James De Alwis.

A descriptive catalogue of Sanskrit, Pali, & Sinhalese literary works of Ceylon online

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[results]. It investigates ill-effects. It investigates
[their] non-existence. It investigates consequences.
It investigates means. It investigates canons. It
investigates parallel passages. It investigates all
the nine -bodied suttans. What is it? Just as in the
question propounded of Bhagavd by the venerable
Ajita in the section [entitled] Parayana — *

* Say by what has the world been shrouded ?
Wherefore is it not manifested ?
Whereby is its attachment ?
What is its great fear ? '

' These four sentences were thus propounded [by
Ajita]. They comprise one question. Wherefore?

* A section of Sutta Nipata.


[Because] they take in one matter. He has stated it
thus : By [the first sentence] kenassu nivuto loko, he
investigates the abiding cause of the world [living-
beings]; by [the second] kenassu nappakasati he inves-
tigates its non-manifestation ; by [the third] kissabhi
lepanan brusi, he investigates its allurements ; and by
[the fourth] kinsutassa mahabbhayan, he investigates
its very dreadful horror. The [loka] world is threefold,
viz., world of kilesa,* world of [bhava], or existence ;
and the sensible [indriya], world. The explanation
of the question [is as follows:]

' I say the world is shrouded by Ignorance ;

' By doubt is it not manifested ;

* By desire is its attachment ;

'And its horror [proceeds] from Affliction.
' The four sentences [first quoted] are explained by
the four sentences [last quoted], i. e., the first [of the
former] by the first [of the latter], the second by the
second, the third by the third, and the fourth by the

' The world is shrouded by Ignorance ' — is the
explanation of the question, ' by what has the world
been shrouded?' Yes, it is shrouded by an obstacle ;
yes, all beings are clothed with the obstacle of
Ignorance. So it is declared by Bhagava : ' Priests,
I declare that all beings, all lives, all existences, have
inherently a particular obstacle, viz.. Ignorance ; —
yes, all beings are beclouded by ignorance. Priests,

* Evil in thoughts, desire?-, or atrectioiis.


I declare that by completely destroying, abandoning,
(and) forsaking Ignorance, (existing) beings have no
impediment.' Hence the explanation of the first
sentence is satisfactory.

*By doubt is it not manifested'— is the explanation
of the question, * by what has (the world) been
shrouded?' He, who is impeded with an obstacle,
doubts. By the ^obsolete) term vivichchhd, (in the
text) vichikichchha (doubt) is expressed. [Thus] a
person who doubts, is devoid of pure faith. He who is
devoid of pure faith, exerts not, to destroy demerit, and
to acquire merit. He (thus) lives clothed with procras-
tination. He who procrastinates, fails to practise good
deeds [religious and abstract meditation.] He who
does not practise them, is not manifested.* So it has
been declared by Bhagava, that ' The righteous are
manifested far-and-wide like the Himalava mountain:
(but) the wicked are here unperceived, like darts shot
at night. The former are manifested by (their) virtues,
fame and renown.' Hence the explanation of the
second sentence is satisfactory.

' By desire, I say, is its attachment' — is the expla-
nation of the question, 'whereby is its attachment?'
By the (obsolete) term jappa (in the text) tanhd (or)
lust is convevcd. How she forms an attachment is
thus stated by Bhagava: — 'He who is actuated by
lust, knows not causes (of things) ; he who is actuated

* I have rendered this passage rather freely, without reference
to words.


by lust perceives not what is right. Whenever lust
enslaves [lit. bears] a man, then is there a thick dark-
ness.' Thus the aforesaid lust in an inordinately
lustful person becomes (as if it vrcre) a glutinous
[substance.] In it the world becomes adhesive. Hence
the explanation of the third sentence is satisfactory.

