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OBSERYATIONS ON MINES. HOCKS,
EEDUCnON OF ORES,
IPPLICITIONS OF THE SCIENCE TO THE 1BT8.
WUH SM nXTISIBATIONS.
DESIGNED FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS AND COLLEQEa
BY JAMES D. DANA, A. M.,
Of fhe 8oc. GÂ»B. Kat. Oar. of Motcow, the 8oc. Philomathique et Parii ,
the Amerioan Academy of Arts and Sciences at Boeton, etc.;
Author of a ** SjrBtem of Mineralogy.'*
rUBLISHBD BY DTJBRIB Â«fc PECK.
PHILADELPHIA : PECK A BLISS.
046* V7 2.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1848, bf
DURRIE & PECK
Id the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Connecticut
Iir the pr^aretion of this Mannal, the author has endeavored to meet
a demand often urged, by majdog it, aa &r as posnble, practical and
American in character.
Prominence has been giyen to the more common species, while others
are but briefly noticed in a smaller type, or are mentioned only by name.
The uses of minerals and their modes of application in the arts have
been especially dwelt upon. The ralue of ores in mining^ their modes
of reduction, the yield of mines in different countries, and the various
applications of the metals, have been described as minutely as was con-
ostent with the extent of the work. The various rocks are in like
At the same time, die subject has been presented with all the strict-
ness of a scientific S3rstem. The classification adopted throws together
ores of the same metals, and associates the earthy species as far as
possible in natural groups. This order is preferred by very many
teachers of the science, and has advantages which for many purposes
counterbalance those of a more perfectly natural system. The account
of the ores of each metal is preceded by a brief statement of their
distinctive characters ; and after the descriptions, there follow general
cemarics on mines, metallurgical processes, and other useful information.
As the rarer mineral species are not altogether excluded, but are
briefly mentioned each in its proper place in the system, the student,
should he meet with them, will be- guided by the Manual to some knowl-
edge of their general characters, and aided in arranging them in his
The list of American localities appended to the work, the descriptumi
of mineralogical implements, and the notice of ibreign weights, mea-
sures and coins, will be found conTem'ent to the stodent.
The author must refer to his larger work for more minute information
on the localities of minerals and the associations of species â€” ^for full lists
of synonyms â€” ^for tables for the determination of minerals â€” a more
complete account c^ crystallography and its details â€” chemical formulas
of species, and more numerous analyses, vrith their authorities â€” and a
list of mineralogical works and journals. He has there expressed his
indebtedness to the various Geological Reports of the difierent Slates,
and also to the scientific journals of the country, for information on
American minerals. In addition to these acknowledgments, he would
mention his obligations to Prof. C. B. Adams, of Amherst, Mass., and
Prof. M. TuoHXY, of Alabama, authors of Reports, the former on the
Geology of Vermont, and the latter on that of South Carolina. Aid
has been received in various ways from Prof. B. Sillimak, Jr., and
much valuable information from Mr. A. A. Hayes of Lowel, Mass.,
H. Kino of St. Louis, and S. S. Haldeman of Columbia, Pennsylvania,
lire's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines, has been a work
of frequent reference, and the figures of a zinc fumaee are from that
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
CrAF. I.â€” GeNERAZ. ChAXACTESIOTICS of MlMBSAlJi,
Chap. II.â€” Crtstallookapht : ok th^Strxtctos or MnnBAu.
Fundamental forms of crystals, â€¢ â€¢
Secondary forms, . . â€¢ â€¢ <
Compound crystals, . â€¢ â€¢ â€¢ ,
Dimorphism, . . â€¢ â€¢ ,
Irregularities of crystals, . â€¢ â€¢ Â«
Measuring angles of crystals, â€¢ â€¢ <
Massive minerals, . . â€¢ â€¢ ,
Columnar structure, . . â€¢ <
Lamellar and grannlar stractare, â€¢ <
Pseudomorphons crystals. . â€¢ â€¢ i
Diaphaneityiâ€” Refraction, and FoIari>atimiÂ«
Phosphorescence, . . â€¢ â€¢ â€¢
Electricity and Magnetism, . â€¢ â€¢ Â«
Specific gravity, . . . â€¢ ,
State of aggregation â€” Fracture, . â€¢ ,
Chap. IV. â€” Chsmicaz. Pbofixties or Mnmiu^ <
Action of acids, . . . â€¢ Â«
Chap. V.â€” Classificatiok or Minebals, â€¢ .
