James Frederick McCurdy.

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HISTORY, PROPHECY



THE MONUMENTS



J^^i^



HISTORY, PROPHECY



AND



THE MONUMENTS



ISRAEL AND THE NATIONS



JAMES FREDERICK McCURDY. Pii D.. LL D.

PROFESSOR OF ORIENTAL LANGUA(JES IN
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, TORONTO



V O L U I\I E I T

TO THE FALL OF NINEVEH



Wctn |5ark
THE MACMn.LAN COISH^ANY

LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., Ltd.

1896

All riijhln retterved



COPTKIGIIT, 1896,

By the MACMILLAN COMPANY.



NartoooU JlJrcss

J. S. Cushiiijj & Co. - Berwick & Smith
Nurwuud Mass. U.S.A.



TO THE MEMOKV OF A FRIEXD

WHOSE SPIRIT IS IX SOME MEASURE TKAXSFUSED

INTO THESE PAGES

Uftj. D. 31. tpacDonufU, 15.SD.

MINISTER OF ST. ANDREW'S CHURCH, TORONTO

A HERO, A PROPHET, AXD A SAIXT OF GOD

GREAT AS A LOVER AXD EXPOTXDER OF TRUTH

GREATER AS A LOVER AXD HELPER OF MEN



PREFACE



A WORD of explanation is due to tliose Avho have read the
preface to the first of these vohimes. It was there stated that
a second vokime woukl complete the Avork. It soon appeared,
however, that it was impossible to deal fairly, much less
adequately, under the proposed limitation, with the topics
which claimed attention. Above all, the inner history of
Israel seemed to demand fresh and thorough treatment. Thus
it has resulted, that instead of the single chapter in which
I had intended to sketch the governmental, social, and moral
progress of the Hebrew people, the whole of Book VII lias
been devoted to tkis fascinating theme. The complement
thereof, the ■ development of the ancient Hebrew literature,
is a subject equally weighty and urgent. But it will, I think,
be admitted that it cannot be intelligently and profitably
taken up until Israel's career as a nation has been followed
to its conclusion. Its direct discussion has, therefore, been
relegated to the third and concluding volume.

No apology is needed for the length to which Book YII
has been allowed to run. The outward events of the history
of Israel, mainly recorded in their own annals, are easily
recapitulated. Not so obvious, however, and still more im-
portant, are the inner life and movement, of which these
events are the expression or the occasion. We do not half
understand, we do not even really know, the achievements of
any people, unless Ave have learned in some measure hoAV and
why they have done Avhat they did. The task of the historian
of Israel is, therefore, not complete when he has shown, by
the aid of contemporary monuments, how the narrative of the
native chroniclers may be supplemented and elucidated. He
needs to trace the rise, direction, and issue of the hidden cur-



PREFACE



rents of the national life. Accordingly, I have laboured to
make as clear and real as possible the growth of the Hebrew
community, the distinctive character of its social and domestic
institutions, its political evolution, its progress in the inter-
dependent spheres of society, morals, and religion.

Another motive, also, has induced me to elaborate this earlier
half of the volume. Perhaps the greatest present need of the
many earnest students of the Old Testament is a consistent
and rational conception of the conditions under Avhich the
word of Eevelation came to the j)eople into whose moral and
spiritual life it was interfused. The " higher criticism " must
abdicate the seat of popular authority unless it obviously rests
upon a broad and sure foundation. Chief and foremost among
its necessary preliminaries are the conclusions of philological
and historical science. A sound philology appreciates the
Hebrew literature in itself, as well as in its place among
the other Semitic literatures. By the aid of historical insight
and perspective, the career of the Hebrew people may be
viewed as an orderly process, based upon a living principle of
growth and development. Thus we ma}^, in a very real sense,
adjust the people to their literature, their long-vanished na-
tional life to their imperishable memorials. That this has
been as yet so imperfectly done is perhaps largely due to the
fact that it has not been hitherto systematically attempted.
It is easy to be hypercritical ; and yet it seems reasonable to
ask that there should be some recognized method of procedure
among Biblical critics and historians, resting on principles that
are valid in any wide field of historical and literary criticism.
Bible readers are at present notoriously liewildered and dis-
couraged by the elasticity of current critical schemes and the
diversity of their results. Those Avho turn aAvay from the rigid
presuppositions of traditionalism are eqiially disappointed at
the prevalent passion for an unlimited dissection of the sacred
books which excites distrust by its narrow inductions. It is
true that upon any theory of Hebrew literary composition
some important questions of date and authorship will always
remain unanswered. But many that are still unsettled are
surely capable of solution by the consenting verdict of com-
petent men. These, however, are not matters that concern