* Affliction* is its dreadful horror' — is the expla-
nation of the question, ' what is its great fear ? '
Affliction is two-fold ; that which appertains to the
body, and that which appertains to the mind. That
which appertains to the body is pain, and that which
appertains to the mind is sorrow. All beings dread
affliction. There is no dread equal to that of Affliction
(dukkha.) Where indeed is a greater than that?
Affliction in the abstract is three-fold — inherent misery
(dukkha-dhukkhata), vicissitudinary misery (vipari-
nama dukkhata), and all-pervading misery (sankhara
dukkhatajj'f Hence a being, sometimes, in the course
(of transmigration) becomes free from inherent misery.:}:
So likewise, from vicissitudinary misery. § From what
causes? [From] his being free from disease, and also
(by the enjoyment of) longevity, A being also becomes
free from all-pervading misery by means of (final)

* In the sense of the word "trouble," in the passage "Man is
born unto trouble." — Job v. 7.

■f- Sankhara — ' appertaining to all states of existence,' ' that which
comes to existence, exists, and dies away.'

J p.g. 'Brahmans' — says the Commentator.

§ 'Those who are Ixjrn in the arvpa or the incorporeal world.'


birthless nibbana. Hence, treating the atftiction of a
being as all-pervading misery, (the reply was), 'Its
dreadful horror [proceeds] from Affliction.' Hence
the explanation of the fourth sentence is satisfactory.
Wherefore Bhagava has declared: —
Avijja nivuto loko, &c.

*I say, the world is shrouded by Ignorance; —
by doubt is it not manifested; — by (reason of) desire
is its attachment;— and its dreadful horror [proceeds]
from Affliction.'*


This is the Grammar which is in current use among
all Pali students. It is the smallest Grammatical
work on the basis of Kachchayana, and is found
compiled nearly in accordance with the principles of
Lao-hu-kavu-mudi. It treats of all grammatical rules
as in Kachchayana, but the arrangement is different,
and is as follows: — Ihe first Chapter treats on Sandhi;
the second on Nama; the third on Samasa; the fourth
on Taddhita; the fifth on A'kkhyata; the sixth on Kitaka,
with a few Suttas on Unnadi treated of as Kitaka ;
and the seventh on Karaka, diyded into two sections,
one entitled Utta'nutta, and the other Vibhattibheda.f

* This work is complete in 108 palm leaves of 2 feet in lengtli,
with 9 lines to the page,

■j- The matter in these two Sections, especially the treatment oi
the subjects, coiTesponds with cap. ix. and x. in the JSidatsangara.

ba'laVata'ra. 79

It begins with the following giltha: —

Buddhan ti dha'bhivanditva buddhambujavilochanan
Balavatdraii bhasissan balanan buddhi vuddhiya

' Havino- made a three-raembered obeisance unto
Buddha, the sight (of whom is as) delightful as the
o[)en illy, I shall declare (bhasissan) the Balavatara for
the promotion of the knowledge of the young.'

And it concludes with the following: —
Satirckehi chatuhi, bhanavarehi nitthito
Balavataro janata buddhi vuddhin karotuhi

' May this Balavatara, completed (slightly) in ex"
cess of four bhanavaras, increase the knowledge of

The Rev. B. Clough, of the Wesleyan Mission,
published, (in 1824) a translation of this work made by
M. W. Tolfrey, Esq. late of the Ceylon Civil Service.*
Don Andrls De Silva Batuvantudave, adopting the
name of Devarakklilta, which he had assumed when a
Buddhist priest, also published the Text in 1869.
It contains 77 octavo pages.

Neither the name of the writer, nor the date on
which it was composed, is given in the book. It how-
ever appears to, be an old work, but I cannot ascertain

* Mr. Childers late of the Ceylon Civil Service, in his Prospectus
to a Pali-English Dictionary, says: "Practically there are no
Grammars of the Pali language. Clough's Pali (J!rammar is quite
unobtainable by the ordinary student; D'Alwis's Introduction is a
mere fragment; and Mason's recent work leaves our knowledge of
Pali Grammar exactly where it -was before." See Triibner's
Americau and Oriental Literary Record for April, 1870.


how much older it is than the Panchikapradipa,*
which mentions its earliest and best Sinhalese com-
mentary, that goes by the name of the Temple in
-which it was composed, viz.:


This also appears from its style to be a very ancient
book; but the name of the writer and its date are not
given. It contains 232 ola pp. of 15 inches in length,
with 9 lines to the page.

