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Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1882, by CARET and
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" I shall crave your forbearance a little ; may be, I will call upon you
anon, for some advantage to yourself."

Measure for Measure.

CONTRARY to a long-established usage, a summer had been
passed within the walls of a large town ; but, the moment of
liberation arrived, the bird does not quit its cage with greater
pleasure, than that with which post-horses were commanded.
We were four in a light travelling caliche, which strong. Nor
man cattle transported merrily towards their native province.
For a time we quitted Paris, the queen of modern cities, with
its tumults and its order ; its palaces and its lanes ; its ele
gance and its filth ; its restless inhabitants and its stationary
politicians; its theories and its practices; its riches and its
poverty ; its gay and its sorrowful ; its rentiers and its patriots ;
its young liberals and its old illiberals ; its three estates and
its equality ; its delicacy of speech and its strength of con
duct ; its government of the people and its people of no gov
ernment ; its bayonets and its moral force ; its science and its
ignorance ; its amusements and its revolutions ; its resistance
that goes backward, and its movement that stands still ; its
milliners, its philosophers, its opera-dancers, its poets, its
fiddlers, its bankers, and its cooks. Although so long en
thralled within the barriers, it was not easy to quit Paris, en
tirely without regret Paris, which every stranger censures
and every stranger seeks ; which moralists abhor and imitate ;
which causes the heads of the old to shake, and the hearts of
the young to beat ; Paris, the centre of so much that is ex
cellent, and of so much that cannot be named !

That night we laid our heads on rustic pillows, far from the
French capital. The succeeding day we snuffed the air of the
sea. Passing through Artois and French Flanders, on the
fifth morning we entered the new kingdom of Belgium, by the
historical and respectable towns of Doua'i, and Tournal, and
A 2

I'.d 4 "


Ath. At every step we met the flag which flutters over the
pavilion of the Thuileries, and recognized the confident air
and swinging gait of French soldiers. They had just been
employed in propping the crumbling throne of the house of
Saxe. To us they seemed as much at home as when they
lounged on the Quai d'Oreay.

There was still abundant evidence visible at Brussels, of
the fierce nature of the struggle that had expelled the Dutch.
Forty-six shells were sticking in the side of a single building
of no great size, while ninety-three grape-shot were buried in
one of its pilasters ! In our own rooms, too, there were fearful
signs of war. The mirrors were in fragments, the walls broken
by langrage, the wood-work of the beds was pierced by shot,
and the furniture was marked by rude encounters. The trees
of the park were mutilated in a thousand places, and one of
the little Cupids, that we had left laughing above the principal
gate three years before, was now maimed and melancholy,
whilst its companion had altogether taken flight on the wings
of a cannon-ball. Though dwelling in the very centre of so
many hostile vestiges, we happily escaped the sight of human
blood ; for we understood from the obliging Swiss who presides
over the hotel, that his cellars, at all times in repute, were in
more than usual request during the siege. From so much
proof we were left to infer, that the Belgians had made stout
battle fbr their emancipation, one sign at least that they merited
to be free.

Our road lay by Louvain, Thirlemont, Lie"ge, Aix-la-Cha-
pelle, and Juliers, to the Rhine. The former of these towna
had been the scene of a contest between the hostile armies,
the preceding week. As the Dutch had been accused of un
usual excesses in their advance, we looked out for the signs.
How many of these marks had been already obliterated, we
could not well ascertain ; but those which were still visible
gave us reason to think that the invaders did not merit all the
opprobrium they had received. Each hour, as life advances,
am I made to see how capricious and vulgar is the immortality
conferred by a newspaper !

It would be injustice to the ancient Bishopric of Lidge to
paw its beautiful scenery without a comment. The country


possesses nearly every requisite for the milder and more rurai
sort of landscape ; isolated and innumerable farm-houses,
herds in the fields, living hedges, a waving surface, and a ver
dure to rival the emerald. By a happy accident, the road runs
for miles on an elevated ridge, enabling the traveller to enjoy
these beauties at his ease.