Chap. VI.â€” Dbschiftiom or Mihbsals, . â€¢ ,
1. Gases, ....,,
a. Water, ,
3. Carbon and compoanda of carboB* â€¢ ,
4. Sulphur, ...â€¢â€¢(
S. Haloid minerals, . . â€¢ Â« <
1. Ammonia, â€¢ * â€¢ â€¢ <
S. Potassa, . ^ . â€¢ ,
3. Soda, . . . -
4. Baryta, . . . â€¢ <
5. Strontia, . . â€¢ â€¢ <
6. Lime, . . â€¢ â€¢ i
7. Magnesia, . . â€¢ â€¢ <
6. Aluoaina, . â€¢ Â« - â€¢ i
'6. Earthy minerals, (silicates or aluminates,)
3. Magnesia, .
I. iiydrouB silicates,
S. Atihjrdrous silicates,
1. Uncombined, .
2. Combined, as alumina tea,
3. Hydrous combinations with ttlica,
4. Anhydrous oombinations with silica,
5. Combinations of a silicate and fluorid,
6. Combination of a silicate and sulphate^
7. Silicate with a cfalorid,
7. Metallic ores.
1. Easily oxydizable metals, â€¢
1, 2. Cerium and Yttrium,
4. Iron, .
5. Manganese, .
6. 7. Chromium, Nickel, â€¢
9. Zinc, . . .
10, 11. Cadmium, Bismuth,
12. Lead, .
13. Mercury, . .
16. Tin, .
17. Molybdenum, . â€¢
19, 20. Vanadium, Tellnriom,
9. Noble Metals.
1. Platinum, Iridium, PaUadinnit
2. Gold, ....
3. Silver, . . â€¢ â€¢
8. Supplement to the description of mioerals,
Chaf. VII. â€” ^RocKS xm MmXRAL AoanxaATCs, â€¢
Chap. VIII. â€” Catalogxte of American localities or MnoauLS,
Chap. IX. â€” ^Brief notice op Fobeiqn MnciNO Rbsioms,
Chap. X.-^MnniKALOGiCAL Implements, .
CuAP. XL â€” WsiQHis, Measttbbs, and Coins,
Tables fob the Detebmination of Minerals, â€¢
(ndez, . â€¢ â€¢ â€¢ â€¢ â€¢
GLOSSARY AND INDEX OF TERMS â€¢
Adcuujt, [Lat. ueuÂ», a needle J 53
Adit. [Lat. aditut, an entntnee.]
The horizontal entrance to a
Alkalt An oxyd having an acrid
taste, and caustic; as potash,
Alkaline. Like an alkali.
Alliaceous, [Lat. allium, garlic,] 66.
Alloy. A mixture of different met-
als (excluding mercury) by fusion
together. Also, the metal used
to deteriorate another metal by
mixture with it.
Alluvial. [Lat. aUuo, to wash over.]
Of river or fresh-water origin.
Amalgam. [Gr. malagma, a sof-
tened substance.] A componad
of mercury and another metal.
Amorphous, [Gr. 0,not, and morphe,
Anhydrous. [Lat. a, not, and
kudor, water.] Containing no
Arborescent. [Lat. arbor, tree.]
Branching like a tree.
Arenaceous. [Lat. arena, sand.]
Consisting of, or having the gritty
nature of, sand.
Argentiferous. [Lat. argentttmt
^ver.] Containing silver.
Argillaceous. [Lat. argiUa, day.]
Like clay ; containing clay.
Arsenical odor, 66.
Asparagus green. Pale green, with
Assay. [Same etymology as ewsay,]
To test ores by chemical or blow-
pipe examination ; said to be in
the dry way, when done by means
of heat, (as in a crucible,) and in
the wet way, when by means of
acids and liquid tests.
Assay. The material under chem-
ical or blowpipe examination.
Asteriated. [Gr. aÂ«<er, star.] Hav-
ing the appearance of a star
Augitic. Containing aogite.
