, an
argument against this work, containing what one of
the writers already quoted, says, 'the Kules which
have been traditionally handed down as the very
oral (teaciiing) of [Sariputta] Kachchayana.' Again,
the paucity of attano-pada forms in the Buddhistical
works signifies little or nothing in view of the fact
that such forms are unquestionably found in the
Tepitaka,* and that the Grammarian could never have
intended to exhibit entirely obsolete forms. And it is
very remarkable that the Grammar notices the fact of
their gradual displacement by parassa-pada.

But the learned Professor's conclusion may, however,
be u})held on other grounds: and I am glad of the
opportunity which the publication of this Catalogue
affords me, not only to confirm those views, but also to
set myself aright with the literary public by qualifying
some of the opinions which I have previously expi^essed.

* See examples given under the title of Tepitaka.


i. As remarked by the learned Professor I do
not, any more than he does, place implicit reliance
on Tradition, unless indeed the same is supported,
and not contradicted, by coHateral circumstances.
Now, supposing for the sake of argument, that this
work was written — contrary to the testimony which
tradition furnishes — in this island, and after the age of
A soka, let us see if that supposition militates against
inferences drawn in favour of my previous position.

ii. "It is* written in an ancient style." Though
this is a circumstance quite worthy of consideration
along with other facts; yet by itself it throAvs no
weight in the scale : since compositions of an un-
doubtedly modern date, c. g. Riipasiddhi, etc., are found
written in a similar style. The same remarks apply
to the

iii ground in support of my previous position —
*' that the Rules laid down are adapted to the language
of the Pitakas." Before, however, dismissing this part
of the evidence, I may point out that the paucity of
attano-pada forms, as remarked by Dr. AYeber, in "the
sacred literature," does not militate against the belief
I once entertained; and that the Grammar only shews
what the sacred texts clearly prove, that when the
latter came into existence, whether mentally or as a
written composition, the attano-pada forms were being
gradually superseded by parassa pada. Attanopadani
parassapadattam. Kach. vi. 4. 37. But these forms,
though sparingly, are to be found in the text"books of


iv. ' From the mention of names rendered sacred
by the abode of Gotama' no inferences can be drawn;
since, as I have recently found, the name of
"Devananpiya Tissa" (a king of Ceylon, the ally of
Asoka, 307 B.C.) occurs in the follovv-ing extract from

Book II. Sec. V.
Sutta — Kisma' vo.
Vutti — Kimicliche tasma vappachchayolioti Sattam-

Exam-pie — Kva gato'si tvan Devauan Piyatissa.
S— 'Va' from 'Kin.'
V — To this 'kin' is (added) the affix 'va' in a locative


E — O Devanan-piya Tissa I where was it that thou
hast 2;one?

It may however be urged on the other side, that
though the Vutti and the Examples were, as a second
tradition clearly states, by Sanghanandi and Brahma-
datta; yet the Suttas themselves might have been by
Maha Kachchayana, to whom tradition without excep-
tion points at. In this view of the question it has also
been pointed out to me by a friend, that the majority
of writers on the subject attribute the Suttas olone
to Maha Kachchayana. For instance, it is said, in the

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