The author in his comment on sec. 40 of the Balava-
tara, see edition 1869, quotes Panini and Katantra, and
says, that 'the Sutta karmavat karmana tullyakriyah
in Panini (iii. 1, 87.) is rendered karmavat karma
karta in the Katantra.'

There are several other Sinhalese Commentaries
and Translations which I shall hereafter notice. In the
meantime I extract the following specimen from the
writer's observations on Taddhita.

Shabdayo yogikayaha rudhayaha yogarudhaya
hayi trividha vet. Ehi yogikayo nam pachanadikriya
sambandhaya pravritti nimitta kota eti pachakadi
shabdayaha: rudhayo nam loka prasiddha sajfia matra
pravritti nimitta kota eti ghata pata'di shabdayaha:
yoga-rudhayo nam kriyadi sambhandayada loka

* This was written in the 45th year of the reign of Parakrama-
bahu VI., answei'ing to a.d. 1455. See some remarks on the subject
under the head of Sidat-Sangar&.

gacTal.Vdeni-sanna. 81

prasiddha sajnavada pravritti nimittakota eti paiikajadi
shabdajaha. Paiike jalan paiikajan, madehi upanne
Paiikaja iiarai : pailkaja sliabdaya paiikayehi janana
kriya sambandliayada loka prasiddbayada apeksttkota
pavatineya: madehi iipan sesu Holu adin eta, ovun
kerehi paiikaja yana loka prasiddbayak neti beyin
ovun bera Piyumbima vc. Meseyinina taddbita sbab-
daya artba prakasbana kriya sambandhayada vriddha
prasiddba sajnavada pravritti iiimitta kota vannc :
artba prakasbana rukkbo pacbati kattabbo yanadi sesu
padaj^an etada rukkba yauadin kerebi taddbitaya yana
vriddha vyavabaravak neti bevin ovun bera na nikadi
pratyantavii vasettba gbatikadin kerebima ve.

'Nouns are of three kinds, — Yogika, liudha, and
Yoga-rudba. Here the Yogika are nouns (such as)
pacbika ' a cook,' etc., originating in usage, and signi-
fying an action (such as) pacha ' to cook,' etc. The
Rudba are nouns sucli as ghata ' pot,' pata ' raiment,'
etc., originating in usage, and expressing a previously
well-known appellation. Yoga-rudbayo are nouns
such as Paiikaja 'lotus,' etc., originating in usage, and
signifying an action, and also expressing a previously
\v ell-known appellation. Paiikc jatan Paiikajan, ' that
which is born in mud is named Paiikajan.' The noun
paiikaja, ' lotus,' is used according to visage, and with a
view to its action of birth in mud. There arc (bow-
ever) other (species) that arc produced in the mud,
such as Holu ' water lily,' etc. ; but, since there is no
usage to designate them paiikaja, (tliat word) is only
applied to Piyum ' the lotus,' to the exclusion of others.



In the same manner nouns (named) Taddhita ' nominal
derivativec-/ originate in ancient usage, signifying
an action, and expressing a previously well-known
name. Though there are expressions, conveying a
certain sense, such as rukkho 'tree,' pachati 'he cooks,'
kattabbo ' that which should be done,' etc. ; yet, since
ancient usno;e has not sanctioned words such as rukkho
* tree,' etc., in the sense of Taddhita, they are excluded,
and that name is applied only to nouns such as Vasittha
'son of Vasittha,' and ghatika ' clarified butter,' etc.,
ending in affixes na, nika, etc.'*


Pali, like Sinhalese Lexicography, is compara-
tively more recent, and has attained to a less degree of
cultivation, than Pali Grammar. f As we have already
seen, the Abhidhanapadipika, is a metrical vocabulary,
and contains no verbs. There are indeed several
Dhatupathas, or Lists of Radicals, but they arc very

* From tlie trivial errors with wliich this work abounds, — errors,
which cannot be traced to incoiTect transcription, and which are
also inconsistent with the great learning and research exhibited
by the author ; and, moreover, fi'om the absence of the usual
'Adoration,' and any remarks of the writer, either at the beginning
or at the end of the work, I am inclined to the belief that the
writer had died before he fairly completed it.

t Speaking cf the Pali, Mr. Childers has the following remai'k;
and so far as it applies to 'Dictionaries' he is quite right. "It
has long been felt as something of a reproach that an oriental

dha'tu-manjusa'. 83

defective, both as to arraugeraent, and the meanings
assio-ned to them. Amono; them, however, there are
none which can claim such decided pre-eminence as
belongs to the work under notice.

