James H. McClintock.

Arizona, prehistoric, aboriginal, pioneer, modern; the nation's youngest commonwealth within a land of ancient culture (Volume 2) online

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ARIZONA

Prehistoric — Aboriginal
Pion eer — Mode rn



THE NATION'S YOUNGEST COMMONWEALTH
WITHIN A LAND OF ANCIENT CULTURE



By JAMES H. McCLINTOCK



VOLUME II




CHICAGO

THE S. J. CLARKE PUBLISHING CO.

I9I6



CONTENTS

CHAPTER XXV

FOUNDING A COMMONWEALTH

Eslablishmeni of a Covernment in a Wilderness — The First Officials — Their Weslnfard
Journey — Sworn in at Navajo Springs — Building a Capital City — Early Agriculture
— Ross Browne's Estimate of Arizona and Faith in Her Future 313

CHAPTER XXVI 1401432

LAW BROUGHT TO ARIZONA

Elections, Officials and Legislatures — McCormiclfs Continued Successes — Establishment
of Courts — Creation of Counties — Highways — Yuma Land Dispute — A Loyal Peo-
ple — Fremont's Governorship — Divorces and Lotteries — The Thieving Thirteenth — -
Bullion Tax Repeal 324

CHAPTER XXVII

CLEVELAND TO McKINLEY

Troublous Political Times through the Administrations of Governors Zulick, Wolfley,
Irwin, Hughes and McCord — The Asylum Inquiry — Change of the Capital to
Phcenix — Lost Laws — Hold-over Muddle — Yuma Prison Labor Contract — New
Code 336

CHAPTER XXVIII

CLOSING YEARS OF THE TERRITORY

The Various Capitols of Arizona Till Dedication of the State House at Phosnix — Admin-
istrations of Governors Murphy, Brodie, Kibbey and Sloan — Arizona's Song and
Flower — Raising the Taxes on Mines — Territorial Judges 350

CHAPTER XXIX

HOW STATEHOOD WAS GAINED

Enfranchisement Asked in Earliest Territorial Days — A Constitutional Convention that
Remonetized Silver — Congressional Inspection — The Joint Statehood Peril — The Con-
stitution and Its Preparation — Taft's Veto of the Recall — Statehood Gained — Terri-
torial Legislators 361



iv CONTENTS

CHAPTER XXX

ARIZONA UNDER STATEHOOD

Jeffersonian Simplicity MaTked the Inauguralion of Governor Hunt — Perpetual Legis-
latures and Man's Referendum Submissions — The Cuvernor's Opposition to Capital
Punishment — How Delay Affected the Federal Judgeship — Popular Election of Sen-
ators 375

CHAPTER XXXI

PASSING OF THE OLDEN DAYS

Decline and Fall of Arizona Gambling — Character of the Professional Gambler — Early
Efforts Toward Prohibition and Final Success — Female Suffrage and Its Effect upon
Politics — Non-alcoholic Baptism of the Battleship "Arizona" 383

CHAPTER XXXII

MINING AND MINERS

Prospectors Ever in the Vanguard of Civilization — Wealth that has Come Through a
"Grubstake" — "Lost Mines" of the Southwest — The Miner Party — Fraudulent
Mining Schemes — Arizona Diamonds that Came from Africa — Qiiijotoa's
Boom 388

CHAPTER XXXIII

MINES, PIONEER AND MODERN

Mohave was First in the North — The Old Vulture — Romance of the Silver King — Ed.
Schieffelin and the Discovery of Tombstone — Riches of the United Verde — Desert
Bonanzas — How the Vekol Was Found 399

CHAPTER XXXIV

GREAT COPPER DEPOSITS

The History of the Globe Section — Miami's Recent Development — Ray's Mines and
Haydens Reduction Works — Clifton, a Pioneer Copper Producer — Bisbee's Real
Discoverer — Growth of the Camp — Mining for a Meteor — Copper Production . .415

CHAPTER XXXV

IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT

Long Effort and Millions of Dollars Expended on the Salt River Project — Electric Power
Generation — Roosevelt Dedicates the Roosevelt Dam — Yuma Well Served from the
Laguna Dam — Storage Plans for the Gila River Valley 431



CONTENTS V

CHAPTER XXXVI

THE LIVE STOCK INDUSTRY

Conifcops, Topical and Otherrvise — Slocking of the Arizona Ranges — Sheep and Their
Faithful Shepherds — Antagonism of the Two Stock Divisions — Elk Imported from
W})oming — Rise and Decline of the Arizona Ostrich Breeding Industry 445