PREFACE



tlie learned few alone. It Avill be a blessed day for Biblical
study when the way has been made clear for every inquirer to
lieconie a competent critic. Meanwhile, the average student is
in need of practical direction. I venture to suggest that, first
of all, he gain a clear conception of the several stages of the
political and social, intellectual and moral, development of
the Hebrew people. Then let him familiarize himself thor-
oughly with their distinctive modes of thought and expression,
their conceptions of the world and human life, their views and
estimates of national and individual history, and, above all, of
moral and religious duty and obligation. Finally, let him, on
the basis of his own inquiries, take note how the various spe-
cies and sections of the Hebrew literature fit into the external
conditions, and illustrate the internal qualities and attributes,
thus obsei'ved to be characteristic of Israel as a race, a nation,
and a social organism.

It is scarcely necessary to add a Avord as to the more strictly
narrative portion of the volume. The plan is here still pur-
sued of making the history of the leading nations of Western
Asia illustrate in general the fortunes of the Semitic peoples,
and in particular the career and fate of Israel. There is, per-
haps, not so much that is novel as was furnished in the first
volume. But the interest of the story should increase as the
events related become more implicated with the larger move-
ments which have drawn after them the main current of the
world's history.

The first volume Avas generously received by all classes of
critics. I trust that the third edition, which appears concur-
rently with the present volume, will show that it has profited
by the good will and good counsel of reviewers. I regret ex-
tremely that it is not feasible to furnish an index until the
conclusion of the work has been reached. jNIeanwhile, the
table of contents has again been made as full and descriptive
as possible.

J. 1\ McCURDY.



University College, Tokoxto,
May '23, ISUG.



CONTENTS OF VOL. II
Book VII

INNER DEVELOPMENT OF ISRAEL

CHAPTER I

Retrospect and Prospect. § 305-390. P. 1-20

§ 3G5. Early historical movements of the Semites — § 300. Babylonian
aims and enterprise and the West-land — § 307. Egyptians and Baby-
lonians in Palestine and Syria — § 308. Aram?eans on this side the
Euphrates — § 309. The Hebrew occupation of Palestine, its motive and
process — § 370. Progress and perils of the early settlement — § 371. The
Kingdom; the rise of Southern Israel — § 372. Elements of discord;
the disruption — § 373. Israel never really a complete unit ; religion the
strongest unifying force — § 374. Early disabilities of the Korthern
Kingdom — §375. Slow development of the institution of monarchy —
§ 370. The dynasty of Omri and the Aramseans of Damascus — § 377. Re-
ligious policy of this dynasty ; moral and political consequences ; inter-
vention of the Prophets — § 378. Prevailing friendship between the two
kingdoms mainly due to a common religion — § 379. Subordinate role of
Judah ; its chances of political aggrandizement — § 380. Dynasty of Jehu
in Northern Israel ; conflicts with Aramteans ; vassalage to the Assyrians ;
rise of Judah and last revival of Israel — § 381. The Prophets elucidate
the politics and morals of their time and people — § 382. Great movements
of the eighth century, u.c. ; Prophecy and the new Assyrian empire —
§ 383. The ruin of Damascus ; the vassalage of Judah — § 381. Relations
of Western states to Assyria; fall of Samaria — §385. General results
of the summary ; need of a deeper insight into the causes — § 380. A
special canon of historical proportion to be applied to the career of
Israel — § 387. Illustrations from the historical .standpoint just reached
— § 388. Value of the study as a whole ; our right attitude towards the
people and their age — § 389. Importance of judging by right moral stand-
ards — § 390. What the true historical spirit involves

xi



CONTENTS



CHAPTER II

Elements and Character of Hebrew Society. § 391-433. P. 30-77

§ 391. Necessity of an accurate knowledge of the distinctive processes
of the social life of Israel — § 392. Eeadiness with which the Hebrew
language, literature, and institutions may be apprehended — § 393. Yet
the terms which denote these institutions have individuality of their own

— § 394. Vast range of the significance of such terms both literal and
figurative — § 395. Analogies with the institutions of remoter and kindred
nations — § 396. Terminology of Hebrew social institutions — § 397. Re-
ligious bonds of the clan and the tribe — § 398. Relations to outsiders —
§ 399. Influences of tribal conceptions on the life and thought of Israel
• — § 400. The tribe and the clan ; the clan the fundamental political unit