It is an ancient Pali work. It v/as composed by a
learned Buddhist Priest named Silavansa, on the basis of
the Grammatical System propounded by Kachchayana.
Thence it is also called Kachhayana Dhatu Maujusa.
The residence of the author is stated to have been
Yakkhaddhi Lena. But there is no proof in support
of the conjecture that it refers to Yakdessagala in the
district of Kurunegala. No date is given in the work;
and there is no clue to its discovery. The following
is the author's Preface.

Nirutti nikarii para, piirdvurantaguu muniu
Vanditva Dhatumanjusaa briimi pavacliananjasan
Sogatagama ma'gamma tan tau vyakarauiiui clia
Pathe cha'patliita' pettha dhatvattliii cha pavuchcliare
Chhanda hauittha mo'karan dhiitvantauan siya kvachi
Yunan digho cha dliatumha pubbam'attha padaii api

'Having bowed unto Buddha, ^f ho has crossed the
boundless ocean of all philological sciences (treasures),
I compose the Dhiitu Manjusa, ['Casket of Radicals'],
which is a path to the Saddiiamma, or the sacred

language of singular -wealth and beaulj, and embodying a literature
of siu'passing intere&t, should be destitute both of Grammars (?)
and of Dictionaries.'— Triibner's Literary Record," April, 1870.


' Having studied Buddhism, and various Grammars,
I have given the Eadicals, and their significations,
consisting both of what have, and have not, been treated
of, in the Fatha or Glossaries.*

' To meet the exigencies of metre, I have in some
places [substituted] an o at the end of the Radical, and
have rendered the final i and ii long. I have also
occasionally given the sense before the Radicals.'

The author afterembodyingabout421 Kadicalsin 148
stanzas, offers the following explanation as to the plan
of the work, to which I may add the fact, that an
Alphabetical List is being prepared by the publisher,
to facilitate reference : —

Bhii radl cha rudhadi cha divadi svadayo gaiu'i

Kiyadi cha tanadi cha churadi'ti'dha sattadha,

Kriya vd chitta makkhatu'mekekattho bahii'dito

Payogato'nugantabba auekattbtihi dhatavo

Hitaya manda buddhiiiau vyattau vannakkama lahim

Eachita Dhatu-manjusa Silavansena dhimata

Saddhamma paukeruha rajahanso

asittha dharamat thitl Silavanso;

Yakkhaddi lenakkhya nivasa vasi

yatissaro so yamidan akasi.

' Thus, the seven classes of Radicals are, bhiivadi
' bhu, &c.,' rudhadi ' rudha, &c.,' divadi 'diva, &c.'suvadi
'su, &c.' kiyadi 'hi, &c.' tanadi 'tanu, &c.,' and churadi
*chura, &c.'

* Lit. "Prose collections."

dha'tu-manjusa'. 85

* Radicals liave various meanings which must be
learnt from (reading) authors. I have, for the most
part, given but one signification [of each Radical]
to convey the action Avhich (each) expresses.