At Aix-la-Chapelle we bathed, visited the relics, saw the
scene of so many coronations of emperors of more or less re
nown, sat in the chair of Charlemagne, and went our way.

The Rhine was an old acquaintance. A few years earlier,
I had stood upon the sands, at Katwyck, and watched its peri
odical flow into the North Sea, by means of sluices made in
the short reign of the good King Louis, and, the same sum
mer, I had bestrode it, a brawling brook, on the icy side of St.
Gothard. We had come now to look at its beauties in its
most beautiful part, and to compare them, so far as native par
tiality might permit, with the well-established claims of our
own Hudson.

Quitting Cologne, its exquisite but incomplete cathedral,
with the crane that has been poised on its unfinished towers
five hundred years, its recollections of Rubens and his royal
patroness, we travelled up the stream so leisurely as to examine
all that offered, and yet so fast as to avoid the hazard of satiety.
Here we naet Prussian soldiers, preparing, by mimic service,
for the more serious duties of their calling. Lancers were
galloping, in bodies, across the open fields ; videttes were post
ed, the cocked pistol in hand, at every hay-stack; while
couriers rode, under the spur, from point to point, as if the
great strife, which is so menacingly preparing, and which
sooner or later must come, had actually commenced. As
Europe is now a camp, these hackneyed sights scarce drew a
look aside. We were in quest of the interest which nature, in
her happier humors, bestows.

There were ruined castles, by scores; gray fortresses;
abbeys, some deserted and others yet tenanted ; villages and
towns ; the seven mountains ; cliffs and vineyards. At every
step we felt how intimate is the association between the
poetry of Nature and that of art ; between the hill-side with
its falling turret, and the moral feeling that lends them interest.


Hero was on island, of no particular excellence, but the walls
of a convent of the middle ages crumbled on its surface. There
was a naked rock, destitute of grandeur, and wanting in those
tints which milder climates bestow, but a baronial hold tottered
on its apex. Here Cesar led his legions to the stream, and
there Napoleon threw his corps d'armee on the hostile bank ;
this monument was to Hoche, and from that terrace the great
Adolphus directed his battalions. Time is wanting to mellow
the view of our own historical sites ; for the sympathy that can
be accumulated only by the general consent of mankind, has
not yet clothed them with the indefinable colors of distance
and convention.

In the mood likely to be created by a flood of such recol
lections, we pursued our way along the southern margin of
this great artery of central Europe. We wondered at the
vastncss of the Rheinfels, admired the rare jewel of the ruin
ed church at Baccarach, and marvelled at the giddy precipice
on which a prince of Prussia even now dwells, in the eagle*
like grandeur and secority of the olden time. On reaching
Mayence, the evening of the second day, we deliberately and 1 ,
as we hoped, impartially compared what had just been seenv
with that which is so well and so affectionately remembered.

I had been familiar with the Hudson from childhood. The
great thoroughfare of all who journey from the interior of the
state towards the sea, necessity had early made me acquainted
with its windings, its promontories, its islands, its cities, and
its villages. Even its bidden channels had been professionally
examined, and time was when there did not stand an unknown
eeat on its banks, or a hamlet that had not been visited. Here
then was the force of deep impressions to oppose to the in
fluence of objects still visible.

To me it is quite apparent that the Rhine, while it frequently
pooDOrocn more of any particular species of scenery, within a
given number of miles, than the Hudson, has none of so great
excellence. It wants the variety, the noble beauty, and the
broad grandeur of the American stream. The latter, within
the distance universally admitted to contain the finest parts
of the Rhine, is both a large and a small river; it has its bays,
its narrow passages among the meadows, its frowning gorges^


tnd its reaches resembling Italian lakes; whereas the most
that can be said of its European competitor, is that all these
wonderful peculiarities are feebly imitated. Ten degrees of a
lower latitude supply richer tints, brighter transitions of light
and shadow, and more glorious changes of the atmosphere, to
embellish the beauties of our western clime. In islands, too,
the advantage is with the Hudson, for, while those of the
Rhine are the most numerous, those of the former stream are
bolder, better placed, and, in every natural feature, of more