— § 401. Its mittability and permanence — § 402. Essential features of
clan-life — § 403. Why and how it was perpetuated — § 404. The house-
hold and the family ; the clan and the family group — § 405. Constituents
of the household : the house-father, wife, children, slaves — § 406. Status
of servants — § 407. Significance of servitude in literature and religion —
§ 408. The house-father — § 409. Patria potestas among the Romans —
§ 410. The institution among other peoples — § 411. Not a que.stion of
primeval conditions — § 412. The Hebrew house-father in patriarchal
times — § 413. Partictilar illustrations of the subjection of wives and
children — § 414. Relations of Jacob and his sons — § 415. Conditions
in .subsequent times — § 416. The Rechabites — § 417. Status of wives
and mothers according to specific laws and customs — § 418. The char-
acter of the marital relation — § 419. Conditions of marriage and divorce

— § 420. Gradual emancipation of women in spite of prescription —
§ 421. Parallel from Roman history — § 422. Appreciation of women
among other Semites — § 423. Their function as rulers — § 424. Influence
of polygamy and nomadic life on the status of w^omen — § 425. The
transition to settled life; effect of the acquisition of fixed property —
§ 426. The wifely relation in literature and religion — § 427. Relations
of parents and children; the status of daughters — § 428. The positions
of sons ; primogeniture — §429. The first-born in literature and religion

— § 430. Practical and essential meaning of fatherhood and motherhood

— § 431. Early conceptions of fatherhood and their outcome in paternal-
ism ; illustrations from China and Japan — § 432. Fatherhood and son-
ship in literature and religion ; development of the personal relation —
§ 433. Old and New Testament conceptions of the paternal relation

• CHAPTER III

The Hebrews 'as Nomads and Semi-Nomads. § 434-464. P. 78-105

§ 434. Underlying forces, material and moral, of Hebrew nationality

— § 435. Meagreness of Biblical data to be explained from the Hebrew
historical and literary canons — § 430. Survival of oppression in Egypt



CONTENTS



— § 437. Disintegrating forces — § 438. Relations with the Egyptian
people and rulers — §439. Antipathy and distrust — § 440. Occasions of
enslavement — § 441. The survival indicates their organization and
their numbers — § 442. Their steadfast religious habits — § 443. Intimate
connection with the previous patriarchal era — § 444. Consideration of
difficulties in the story of the Patriarchs — § 445. Need of a large
interpretation — §446. Light upon the problem from literary considera-
tions — § 447. Personal leadership necessary in the primitive stage —
§ 448. Change with the formation of clans — § 449. A new epoch; in
what sense it may be called "Mosaic" — § 450. How the presidency of
Moses answered to the immediate needs of his people — § 451. Means
devised to secure unity of sentiment and corporate unity — § 452. Unfa-
vourable conditions — § 453. The " mixed multitude " — § 454. Favouring
circumstances — § 455. Character of the first attempt to regulate the ad-
ministration of justice — § 456. Important aspects of the new constitution

— § 457. How it was not a matter of direct revelation — § 458. Necessity
of this new and higher type of administration — § 459. Only the beginnings
of administrative reform were now possible — § 460. The old tribal system
not speedily discarded — § 461. Wide significance of the new movement

— § 462. Inner connection between the new judicial system and the legis-
lation of Sinai — § 463. Indications that both movements looked mainly
to the future of the nation — § 464. The application of the Law comes
later

CHAPTER IV

The Settlement in Canaan. § 465-510. P. 106-143

§ 465. The transition period was very long ; late survivals of nomadic
manners — § 466. The light which they throw on Israel's past — § 467. The
establishment of the monarchy is the dividing point between the new and
the old — § 468. Inward necessity therefor in the constitution of society

— § 469. Data for the period of the settlement in Canaan — § 470. Condi-
tion of the Hebrews at their entrance into Palestine — § 471. Prevalence of
a patriotic and religious sentiment — § 472. Reasonableness of the Biblical
theory of the invasion — § 473. Special considerations in its favour —
§ 474. The "Book of the Covenant" attests a semi-pastoral stage of
culture: no mention of cities — § 475. Prominence of tillage, cattle, and
other indications — § 47(). The same features marked t hrougiiout the period
of the Judges — § 477. Life in large cities unknown till the kingly
era — § 478. Summary of conditions till the time of Deborah and Barak

