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before the adoption of the Federal constitution.
There were eighty-five papers in all, of which
Hamilton wrote fifty-one, James Madison four
teen, John Jay five, and Madison and Hamilton
jointly three, w T hile the authorship of the remain
ing twelve have been claimed by both Hamilton
and Madison. As secretary of the treasury, he
presented to congress an elaborate report on the
public debt in 1789, and one on protective duties
on imports in 1791. In the " Gazette of the
United States," under the signature "Art Ameri
can," he assailed Jefferson s financial views, while
both were members of Washington s cabinet (1792) :
under that of " Pacificus," defended in print the
policy of neutrality between France and England
(1793) ; and in a series of essays, signed " Camillus,
sustained the policy of ratifying Jay s treaty (1795).
Other signatures used by him in his newspaper
controversies were " Cato," " Lucius Crassus," " Pho-
cion," and " Scipio." In answer to the charges of
corruption made by Monroe, he published a pam
phlet, containing his correspondence with Monroe on
the subject and the supposed incriminating letters
on which the charges were based (1797). His "Ob
servations on Certain Documents " (Philadelphia,
1797) was republished in New York in 1865. In
1798 he defended in the newspapers the policy of



60



HAMILTON



HAMILTON



increasing the army. His " Works," comprising
the " Federalist," his most important official re
ports, and other writings, were published in three
volumes (New York, 1810). " His Official and
other Papers," edited by Francis L. Hawks, ap
peared in 1842. In 1851 his son, John 0., issued
a carefully prepared edition of his " Works," com
prising his correspondence and his political and
official writings, civil and military, in seven vol
umes. A still larger collection of his Complete
Works," including the " Federalist," his private
correspondence, and many hitherto unpublished
documents, was edited, with an introduction and
notes, by Henry Cabot Lodge (9 vols., 1885). In
1804 appeared a "Collection of Facts and Docu
ments relative to the Death of Major-General
Alexander Hamilton," by William Coleman. The
same year his " Life " was published in Boston
by John Williams, under the pen-name "Anthony
Pasquin," a reprint of which has been issued by
the Hamilton club (New York, 18(i5). A "Life
of Alexander Hamilton" (2 vols., 1834- 40) was
published by his son, John Church, who also com
piled an elaborate work entitled " History of the
Republic of the United States, as traced in the
Writings of Alexander Hamilton and his Con
temporaries," the first volume of which contains
a sketch of his father s career (1850- 8). See
also his "Life" by Henry B. Renwick (1841);
" Life and Times of Alexander Hamilton," by
Samuel M. Smucker (Boston, 1856) ; " Hamilton
and his Contemporaries," by Christopher J. Rieth-
mueller (1864) ; " Life of Hamilton," by John
T. Morse, Jr. (1876); "Hamilton, a Historical
Studv," by George Shea (New York, 1877) ; " Life
and Epoch of Alexander Hamilton," by the same
author (Boston, 1879); and "Life of Hamilton,"
by Henry Cabot Lodge (American statesmen se
ries, 1882). A list of the books written by or
relating to Hamilton has been published tinder
the title of "Bibliotheca Ilamiltonia" by Paul L.
Ford (New York, 1886). His wife, Elizabeth,
daughter of Gen. Philip Schuyler, b. in Albany,

N. Y., 9 Aug., 1757;
d. in Washington,
D. C., 9 Nov., 1854.
At the time of their
marriage Hamilton
was one of Gen.
Washington s aides,
with the rank of
lieutenant - colonel.
She rendered assist
ance to her husband
in his labors, coun
selled him in his
affairs, and kept his
papers in order for
him, preserving the
large collection of
manuscripts, which
was acquired by the
U. S. government in
1849, and has been
utilized by the bi
ographers of Alexan
der Hamilton and by historians, who have traced
by their light the secret and personal influences
that decided many public events between 1775 and
1804. The accompanying portrait of Mrs. Ham
ilton, painted by James Earle, represents her at
the age of twenty - seven. Their son, Philip,
b. 22 Jan., 1782, was graduated at Columbia in
1800, and died of a wound received in a duel 24
Nov., 1801, on the same spot where his father fell