When the comparison between these celebrated rivers is ex
tended to their artificial accessories, the result becomes more
doubtful. The buildings of the older towns and villages of
Europe seem grouped especially for effect, as seen in the dis
tant view, though security was in truth the cause, while the
spacious, cleanly, and cheerful villages of America must com
monly be entered, to be appreciated. In the other hemisphere,
the maze of roofs, the church-towers, the irregular faces of
wall, and frequently the castle rising to a pinnacle in the rear,
give a town the appearance of some vast and antiquated pile
devoted to a single object. Perhaps the boroughs of the Rhine
have less of this picturesque, or landscape effect, than the
villages of France and Italy, for the Germans regard space
more than their neighbors, but still are they less commonplace
than the smiling and thriving little marts that crowd the bor
ders of the Hudson. To this advantage must be added that
which is derived from the countless ruins, and a crowd of
recollections. Here, the superiority of the artificial auxiliaries
of the Rhine ceases, and those of her rival come into the as
cendant. In modern abodes, in villas, and even in seats, those
of princes alone excepted, the banks of the Hudson have
scarcely s.n equal in any region. There are finer and nobler
edifices on the Brenta, and in other favored spots, certainly,
but I know no stream that has so many that please and attract
the eye. As applied to moving objects, an important feature
in this comparison, the Hudson has perhaps no rival, in any
river that can pretend to a picturesque character. In numbers,
in variety of rig, in beauty of form, in swiftness and dexterity
f handling, and in general grace and movement, this extra?


ordinary passage ranks amongst the first of the world. The
yards of tall fchips swing among the rocks and forests of the
highlands, while sloop, schooner, and bright canopied steam-boat,
yacht, periagua, and canoe are seen in countless numbers, deck
ing its waters. There is one more eloquent point of difference
that should not be neglected. Drawings and engravings of
the Rhine lend their usual advantages, softening, and frequently
rendering beautiful, objects of no striking attractions when
seen as they exist ; while every similar attempt to represent
the Hudson, at once strikes the eye as unworthy of its original.

Nature is fruitful of fine effects in every region, and it is a
mistake not to enjoy her gifts, as we move through life, on ac
count of some fancied superiority in this, or that, quarter of the
world. We left the Rhine, therefore, with regret, for, in its
way, a lovelier stream can scarce be found.

At Mayence we crossed to the right bank of the river, and
passing by the Duchies of Nassau and Darmstadt, entered that
of Baden, at Heidelberg. Here we sat upon the Tun, examin
ed the castle, and strolled in the alleys of the remarkable
garden. Thence we proceeded to Manheim, turning our faces,
once more, towards the French capital. The illness of one of
the party compelled us to remain a few hours in the latter
city, which presented little for reflection, unless it were that
this, like one or two other towns we had lately seen, served
to convince us, that the symmetry and regularity which render
large cities magnificent, cause those that are small to appear

It was a bright autumnal day when we returned to the left
bank of the Rhine, on the way to Paris. The wishes of the
invalid had taken the appearance of strength, and we hoped to
penetrate the mountains which bound the Palatinate on its
south-western side, and to reach Kaiserslautern, on the great
Napoleon road, before the hour of rest The main object hat
been accomplished, and, as with all who have effected their
purpose, the principal desire was to be at home. A few posts
convinced us that repose was still necessary to the invalid.
This conviction, unhappily as I then believed, came too late,
for we had already crossed the plain of the Palatinate, and
were drawing near to the chain of mountains just mentioned.