— § 479. Character of the struggles with the Canaanitos — § 480. A critical
epoch: breaking up of the tribal brotherhood — §481. Relaxing of the
religious bond — § 482. Effect of city manners — § 483. The tran.sition to
city life — § 484. The new Hebrew city and its occupations — § 485. Radi-
cal changes brought about by civic life — § 486. Administration of justice ;
the "elders"— § 487. The local "judges" — § 488. Judicial functions



CONTENTS



of priests and prophets — § 489. Religious gatherings and central courts

— § 490. Decline and failure of the central resirts — § 491. The fall of
Sliiloh marks a second epoch — § 492. Effects of the assaults of national
enemies — § 493. Era of friendship with the Cauaanites — § 494. Religious
compromises — § 495. Rationale of the process — § 496. Summary of the
occasions of social and political changes — § 497. Influence of religion
in the recasting of Hebrew society — § 498. Religion dominant in the
founding of cities — § 499. Religious festivals a controlling social force

— § 500. They gradually lost political significance — § 501. Industrial and
economical advantages of the growth of cities — § 502. The relaxing of
tribalism necessary for the administration of justice — § 503. An Israelite
of the time — § 504. Ilis public and social worship — § 505. Domestic
religion — §^06. Its crudene.ss and imperfections — § 507. Management
of his estate; treatment and condition of the servants — § 508. Employ-
ments of t'le day — § 509. The sphere of the house-mistress — § 510. Ills
public duties: their multiplicity and difficulty



CHAPTER V

The Monarchy. § 511-538. P. 144-167

§511. Lines of development: military and governmental — § 512.
Limitations of the military spirit among the Hebrews — § 513. Growth
of a militia — § 514. Changes in weapons and armour — § 515. National
and personal conditions of the establishment of a permanent military
system — §516. First stage : an irregular militia — §517. Second stage :
beginnings of the standing army under King Saul — § 518. The third
stage begins with David's body-guard — § 519. Deficiency in horses and
chariots — § 520. Disadvantages of a body of mercenaries — § 521. The
first three kings represent distinct stages in the monarchy ; Saul's gov-
ernment transitional — § 522. David's court officials — § 523. His policy
and his faults as a king — § 524. Land and people abused by Solomon —
§ 525. A sound united nation now an impossibility — § 526. Results of
the monarchy at the death of Solomon; gains and losses — § 527. Politi-
cal disabilities of the Northern Kingdom — § 528. Its discontent largely
due to governmental neglect — § 529. Its lack of political development —
§ 530. Formation of administrative divisions — §531. The "provinces"
and the "princes" — § 532. Political and moral issues are now more
clearly presented — § 533. They are determined by the leaders of society,
the nobles and rulers — § 534. Absolutism in Israel — § 535. The kings
and the priests and prophets — § 536. The kings and the local rulers and
nobles — § 537. Influence of the leading men in making and unmaking
kings — § 538. Freedom of action of the local magnates explained