Aanfisrous. [Lat. aurum, gold.)
Axes, 24 ; of double refraction, 59.
Bath stone. A species of limestone ;
called also Bath oolite ; named
from the locality, in England.
Bevelment, beveled, 35.
Bituminous. Containing bitumen;
Bladed. Thin blade-like.
Blast furnace, 233.
Blowpipe, 67 ; tests, 69, 70 : imple-
ments, 68, 69.
Blue-john. Name for fluor spar,
used in Derbjrshire, where itdten
has a bluish-purple color.
Botryoidal, [Gr, botrue, a bunch of
Boulder, bowlder. Looae roonded
mass of stone.
Brittle, 53, 65.
Calcine. [Lat. ealx, burnt lime*
stone.] To heat, in order to drive
off vobtile ingredients, and make
easy to be broken or pounded.
Calcination. The process of cal-
Carbon. Pure charcoal.
Carbonate. Asalt containing car-
bonic acid. Carbonated ; con-
taining carbonic acid, as carbo-
* The number after a word signifies the page where it is explained.
The etymology U given in brackets, wherever it was deemed important.
GLOSSARY AND INECX OF TERMS,
Carbonize. To convert into char-
Carburet. A compound of an ele-
nient with carbon, not acid.
Catalan forge, 237.
Celandine green. Green with blue
and gray ; from the plant called
Chalybeate. Impregnated with
Chert. A siliceous stone containing
some lime ; also, hornstone.
Chiorid. Combination of an ele-
ment with chlorine.
Chloritic. Containing chlorite.
Chromate. A salt containing chro-
Cinereous. [Lat. cinis, ashes.]
Compound crystals, 42.
Coralloidal. Having a resemblance
Cretaceous. [Lat. creta, chalk.]
Pertaining to chalk.
Cropping out. The rising of layers
of rock to the surface.
Crucible. [Lat. crux, a cross.] A
pot made of earth or clay for
melting, or reduction.
Cruciform, [Lat. cruxf a cross,]
Crystal, [Greek ATWÂ«Â«aZ/oÂ«, ice,] 19 ;
systems of crystallization, 24,
Cupel, cupellation, 317, 328.
Cupreous. [Lat. cuprum, copper.]
Curved crystals, 42.
Decrepitate. To crackle and fly
apart when heated.
Deflagrate. To bum with vivid
Deliquesce. To change to a liquid,
on ezposcure ; arising from the
attraction of moisture.
Dendrites. [Gr. dendran, trÂ«e.]
Delicate delineations branching
like a tree ; due to infiltration of
oxyd of iron or manganese.
Density. Specific gravity.
Desiccate. To dry, to exhaust of
Dimetric system, 32.
Disintegrate. To fall to pieces ; a
result of exposure and partial de-
Disseminated. Scattered through
a rock or gangue.
Dodecahedron, rhombic, 25 ; isos-
celes, 39, fig. 65 ; pentagonal 37 ;
Dolomitic. Pertaining to dolomite.
Dressing of ores. The picking and
sorting of ores, and washing pre-
paratory to reduction.
Dull, 56. ^
Earthy. Soft like earth, and with-
Ebullition. The state of boiling.
EfHoresce. To change to a state
of powder, by exposure ; arises
from the escape of water.
Elastic, 53, 65. Electricity of min-
erals/ etc., 62.
Elutriation. [Lat. elutrio, to pour
from one vessel to another.]
Mixing a powdered substance
(as powdered flint) with water,
and then after the coarser parti-
cles have subsided, carefully de-
canting the liquid and putting it
away to settle, in order to obtain
the impalpable powder which ia
Elvan. In Cornwall, the granite
masses forming broad veins in
the killas, and containing the
Enamel. A glaÂ« having an a|h
GLOSSARY AND INDEX OF TERMS.
pearance like porcelain, or like
the surface of a tooth.
Evaporate. To become a vapor;
to cause to become a vapor.
Even fracture, 65.
*ExfoHate. To separate into thin
leaves, or to scale off.
Fault. Dislocation along a fissure,
as often in coal beds, 87.
Feldspatbic. Containing feldspar
as a principal ingredient ; con-
sisting of feldspar.