which are a branch of the Vosges, and are known in the
country as the Haart. We had made no calculations for such
an event, and former experience had caused us to distrust the
inns of this isolated portion of the kingdom of Bavaria. I was
just bitterly regretting our precipitation, when the church-
tower of Duerckheim peered above the vineyards; for, on
getting nearer to the base of the hills, the land became slightly
undulating, and the vine abundant As we approached, the
village or borough promised little, but we had the word of the
postilion that the post-house was an inn fit for a king ; and as to
the wine, he could give no higher eulogium than a flourish of
the whip, an eloquent expression of pleasure for a German of
his class. We debated the question of proceeding, or of
stopping, in a good deal of doubt, to the moment wnen the
carriage drew up before the sign of the Ox. A substantial
looking burgher came forth to receive us. There was the
pledge of good cheer in the ample development of his person,
which was not badly typified by the sign, and the hale hearty
character of his hospitality removed all suspicion of the hour
of reckoning. If he who travels much is a gainer in know
ledge of mankind, he is sure to be a loser in the charities that
sweeten life. Constant intercourse with men who are in the
habit of seeing strange faces, who only dispose of their ser
vices to those that are likely never to need them again, and
who, of necessity, are removed from most of the responsibilities
and affinities of a more permanent intercourse, exhibits the
selfishness of our nature in its least attractive form. Policy
may susrgest a specious blandishment of air, to conceal the
ordinary design on the pocket of the stranger ; but it is in the
nature of things that the design should exist The passion of
gain, like all other passions, increases with indulgence ; and
Jius do we find those who dwell on beaten roads more ra-
oacious than those in whom the desire is latent, for want of

Our host of Duerckheim offered a pledge, in his honest
countenance, independent air, and frank manner, of his also
being above the usual mercenary schemes of another portion
of the craft, who, dwelling in places of little resort, endeavor
to take their revenge of fortune, by showing that they look


upon every post-carriage as an especial God-send. He had a
garden, too, into which he invited us to enter, while the horses
were changing, in a way that showed he was simply desirous
of being benevolent, and that he cared little whether we staid
an hour or a week. In short, his manner was of an artless,
kind, natural, and winning character, that strongly reminded ua
of home, and which at once established an agreeable confi
dence that is of an invaluable moral effect Though too ex
perienced blindly to confide in national characteristics, we
liked, too, his appearance of German faith, and more than all
were we pleased with the German neatness and comfort, of
which there were abundance, unalloyed by the swaggering
pretension that neutralizes the same qualities among people
more artificial. The house was not a beer-drinking, smoking
caravanserai, like many hotels in that quarter of the world,
but it had detached pavilions in the gardens, in which the
wearied traveller might, in sooth, take his rest. With such
inducements before our eyes, we determined to remain, and we
were not long in instructing the honest burgher to that effect.
The decision was received with great civility, and, unlike the
immortal Falstaff, I began to see the prospects of taking " mint;
ease in mine inn" without having a pocket picked.

The carriage was soon housed, and the baggage in the
chambers. Notwithstanding the people of the house spoke
confidently, but with sufficient modesty, of the state of the
larder, it wanted several hours, agreeably to our habits, to the
time of dinner, though we had enjoyed frequent opportunities
of remarking that in Germany a meal is never unseasonable.
Disregarding hints, which appeared more suggested by hu
manity than the love of gain, our usual hour for eating was
named, and, by way of changing the subject, I asked,

'Did I not see some ruins, on the adjoining mountain, as
we entered the village 7"

" We call Duerckheim a city, mein Herr," rejoined our hosl
of the Ox ; " though none of the largest, the time has been
when it was a capital ! "

Here the worthy burgher munched his pipe and chuckled,
for lie was a man that had heard of such places OH London, and


Paris, and Pekin, and Naples, and St. Petersburg, or, haply,
of the Federal City itself.