CONTENTS



CHAPTER VI

Society, Morals, and Religion. § 539-619. V. 1G8-236

§ 539. Grades of society : primary distinction between master and
slave — § 540. Slaves increased fi'om the ranks of captives and tributa-
ries — § 541. Also from the debtor and impoverished classes — § 542.
Legal provisions for the protection of slaves — § 543. Unique position of
Israel in this i-egard — §544. Benefits conferred by slavery; it was a
means of assimilating vassals to Israel — § 54o! The protection it afforded
to the unfortunate and persecuted — § 546. It developed in Israel the
philanthropic temper — § 547. The lessons learned by Israel from its own
history — § 548. Policy of Israel towards "strangers"; definition of the
(jer — § 549. The foreigner, the temporary "guest," the "sojourner,"
and the naturalized citizen — § 550. Adoption of outsiders in early and
later history — § 551. Large and speedy incorporation accounted for —
§ 552. Favourable conditions for application — § 553. The adoption of
outsiders idealized in Prophecy — § 554. The same theme unfolded in
the Psalms — § 555. Destructive forces in Israel — § 556. Foes without
less noxious than evils within — § 557. The decline and fall the result of
inherent tendencies and characteristics of the nation — § 558. Israel's
unique prerogative of morality its only possible salvation — §559. The
influential classes in Israel summarized — § 560. Primitive social equality
— § 561. It was but little disturbed at first after the occupation — § 562.
New elements of the population which gave shape and bias to the social
life of Israel in Canaan — § 563. New prerogatives of the military leaders
tending to permanence of authority. — § 564. Distribution of territory
and the regime of "judges" — §565. The decisive matter was the pos-
session of land — § 566. Provision for freemen — § 567. Provision for
slaves and clients — § 568. Aggrandizement of leading families through
these dependents — § 569. Settled life favours the hereditary tenure
of offices — § 570. Instances in Israel — § 571. Development of an aristo-
cratic class — § 572. Impoverishment of the masses — § 573. Relative pro-
portion of rich and poor — § 574. Moral causes widened the chasm —
§ 575. Employment of capital and the chances of the poor — § 576.
Remedial .statutes against usury and mendicancy — §577. Neighbourli-
ness in the olden time — § 578. Social abuses under the monarchy — § 579.
Classes of social wrongs in the literature of the people — § 580. Land was
held from Jehovah — § 581. Hence the wrong done in expropriation —
§ 582. Parallel to the case of the unfortunate and destitute — § 583. Tes-
timony as to the .spoliation of fixed property — § 584. Steps towards im-
poverishment; the giving of security — § 585. The debtor liable to be sold
into slavery — §586. How were .such oppressions and exactions possible
in a state like Israel? — § 587. The influential classes were responsible
for the evil — § 588. Want of independent tribunals : the priests as
" judges" — § 589. Testimony as to the judicial conduct of the priests —



CONTENTS



§ 590. Appeal to "judges"; character of their jurisdiction — § 591.
Lack of gradation and organization in the order of judges — § 592. The
injurious results of governmental and popular indifference — § 593.
Sweeping condemnation of the practice of justice in Israel — § 594. Prev-
alence and virulence of bribery and corruption in Eastern lands — § 595.
Instances from the several departments of the Hebrew literature — § 596.
Concomitant and auxiliary vices — § 597. Universality and magnitude of
the "social question " in Hebrew life and literature — § 598. How social
disorders are characterized in the Psalms — § 599. Job as supplementing
the Psalms — § COO. The Psalms as contrasted with Job, Proverbs, and
the Prophets — § GOl. Significant positions assumed or maintained in the
Psalms and Proverbs — § 602. Necessary connection between social phe-
nomena and the religion of Jehovah — § 603. Aspirations after a re-
forming king — § 604. Sociological basis of the Messianic conception —
§ 605. Inferences as to the date of the Psalms of "the poor" — § 606.
Confirmation from the historical and prophetical writings — § 607. Effects
of the struggle in the development of the religious life — § 608. Conse-
quence of the political and social isolation of the poor — § 609. Effects of
personal trial on character and opinion — § 610. Bonds uniting our
modern sociological problems with those of ancient Israel — § 611. Place
of Old Testament teaching in the evolution of human society — § 612.
Altruism a product of the Old Testament religion — § 613. Leading
features of this moral and social evolution — § 014. We should learn how
the Old and the New Testament are related — § 615. How the New Testa-
ment is rooted in the Old — § 616. How the new spirit and teaching are
an historical continuation of the old — § 617. How Jesus relieved ancient
society of its disabilities — § 618. The new motive of his personality and
character — § 619. " This is the Law and the Prophets "



Book VIII

HEBREWS, EGYPTIANS, AND ASSYRIANS

CHAPTER I

Assyrian Extession under Sargon. § 620-033. P. 237-247

§ 620. Varied character of Assyrian military operations ; rapid shifting
of the scenes of warfare — § 621. Merodach-baladan the Chakheau and
his allies — § 622. Parallel between the West-land and Babylonia, and
between Egypt and Elam — § 623. Temporary successes of the Chakhean
leader — § 624. Subjection of Hamatli and its allies — § 625. Submission
of Gaza, in spite of Egyptian support — § 620. Combinations in the north-
west and in the northeast — § 627. The Moschseans and the Armenians



CONTENT.S



— § 628. Carchemish involved with the northwestern insurgents ; its siege
and capture — § 629. Heroism and failure of an Armenian king ; the
northwestern region gradually coerced — § 630. Conquest and tribute of
North Arabian tribes; effect upon Egypt — § 631. Revolt of Ashdod
significant of general disaffection — § 032. Capture of Ashdod and Gath



Online LibraryJames Frederick McCurdyHistory, prophecy and the monuments (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 39)