Ferruginous. [Lat. ferrum, iron.]
Filament. A thread-like fiber.
Finery furnace. A furnace used
in the conversion of cast iron into
Filiform, [Lat. /fern, a thread,] 53.
Flexible, 53, 65.
Fluate. Containing fluoric acid.
Fhix, [Lat. /uo, to flow,] 69.
Forceps, Platinum, 69.
Fracture of minerals, 65.
Friable. Easily crumbling in the
Fundamental forms, 23.
Furnace, blast, 233 ; reverberatory,
327; Catalan, 237.
Gallery. A horizontal pttssage in
Geniculate. [Lat. gtmi, knee.]
Bitnt at an angle, &.
Geode. [Gr. gaode^, earth-like.]
A cavity studded around with
crystals or mineral matter, or a
rounded stone containing such a
Glance. [Germ, glanz,, luster.]
Certain lustrous metallic sulphu-
rets of dark shades of color.
Glimmering. Glistening, 56.
Goniometer, common, 47 ; reflect-
Granular. Consisting of gralnf.
Granulate ; to reduce to graina.
Hardness, scale of, 64.
Hemihedral forms, 37.
Hepatic. [Gr. hepar, liver.] HÂ«tÂ«
ing an external resemblanoe to
Hexagonal prism, 27.
Hexagonal system, 33.
Homogeneous. Of the same tex-
ture and nature throughout.
Hyacinth red. Red with yellow
and some brown.
Hyaline. ^ [Gr. hualo9, glass.] Re-
sembling glass in transparency
Hydrated. [Gr. Atidbr, water.]
Ignition. [Lat. ignU, fire.] The
state of being so heated as to give
out light ; at a red or white heat.
Implanted crystals. Attached by
Incandescence. White beat.
Incrustation. A coating of mineral
Indurated. Hardened or solidified.
Infiltrate. To enter gradually, as
water, through pores.
Infusible. In mineralogy, not fiui-
ble by means of the simple blow-
Inspissate. To thicken.
Intumesce. To froth.
Investing. Coating or covering, aÂ«
when one mineral forms a coat-
ing on another.
Irised. [Lat. irw, rainbow.] Hav-
ing the colors of the spectrum.
Isomorphism, isomorphous, 74.
Juxtapose. To place contiguous.
Killas. In Cornwall, the schistose
rock in which the lodes occur.
GLOSSARY AND INDEX OF TERMS.
Lapidification. [Lat. lapia, a stone .]
The process of changing to si one.
Lapilla. Small volcanic cinders.
Lavender-biue. Blue with some
red and much gray.
Leek-green. The color of the
leaves of garlic.
Lenticular. Thin, with acute edges
something like a lens, except that
the surface is not curved.
Leucitic. Containing leucite.
Levigation. [Lat JeoÂ», light.] The
process of reducing to a fine
Liqnation. [Lat. Uquo, to melt]
The slow fusion of an alloy, by
which the more fusible flows out
and leaves the rest behind, 328.
Lithographic stone. A compact
grajriah or yellowish-gray lime-
stone of very even texture and
conchoidal fracture ; used in lith-
ography. That of Solenhofen,
near Munich, is most noted.
Lithology. [6r. lithott stone, and
logos, a discourse.] Mineralogy.
Lixiviate. [Lat. lixivium, lye.]
To form a lye, by allowing water
to stand upon earthy or alkaline
material, and draining it off be-
low, after it has dissolved the sol-
uble ingredients present.
Lode. [Sax. Icedan, to lead.] In
mining, a vein of mineral sub-
stance ; usually a vein of metallic
ore. The lode is said to be dead
when the material affords no
Made. A compound crystal, or one
having a tesselated structure.
Magnesian. Containing magnesia.
Magnetism of minerals, 63.
Malleable, [Lat. malleus, a ham-
Mammillary, [Lat. mammUla, a
little teat,] 53.
Manganesian. Containing man-
Marly. Having the nature of marl ;
Massive. Compact, and having no
Matrix. [Lat. matrix, from mater,
mother.] The rock or earthy
material, containing a mineral or
metallic ore. â€¢
Metallic, 55, 56. Metallic-pearly,
55. Metallic-adamantine, 56.
Metalliferous. Yielding metal.