"A capital ! it was the abode of one of the smaller Princes,
suppose ; of what family was your sovereign, pray 1"
" You are right, mein Herr. Duerckheim, before the French
revolution, was a residence (for so the political capitals are call
ed in Germany), and it belonged to the princes of Leiningen,
who had a palace on the other side of the city (the place may
be about half as large as Hudson, or Schenectady), which waa
burnt in the war. After the late wars, the sovereign was me
diatise, receiving an indemnity in estates on the other side of
the Rhine."

As this term of mediatise has no direct synonyme in English,
it may be well to explain its signification. Germany, as well
as most of Europe, was formerly divided into a countless num
ber of petty sovereignties, based on the principle of feudal
power. As accident, or talent, or alliances, or treachery ad
vanced the interests of the stronger of these princes, their
weaker neighbors began to disappear altogether, or to take
new and subordinate stations in the social scale. In this man
ner has France been gradually composed of its original, but
comparatively insignificant kingdom, buttressed, as it now is,
by Brittany i and Burgundy, and Navarre, and Dauphiny. and
Provence, and Normandy, with many other states ; and, in like
manner has England been formed of the Heptarchy. The con-
federative system of Germany has continued more or less of
this feudal organization to our own times. The formation of
the empires of Austria and Prussia has, however, swallowed up
many of these principalities, and the changes produced by the
policy of Napoleon gave the death-blow, without distinction, to
all in the immediate vicinity of the Rhine. Of the latter
number were the Princes of Leiningen, whose possessions wero
originally included in the French republic, then in the empire,
and have since passed under the sway of the King of Bavaria,
who, as the legitimate heir of the neighboring Duchy of Deux
Ponts, had a nucleus of sufficient magnitude in this portion of
Germany, to induce the congress of Vienna to add to his do
minions ; their object being to erect a barrier against the future



aggrandizement of France. As the dispossessed sovereign*
are permitted to retain their conventional rank, supplying
wives and husbands, at need, to the reigning branches of the
different princely families, the term mediatise has been aptly
enough applied to their situation.

" The young prince was here, no later than last week," con
tinued our host of the Ox; "he lodged in that pavilion, where
lie passed several days. You know that he is a son of the
Duchess of Kent, and half-brother to the young princess who
is likely, one day, to be queen of England."

" Has he estates here, or is he still, in any way, connected
with your government 1"

" All they have given him is in money, or on the other side
of the Rhine. He went to see the ruins of the old castle ; for
he had a natural curiosity to look at a place which his ances
tors had built"

" It was the ruins of the castle of Leiningen, then, that I
eaw on the mountain, as we entered the town 1"

" No, mein Herr. You saw the ruins of the Abbey of Lim-
burg ; those of Hartenburg, for so the castle was called, he
farther back among the hills."

" What ! a ruined abbey, and a ruined castle, too ! Here is
sufficient occupation for the rest of the day. An abbey and a

u And the Heidenmauer, and the Teufelstein."

" How ! a Pagan's wall, and a Devil's stone ! You are rich
in curiosities !"

The host continued to smoke on philosophically.

" Have you a guide who can take me, by the shortest way
to these places ?"

" Any child can do that"

" But one who can speak French is desirable for my Ger
man is far from being classical."

The worthy inn-keeper nodded his head.

" Here is one Christian Kinzel," he rejoined, after a moment
of thought, " a tailor who has not much custom, and who has
lived a little in France ; he may serve your turn."

I suggested that a tailor might find it healthful to stretch his


The host of the Ox was amused with the conceit, and he
fairly removed the pipe, in order to laugh at his ease. His
mirth was hearty, like that of a man without guile.

The affair was soon arranged. A messenger was sent for
Christian Kinzel, and taking my little male travelling com
panion by the hand, I went leisurely ahead, expecting the ap
pearance of the guide. But, as the reader will have much to
do with the place about to be described, it may be desirable that
he should possess an accurate knowledge of its locality.

Duerckheim lies in that part of Bavaria, which is commonly
called the circle of the Rhine. The king, of the country
named, may have less than half a million of subjects in this
detached part of his territories, which extends in one course

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