We



three years later. The young man, who showed
much promise, became involved in a political quar
rel, and was challenged by his antagonist, whose
name was Eckert. After the affair the father re
garded with abhorrence the practice of duelling.
He recorded his condemnation in a paper, written
before going to the fatal meeting with Burr. An
other son, Alexander, soldier, b. in New York
city, 16 May, 1786; d. there, 2 Aug., 1875, was
graduated at Columbia in 1804, studied law, and
was admitted to practice. Ho went abroad, and was
with the Duke of Wellington s army in Portugal
in 1811, but returned on hearing rumors of impend
ing war with Great Britain. He was appointed
captain of U. S. infantry in August, 1813, and acted
as aide-de-camp to Gen. Morgan Lewis in 1814. In
1822 he was appointed U. S. district attorney in
Florida, and in 1823 one of the three Florida land-
commissioners. His last years were passed in New
Brunswick, N. J., and in New York city, where he-
engaged in real-estate speculations. Another son,
James Alexander, lawyer, b. in New York city,
14 April, 1788; d. in Irvington, N. Y., 24 Sept.,
1878, was graduated at Columbia in 1805. He
served in the war of 1812- 15 as brigade major and
inspector in the New York state militia, and after
ward practised law. He was acting secretary of
state under President Jackson in 1829, being ap
pointed ad interim on 4 March, but surrendering
the office on the regular appointment of Martin
Van Buren, two days later. On 3 April he was
nominated U. S. district attorney for the southern
district of New York. The degree of LL. D. was
conferred upon him by Hamilton college. He
published " Reminiscences of Hamilton, or Men
and Events, at Home and Abroad, during Three
Quarters of a Century (New York, 180!)). An
other son, John Church, lawyer, b. in Philadel
phia, Pa., 22 Aug., 1792 ; d. in Long Branch,
N. J., 25 July. 1882, was graduated at Columbia
in 1809. He studied law, and practised in New
York city. Pie was commissioned a lieutenant in
the U. S. army in March, 1814, and served as aide-
de-camp to Gen. Harrison, but resigned on 1 1
June, 1814. He spent many years in preparing me
moirs of his father, and editing the latter s works
(see above). Another son, William Steven, b.
in New York city, 4 Aug., 1797; d. in Sacramento,
Cal., 7 Aug., 1850, entered the U. S. military acad
emy in 1814, but left before his graduation. He
was appointed U. S. surveyor of public lands in
Illinois, and served as a colonel of Illinois volunteers
in the Black Hawk war, commanding a reconnoi
tring party under Gen. Atkinson in 1832. He held
various offices, removed to Wisconsin, and thence
to California. The youngest son, Philip, jurist, b.
in New York city, 1 June, 1802 ; d. in Poughkeep-
sie, N. Y., 9 July, 1884, married a daughter of
Louis McLane. He was assistant district attorney
in New York city, and for some time judge-advo
cate of the naval retiring board in Brooklyn.
Schuj ler, soldier, son of John Church, b. in New
York city, 25 July, 1822, was graduated at the U. S.
military academy in 1841, entered the 1st infantry,
and was on duty on the plains and as assistant in
structor of tactics at West Point. He served with
honor in the Mexican war, being brevetted for
gallantry at Monterey, and again for his brave
conduct in an affair at Mil Flores, where he was
attacked by a superior force of Mexican lancers,
and was severely wounded in a desperate hand-
to-hand combat. From 1847 till 1854 he served
as aide-de-camp to Gen. Winfield Scott. At the
beginning of the civil war he volunteered as a
private in the 7th New York regiment, and was



