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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
LOS ANGELES




This book is - E or
date »*> ed be '



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GEOGRAPHY

AND

WORLD POWER



BY

JAMES FAIRGRIEVE, M.A., F.R.G.S,

RECOGNISED TEACHER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON
IN THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF EDUCATION



SECOND IMPRESSION



NEW YORK
E. P. DUTTON & COMPANY

PUBLISHERS
1917

355o3



XI



&F33



PREFACE

"All the world's a stage.''

In this volume an endeavour is made to tell a
coherent story and show that there is really some
order in the apparently disorderly happenings on this
planet. Dealing with world history and geography in
such small compass, it is obvious that there must be
many omissions. Opinions may differ as to what
omissions ought to be made, and some things may
not present themselves in the same light as they do
to the author, but the correctness of the thesis as a
whole does not depend on the accuracy of this or that
statement or view. In particular it may be as well
to emphasise the fact that while the book deals with
world history, it deals with only one side of it. Its
special concern, in fact, is rather with the setting of
the stage than with the action of the drama. Its aim
is to point out how the stage was set at different epochs
in the history of the world, and specially how the stage
has been set for that act of the drama now being
played.

At a cursory glance, then, the book may possibly
appear to be materialistic, but it is materialistic only
in the sense that from the nature of the case it deals
with material things. The ways in which geographical
conditions affect the actors are traced out, but those
spiritual aspects of the drama which do not exhibit
the geographical control are naturally not referred to.
This does not mean that they do not exist.

J. F.



CONTENTS



CHAP. PAOE

I INTRODUCTION ... 1

II THE DESERT: THE BEGINNINGS of history:

EGYPT . . . . . . .17

III MARSH AND STEPPE: BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA 32

IV THE WAYS: PALESTINE AND PHOENICIA .



42



V THE SEA : (i) GREECE . . . 50

(ii) CARTHAGE. . . . .66

VI CONTRAST BETWEEN SEA AND LAND : HIGHLAND

AND LOWLAND: ROME. .... 73

VII THE PLAIN : INVADING TRIBES ... 95

VIII THE OASES: MOHAMMEDANISM. . . 114 *

IX THE OCEAN: THE DISCOVERY: IBERIA . . 128

X THE OCEAN : OCEAN POWER : HOLLAND AND

FRANCE 146

XI THE OCEAN: OCEAN EMPIRE: BRITAIN . . 161 >^_

XII THE FOREST: (i) RUSSIA .... 193

(ii) GERMANY . . . 199

XIII THE LAND OF RIVERS : CHINA . . . 225

vii



viii CONTENTS

CHAP. PAOK

XIV I UK WARM land: INDIA .... 247

XV THE AFRICAN GRASSLANDS: BPHERES OP IN

FLUBNCE ....... 269

xvi the nkw world: history bbforb coluhb1

spanish america . . . .

xvii coal: the grbatbr land distributions : the

united states ...... 305

xviii the future possibilities .... 330

INDEX . . , . . . . .311



GEOGRAPHY AND WORLD POWER



CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
/. WE AT TEE BOOK IS ABOUT

This book is written to show how the history of the
world has been controlled by those conditions and
phenomena which we class together under the title of
Geography, and to point out which are the really essential
geographical facts by noting those which have most
effectively controlled the history. In that sentence there
are three words about whose meaning we must be quite
clear. They are "History," "controlled," "Geography."

(1) History. — When we speak of history in this way,'
we of course imply that we are speaking of the history
of man on the earth, but even so history may mean
a number of things.

(a) It may mean merely a statement of all the events
that ever happened in the order in which they happened,
without any comments on them whatever. Now it is
very necessary to have a knowledge of events when we
study history, but it would not be very interesting merely
to know them, nor is it possible even if they could all
be found out for any one to know them all. There must
be a selection of the most important.

B



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Online LibraryJames FairgrieveGeography and world power → online text (page 1 of 22)