Metallurgy. [Gr. metallon, and
ergon, work.] The science of
the reduction of ores.
Mineralized. Changed to mineral
by impregnation with mineral
matter. Also being disguised in
character by combination with
other substances ; thus used with
regard to metals when in combi-
nation with sulphur, arsenic, car-
bonic acid, or anything that afiects
their malleability and other qual-
Molybdate. A salt containing
Mountain limestone. A limestone
of the lower part of the coal se-
ries; called also carboniferouo
Nacreous. Like pearl.
Native metal, 202.
Nitrate. A salt containing nitric
Nucleus. The center particle or
mass around which matter is ag;
Ochreous. Like ochcr.
Octahedron, pp. 23, 25, 26.
Octahedral. Having the form of an
Odor of minerals, p. 66.
Oolite. [Gr. oon, egg,] p. 349.
Opalescence, p. 57.
Opaline. Like opal.
Opalized. Changed to opal.
6X<08SART AND IlfDBX OF TBBMS.
Opaque, p. 58.
Oie, 202. Also, by miners, a dis-
seminated ore and the including
stone together ; the term met-
al is often used for the pure ore.
Oxydizable. Capable of combining
Oxydating flame, 68.
Percolate. To pass gradually
Pisolitic, [Lat. pisum, a pea,] com-
posed of large round grains or
kernels, of the size of peas.
Pistachio-green. Green with yel-
low, and some brown.
Plastic. Adhesive, and capable of
being moulded in the hands.
Plumose.- Having the shape of a
plume, or feather.
Play of colors, 57.
Plutonic rocks. Granite and allied
Polyhedral. [Gr. poltis, many, and
hedra face.) Having many sides.
Porous. Having minute vacuities,
visible or invisible to the naked
eye ; a loose texture, allowing
water to filtrate through.
Porphyritic. Like porphyry, 340.
Puddling Furnace. A rcverbera-
tory furnace, used in converting
cast into bar iron, after the finery
Pulverize. [Lat. fulvis, dust,] to
reduce to powder.
Pulverulent. Like a fine powder
Pyritous. Having the nature of
Quartzoae. Containing quartz â– â€¢
a principal ingredient.
Rake-vein. A perpendicular min-
Reduction of ores, 204.
Reduction flame, 68.
Refractory. Remsting the action
of heat ; infusible.
Refrigerate. To cool.
Reguius. The pure state of a
metal, as reguius of antimony.
Reniform. [Lat. ren, kiduey J 53.
Replacement, 35. Resinous, 55.
Resplendent. Having a brilliant
Reticulated. [Lat. rete, a net,]
Reverberatory furnace, 327.
Riddling or sifting of ores. Put-
ting the broken or pulverized ore
in a seive, and plunging the seive
into water, by which, the whole
powdered material is raised by
the water and the metallic part
sinking first, may be separated
to a great extent from the rest.
Roasting. Exposing to heat in
piles, or in a furnace, and thus
driving off any volatile ingredienL
Saccharoid. [Gr. sakchar, sugar.]
Having a texture like loaf sugar.
Saline, (Lat. sal, salt.) Salt like ;
containing common salt.
Salt. In chemistry, any combina-
tion of an acid with a base, 74.
Scale of hardness, 64.
Schlich. The finely pulverized ore
Schistose. Having a slaty structure.
Scopiform, (Lat. acopa, a broom.)
Like a broom in form.
Scoria, (L. scoria, dross,) 205, 341.
Secondary forms, 34. Sectile, 65*
Shaft. A vertical or much in-
clined pit, cylindrical in form.
OL088ART AKD INDEX OF TBHXS.
Shale, 341. Shining, 56.
Siliceous. Consisting of, or con-
taining silex, or quartz.
Silurian. A term applied to the
fossiliferous rocks, older than
the coal seiies.
Smelting of iron ores, 233.
Spathic, (Germ. Â«2mM.) Like spar.
Spar. Any earthy mineral having
a distinct cleavable structure and
some luster, as calcareous spar.
Stalactitic, (Gr. wtalazo, to drop or
distil,) 54, 116.
Specific gravity, 63.