HAMILTON



HAMILTON



61



attached to the staff of Gen. Benjamin F. But
ler, and then acted as military secretary to Gen.
Scott until the retirement of the latter. He
next served as assistant chief of staff to Gen.
Henry W. Halleck, at St. Louis, Mo., with the
rank of colonel. He was commissioned brigadier-
general of volunteers on 12 Nov., 1861, and ordered
to command the department of St. Louis. He
participated in the important operations of the
armies of the Tennessee and of the Cumberland,
was the first to suggest the cutting of a canal to
turn the enemy s position at Island No. 10, and
commanded a division in the operations against
that island and New Madrid, for which he was
made a major-general on 17 Sept., 1802. At the
battle of Farmington he commanded the reserve.
On 27 Feb., 1803, he was compelled by feeble
health to resign. From 1871 till 1875 he filled the
post of hydrographic engineer for the department
of docks in New York city. He is the author of a
History of the National Flag of the United
States" (New York, 1852), and on 14 June, 1877,
the centennial anniversary of its adoption, deliv
ered an address on " Our National Flag." Allan
McLane, physician, son of Philip, b. in Brooklyn,
N. Y., 6 Oct., 1848, was graduated at the College of
physicians and surgeons in New York city in 1870,
.and practised in that city, devoting his attention
to nervous diseases. He invented a dynamometer
in 1874, and was one of the first to practise galvano-
cautery in the United States, and the first to em
ploy monobrornate of camphor in treating delirium
tremens. He had charge for a time of the New
York state hospital for diseases of the nervous
system, afterward became visiting physician to the
epileptic and paralytic hospital on Blackwell s
island, New York city, and lectured on nervous
diseases in the Long Island college hospital. In
the trial of President Garfield s assassin he testi
fied as an expert in behalf of the government. He
edited at one time the "American Psychological
.Journal," is the author of a work on " Clinical
Electro-Therapeutics," and also of text-books on
" Nervous Diseases " and " Medical Jurisprudence,"
.and has published in professional journals articles
on epilepsy, genital irritation as a cause of nervous
disease, tremors, and inco-ordination, and other
subjects. The son of John Church, Charles
Smith, soldier, b. in New York, 16 Nov., 1822, was
graduated at the U. S. military academy in 1843,
and assigned to the infantry. He served with
honor in the war with Mexico, was brevetted cap
tain for gallantry in the battles of Contreras and
Churubusco, and was severely wounded at Molino
del Rev. He was afterward on frontier duty till
April, 1853, when he resigned and engaged in
farming in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. At the be
ginning of the civil war he was appointed, 11 May,
1801, colonel of the 3d Wisconsin regiment, and
was promoted to brigadier-general of volunteers
six days later. He served in Virginia during the
siege of Yorktown in May, 1862, and on 19 Sept.
of that year was promoted to major-general of
volunteers. After the siege of Yorktown he was
transferred to the Army of the Mississippi, and
commanded a division at Corinth and luka. After
ward he was in command of the left wing of the
Army of the Tennessee, and of the 10th corps. He
resigned his military commission in April, 1863,
and engaged in manufacturing at Fond du Lac,
Wis., but subsequently removed to Milwaukee.
He was president of the board of regents of the
University of Wisconsin from 1806 till 1875, and
United States marshal for the district of Wiscon
sin from 1809 till 1877.




HAMILTON, Andrew, lawyer, b. in Scotland

( about 1070; d. in Philadelphia, 4 Aug., 1741. His
parentage and career in the Old World he seems to
have kept secret, as well as his real name. At one
time he was called Trent, nor is it known exactly at
what date he began to use the name of Hamilton.
In his address to the Pennsylvania assembly in

; 1739 he speaks of " liberty, the love of which as it
first drew me to, so it constantly prevailed on
me to reside
in this Prov
ince, tho to

I the manifest
prejudice of
my fortune."
ProbablyHam-
ilton was his ,

real name, but -

for private rea
sons he saw fit
to discard it
for a time.
About 1097 he
came to Acco-
mac county,
Va., where he
obtained em
ployment as
steward of a
plantation,and

I for a time kept
a classical school. His marriage, while steward,

! with the widow of the owner of the estate is
said to have brought him influential connections,
and he began the practice of the law. Previous
to 1716 Hamilton removed to Philadelphia, and
in 1717 was made attorney-general of Penn
sylvania. In March, 1721, he was called to the
provincial council, and accepted on condition
that his duties should not interfere with his prac
tice. He resigned the office in 1724, and in 1727
was appointed prothonotary of the supreme court
and recorder of Philadelphia. He was elected to
the assembly from Bucks county in the same
year, chosen speaker in 1729, and re-elected an
nually until his retirement in 1739, with the ex
ception of a single year. Hamilton, in company
with his son-in-law. Allen, purchased the ground
now comprised within Independence square, Phila
delphia, whereon to erect " a suitable building " to
be used as a legislative hall, the assembly, prior to
1729, having met in a private residence. The
state-house, afterward Independence Hall, was not
completed until subsequent to Hamilton s death,
the conveyance to the province being made by his
son. The crowning glory of Hamilton s profes
sional career was his defence of John Peter Zenger
in 1735, which he undertook without fee or reward.
Zenger was a printer in New York city, and in his
newspaper had asserted that judges were arbitrar
ily displaced, and new courts erected without con
sent of the legislature, by which trials by jury
were taken away when a governor was so dis
posed. The attorney-general charged him with
libel, and Zenger s lawyers, on objecting to the
legality of the judge s commissions, were stricken
from the list of attorneys. Fearing that the ad
vocate, who had subsequently been appointed by
the court, might be overawed by the bench, at
the head of which was Chief-Justice De Lancey, a
member of the governor s council, Hamilton volun
tarily went to New York, and appeared in the
case. He admitted the printing and publishing of
the article, but advanced the doctrine, novel at
that time, that the truth of the facts in the alleged