' The Dhatu Manjusa, rendered clear and easy by
means of alphabetical arrangement,* has been com-
posed for the instruction of the uninitiated, by the
learned Silavansa, — that Siiavausa, a priest, who resides
in the [Temple of] Yakkhaddi Lena, with aspirations
that Buddhism may continue long, like a Hansa to the

The following is a specimen of the work: —

6. Aggo (tu) gati kotille laga saiige mag'csane
Agi igv n'gi ligi vagi gatyattha dhatavo


7. Silaglia katthane jaggha hasaue aggha agghaiie
Sighi agbayane hoti laghi sosa gatisu cha

Don Andris De Silva Batuvantudave, Pandit, in
publishing this work with a Sinhalese and an English
Translation, has not only prefixed the number of the
stanza in which each word in the alphabetical list
occurs, but has also prefixed to each Radical the number
of the class to which it belongs. He has also added two

* This refers to the alphabetical arrangement in the verses, not
the list.


stanzas (the 4th and 5th) by way of supplying an omis-
sion occnrring in the ^York. They are the following : —


Ikkho (tu) dassanan'kesu klii kliaye kankha kankhane
Chakklia dasse chikklia vaclie dikkho'panaya mundlxisu
Vata'desesu niyame bhakklia'da namlii bliikklia cha
Yache nikkho rakkhanatnlii sikkho vijjaggahe tatha.

Although the author has generally given but one
meaning to each word ; yet, where he has added an
*etc.' to a given signification, the publisher has not
failed to add others, for which he is chiefly indebted
to the Buddhist scriptures.

I shall conclude this notice with a specimen of the
Alphabetical list, p, 22: —

Ki' — 120. Ki'...vinimaye, dravya gaiuidenu kirimehi, 'to

buy', 'to exchange.'
BHu' — 64. ki'la. ..bhaudc, bendimehi, 'to bind' ' to wedge.'
BHu' — 84. ki'la... vihare, kelimehi, 'to play' ['to draw a

BHu' — 2. KU...saddekuchcUhite, shabdkirimelii, kutsita-

yehi, *to sound' 'to contemn.'
BHu' — 2. KUKA.-.a'dane, genmehi, 'to take,' 'to accept.'
BHu' — 8. KUCHA ... sadde, shabdakiriraehi, 'to sound.'
TU — 85. KUCHA...sankochane, hokilimelii 'to straiten,'

*to narrow,' 'to contract.'
BHU' — 20. KUtA — chhedane, kcpimehi, 'to cut.'

* I believe this means 'to peg,' in the sense of planting sticks on
the ground to draw lines for cutting foundations.

THE na'ma'valiya. 87

The Na'ma'valiya.

It is well known that poetry has from time immemo-
rial been the idol of literary men in the East, At a
period when poetry was cultivated by the king as well
as the peasant, the recluse in his monastery, and the
traveller on the road, the necessity for abridged voca-
bularies of synonymous and homonymous terms, was
quite obvious. To facilitate therefore, reference, and
to render one's memory the store-house of information,
such vocabularies were invariably composed in easy
metre. To this class belongs Ainara-Koshct., called
in Ceylon, after the writer's name, Amara Sinha — to
which Hias been assigned the first place In Lexico-
graphy by the unanimous suffrage of the learned in
the East.'

In close imitation of this work is the Namavaliya
of the Sinhalese, composed in 1421, a.d. by Nallaratun,
a chieftain of the time of Pardkrama Bahu VI.
A comparison of the Sanskrit Amara Kosha and the
Pali Abhldhanapadipikii with the Namavaliya, will not
fail to Interest the philologer and the historical student.
At the same time that the Sinhalese words shew an
affinity to the Sanskrit family of languages, the student
will also perceive the still closer relationship which the
former bears to the Pali. Between the Maharashtri,
which Lassen has designated the ' dialecfus jircecipua,^
and the Sinhalese, there seems to be great connection ;
and, when we compare the Sinhalese in its relation,
whether verbally or grammatically, with the Prakrit,


the conviction forces itself on the mind, that the
former is a sister dialect of the latter, which Hema-
chandra defines to be — \_Prakritih Sanskritam, tatra-
hhavam tata dgatam vd ^ prakritain^~\ — 'that which has
its source in Sanskrit, and is either born with, or
sprung from, it.'