62



HAMILTON



HAMILTON



libel could be set up as a defence, and that in this
proceeding the jury were judges of both the law
and the facts. The offer of evidence to prove the
truth of Zenger s statements was rejected, but
Hamilton then appealed to the jury to say from
the evidence that they had met with in their daily
lives that the contents of the defendant s article were
not false. His eloquence secured a verdict of " not
guilty." The people of New York and the other
colonies hailed the result with delight, since it in
sured free discussion of the conduct of public men.
Gouverneur Morris referred to Hamilton as "the
day-star of the American Revolution," and the
common council of New York passed a resolution
thanking him for his services, and presented him
with the freedom of the city. His fame spread to
England, an account of the trial passing through
four editions there within three months. Hamil
ton was for many years a trustee of the General
loan-office, the province s agency for issuing paper
money, and in 1737 was appointed judge of the
vice-admiralty court, the only office he held at the
time of his death. His son, James, governor of
Pennsylvania, b. probably in Accomac county, Va.,
about 1710; d. in New York city, 14 Aug.) 1783,
was made prothonotary of the supreme court of
Pennsylvania when his father resigned that office.
He was elected to the provincial assembly in 1734,
and re-elected five times. He was mayor of Phila
delphia for a year from October, 1745, and on re
tiring from office departed from a custom that
compelled the entertainment of the corporation at
a banquet. Instead of this. Mayor Hamilton gave
150 toward the erection of a public building. His
example was followed by succeeding mayors, until,
in 1775, the sum was devoted to the erection of a
city-hall and court-house. Hamilton became a
member of the provincial council in 1746. He was
residing in London in 1748, when he was commis
sioned by the sons of William Penn as lieutenant-
governor of the province and territories. He re
signed in 1754. and when the news of Indian out
rages reached Philadelphia in the autumn of 1755,
entered actively on the work of defence, and re
ported to the assembly that a chain of garrisoned
forts and block-houses was nearly completed from
Delaware river to the Maryland line. Hamilton
was again deputy-governor in 1759- 63, and on
the departure of John Penn he administered the
government as president of the council until the
arrival of Richard Penn, in October, 1771. Subse
quently he was acting governor for the fourth
time from 19 July till 30 Aug., 1773. He was
made a prisoner on parole in 1777, and lived at
Northampton during the occupation of Philadel
phia by the British. Gov. Hamilton took an active
part in founding several public institutions of Phila
delphia. He was for several years president of the
board of trustees of the College of Philadelphia,
and was also at the head of the Philosophical so
ciety, when it united with the Society for promot
ing useful knowledge. At the first election for
g resident of the new organization, Hamilton and
enjamin Franklin were placed in nomination, and
the latter was chosen.

HAMILTON, Andrew, governor of New Jersev,
b. in Scotland ; d. probably in Burlington, N. J.,
20 April, 1703. He was engaged in business as a
merchant in Edinburgh, and was sent to East Jer
sey as a special agent for the proprietaries. Hav
ing discharged that mission satisfactorily, he was
recommended as a man of intelligence and judg
ment to Lord Neil Campbell, who was sent to that
g-ovince in 1686 as deputy-governor for two years,
e was made a member of the council in conse



quence, and in March, 1687, became acting gov
ernor on the departure of Lord Neil for England,
who was called there on business and did not
return. In 1688, East and West Jersey having
surrendered their patents, those provinces came
under the control of Gov. Edmund Andros, and
were annexed to New York and New England.
Andros, then residing in Boston, visited New York
and the Jerseys, continuing all officers in their
places, and making but slight changes in the govern
ment. In consequence of the revolution of 1688 in
England, Gov. Hamilton visited the mayor of New
York as the representative of Andros, that official
having been seized by the New Englanders in April,

1689. He finally sailed for England, in order to
consult with the proprietaries, but was captured by
the French, and did not reach London until May,

1690. He was still residing there in March, 1692,
when he was appointed governor of East Jersey,
and also given charge of West Jersey. Although
he administered the affairs of the province to the
satisfaction of both the colonists and the pro
prietaries, he was deposed in 1697, " much against
the inclination " of the latter, in obedience to an act
of parliament which provided that " no other than
a natural-born subject of England could serve in
any public post of trust or profit." Hamilton re
turned to England in 1698, but so great was the
disorder and maladministration under his succes
sor, Jeremiah Basse, that he was reappointed, 19
Aug., 1699. He could not, however, right the
wrong that had been already done, or repair the
abuses that had crept in. Officers were insulted
in the discharge of their duties, and the growth of
the province seriously interfered with. In 1701
he was appointed by William Penn deputy-gov
ernor of Pennsylvania, the latter having been
called to England to oppose the machinations of
those who were plotting to deprive him of his
American possessions. On Penn s arrival in Lon
don everything was done to harrass him, factious
opposition being made to the confirmation of Gov.
Hamilton, who was wrongfully charged with hav
ing been engaged in illicit trade. The appoint
ment finally received the royal sanction. In the
session of the provincial assembly in Oct., 1702,
the representatives of the territories refused to
meet those of the province, claiming the privilege
of separation under a new charter, and expressing
their firm determination to remain apart. Hamil
ton strongly urged the advantages of union, and
used all his influence to secure this result, but
without effect. He also made preparations for the
defence of the colony by organizing a military
force. He died while on a visit to his family in
New Jersey the year following. It was to Andrew
Hamilton that the colonies were indebted for the
first organization of a postal service, he having
obtained a patent from the crown for the purpose
in 1694. His son, John, acting governor of New
Jersey, d. in Perth Amboy, N. J., in 1746. It is
not known whether he was born in East Jersey or
in Scotland. He is first heard of in public life as
a member of Gov. Hunter s council in 1713. He
retained his seat under Gov. Burnet, Gov. Mont-
gomerie, and Gov. Cosby. In 1735 he was ap
pointed associate judge of the provincial supreme
court, but probably did not serve, as he became
acting governor on the death of Gov. Cosby, only
three weeks after the latter s accession to office. 31
March, 1736. He continued at the head of affairs
until the summer of 1738, when Lewis Morris was
appointed governor of New Jersey, " apart from
New York." Hamilton again became acting gov
ernor on the death of the latter in 1746, but he was



HAMILTON



HAMILTON



63



then quite infirm and died a few months afterward.
He is usually credited with having established the
first colonial postal service, but the weight of au
thority seems to favor the belief that it was his
father who obtained the patent.

HAMILTON, Andrew Jackson, politician, b.
in Madison county, Ala., 28 Jan., 1815 : d. in Aus
tin, Texas. 10 April, 1875. He was educated at a
common school, and subsequently worked for a
time on his father s farm. He afterward engaged
in business, but was for some years clerk of the
circuit court of his native county, and then became
a lawyer. He settled in Texas in 1846, practised
law many years in Austin, was attorney-general of
the state, and a presidential elector on the Buchan
an ticket in 1856. He subsequently became a Re
publican, and was elected to congress, serving in
1859- 61. He opposed the secession of Texas, and
during the early part of the war lived in the north.
On 14 Nov., 1862, he was made brigadier-general of
U. S. volunteers, and in the same year appointed
military governor of Texas. He was sent to com
mand troops at Matamoras. President Johnson
made him provisional governor in 1865. and in
1866 he became a justice of the supreme court.
He was an independent candidate for governor of
Texas in 1869, but was defeated.

HAMILTON, Charles, Canadian Anglican
bishop, b. in Hawkesbury, Ont, 6 Jan., 1834. He
was educated at University college, Toronto, and at
Oxford, England, where he was graduated in 1856.
He was incumbent of St. Peter s church, Quebec,
in 1857- 64, and rector of St. Matthew s, Quebec,
in 1868- 85. He was clerical secretary of the pro
vincial synod in 1861- 79. prolocutor of the synod
of the church of England in Canada in 1879- 85,
and was consecrated bishop of Niagara on 1 Jan.,
1885. He has received the degree of D. D. from
Bishop s college, Lennoxville.

HAMILTON, Frank Hastings, surgeon, b. in
Wilmington, Vt., 10 Sept.. 1813 ; d. in New York
city, 11 Aug., 1886. He was graduated at Union
in 1830, after which he entered the office of Dr.
John G. Morgan, and in 1831 attended a full course
of lectures in the Western college of physicians
and surgeons in Fairfield, N. Y. In 1833 he was
licensed to practise by the Cayuga county medical
censors, and two years later received his medical
degree from the University of Pennsylvania. Soon
afterward he began to give a course of lectures in
anatomy and surgery in his office in Auburn, which
he continued until 1838. In 1839 he was appointed
professor of surgery in the Western college of
physicians and surgeons, and a year later was called
to the medical college of Geneva. During 1843- 4
he visited Europe and contributed a record of his



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