In wading through the Lexical works of the East,
one peculiarity, which must necessarily strike the
student, is, that both in Pali and Sinhalese, Lexico-
graphy is in its infancy. The Abhidhanapadipika, the
best of all Pali Dictionaries, and one certainly superior
to all the Dliatupathas that were ever written, is
inferior to Professor Wilson's Sanskrit Dictionary,
and even to the Radices Lingua? Sanskrits of Professor
Westergaard of Copenhagen, and the Glossariuni
Sanskritum of Bopp. A close examination of Nama-
valiya will exhibit this inferiority, and the comparative
superiority of modern Lexicographers, as compared with
the ancient writers, who merely put down some
thousands of words into metre without order, method,
or arrangement. In the number of words too, tlie
superiority of Professor Wilson's Dictionary is greater
than the Amara Kosha in the proportion of 60,000 to

The rhymes in which the work is composed, though
useful in one point of view, are nevertheless calculated
to Aveary the beginner in the ascertainment of the
words, which run into one common mass with the
observations of the Poet. Namavaliya labours under
this and many other disadvantages.


To render therefore, its use easy to all classes, and
especially to the European student, the Eev. C. Alwls
has published an English Translation* after the plan
of Colebrooke's version of the Amara Kosha.

The utility and importance of the Vocabulary are
thus noticed by the Translator: —

*Namavaliya, the subject of the following pages, is a
work of great authority, and is constantly referred to
by Sinhalese scholars. It holds the same position in
Sinhalese literature, as the Amarakosa vocabulary in
the Sanskrit, and Abhidanap-padipika in the Pali,
both of which works have been translated and pub-
lished. It is scarcely necessary to adduce anything
by way of demonstrating the utility of offering the
Namavaliya to the public in its present shape, beyond
the fact that there is hardly a Sinhalese scholar, who
is not in possession of a manuscript copy, or to whom
its contents are not familiar.'

However useful this little work may be for various
purposes, especially as a ready help to the student in
furnishing him with a variety of names, from which
he may at pleasure select such as may suit the exigen-
cies of a peculiar metre, yet it cannot be denied that,
like the Amara Kosha, it contains but a very small
portion of the words of a very copious language.
Neither verbs or derivatives are given in it. Except
a few epithets which are aj^propriated as titles of
deities, or as names of plants, &c., ordinary compound

* Namavaliya, by Rev. C. Alwis, 1858, octavo, pp. 12.3.



words, (not to mention sesqiiipcdalia and septlpedalia),
are omitted. Technical terms, too, as in most diction-
aries, are excluded from tliis. The catalogue of
liomouymous Avords is also defective; and this is not to
be wondered at, when we find the same deficiency in
the Amara Kosha, Avhich contains only about 12,000
words. But it is to be regretted that neither the ori-
ginal writer, nor his translator has given us the
etymology of the words. Nor have wc the gender of
the nouns, which, as our readers know, it is difficult
to distinguish in the Sinhalese; for it does not recog-
nise, as in many modern languages, a philosophical or
an intelligible principle, in fixing the genders of

The writer, after the usual adoration to Buddha,
gives the following introductory stanza : —
Lovcfla pinisa poraueduran metin kala
Nam paliyeu mut bevinudu kavi nokala
Vanapot kara viyat bevu vana lesa lakala
Pada benda kiyam Namavaliya Sinhtda.

' Though the names, which ancient teachers em-
ployed, for the good of the Avorld, were in prose and
not rendered into verse; yet, do I, in rhyme, sing the
Sinhalese Namavaliya, so that (persons) may be
distinguished in learning, by committing (the same) to

This work is divided into two parts, the first consisting
of synonymous, and the second of homonymous
terms. The first is subdivided into thirteen orders
of names, consisting: —

THE NA'ma'vALIYA. 91

1. Of celestial terms, for things above human
abodes. Under this head are comprised the names of
Buddhas, deities, both religious and mythological, the
cardinal points, the heavens, the different phenomena
of nature, the various stars, including the personifica-
tions of the planetary system, the various distinctions
of time, colour and season, the emotions of the mind,

2. Of geographical terms, for objects in and
beneath the earth, such as the naga worlds, the hells,
darkness, serpents, waters, seas, rivers, fishes, and
marine objects, &c., &c,

3. Of terrestrical objects, which enter into the
graphic delineation of a landscape in poetry.

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