CHAPTER XXXVII

MORMON COLONIZATION

The Church a Great Pioneering Force — John D. Lee Long a Refugee in the Grand
Canon — Settlements in Northern Arizona — Missionary^ Work of Jacob Hamblin —
Founding a Slake in the Little Colorado Valley — Communities Established at Lehi,
Mesa, Saint David and on the Gila 450

CHAPTER XXXVIII

THE LAW OF THE FRONTIER

Popular Administration of Justice at Many Points — Phoenix as a "Wild West" ToTvn —
Globe's Hanging Tree — The Bisbee Massacre — Heath Lynching at Tombstone —
"Bad Men" and Frontier Sheriffs — Commodore Omens — Pete Gabriel and Joe
Phy 458

CHAPTER XXXIX

CRIMES OF THE ROAD

The Great Wham Robbery and Its Political Complications — Gribble and Barney Martin
Murders — A Female Bandit — Train Robberies that Proved Unprofitable — Jim
Parkers Path to the Gallows — Burt Alvord and the Cochise Train Robbery. . . .471

CHAPTER XL

SOUTHWESTERN OUTLAWS

The Earps and Their Career at Tombstone — What It Cost to Take Sheep into Pleasant
Valley — Justice as Rough Hewn on the Frontier — Arizona Rangers and Their Good
Work — Arizona's Penitentiaries — End of the Wild West Era 480

CHAPTER XLI

RELIGION AND EDUCATION

How the Work of the Missions Was Taken Up — Establishment of the Diocese of Tucson
— Entrance of the Episcopal Church — Bishop Kendrick's Good Deeds — Early
Protestant Missionaries — Foundation of the Public School System — The University
and Normal Schools 492



vi CONTENTS

CHAPTER XLII

NEWSMEN AND NEWSPAPERS

Beginnings of Arizona Journalism at Tubac and Fort Whipple — Trvo Journalistic Duels
that Were Bloodless — How Editor Bagg Evened an Old Score — Nervspapers Known
in Every Section — Hopes and Ideals of the Frontier Scribes 500

CHAPTER XLIII

ARIZONA'S WAR RECORD

Participation of the "Rough Riders" in the War With Spain — Honor to the Flag of the
Arizona Squadron — Captain O'Neill and the Monument at Prescolt — The First Ter-
ritorial /nfantrv — National Guard of Arizona and Its Service on the Field 512

CHAPTER XLIV

SOUTHWESTERN LAND GRANTS

Possible Benefit of Harsh Natural Conditions — Few Grants Made in Arizona— The No-
torious Peralta-Reavis Fraud and How It Was Uncovered — Work of the Court of
Private Land Claims — Railwav Subsidp Grants — Modern Surveys 529

CHAPTER XLV

PRESIDENTS AND PUBLICITY

Visits to Arizona Made by Hayes, McKinley, Roosevelt and Taft — Expositions, Fairs
and Fiestas — How Shark Island Swallowed Arizonans — Santa Teresa's Power —
Clifton Foundlings — Arizona's Subdivisions — Utah's Aspirations — Census and As-
sessment Figures 541

CHAPTER XLVI

IN THE NORTH AND WEST

Northwestern Arizona — Development Along the Little Colorado — Effect of Railroad Con-
struction — Flagstaff's Observatory — Yuma and the River Towns — Yavapai's
Growth — Conflagrations at Prescolt and Jerome — The Dam Break at Walnut
Grove 553

CHAPTER XLVII

THROUGH CENTRAL ARIZONA

Settlement of the Salt River Valley — Foundation and Civic Advancement of Phcenix —
First Mails and Schools — How Tempe and Mesa Came into Being — Florence and
Its Neighborhood — Towns of the Upper Gila Valley and Early Indian Tribu-
lation 5 65



CONTENTS vii

CHAPTER XLVIII

SOUTHEASTERN ARIZONA

Tucson, from Mexican Da^s to Modern Times — Arrival of the Railroad- — Telegraphing
the Pope — Current History) of Tombstone and Bisbee — Nogales, Successor to the
Hopes of Calabasas — War on the Border — Globe and Miami 577

CHAPTER XLIX

SOUTHERN ARIZONA PIONEERS

Chas. D. Poslon — Wm. H. Kirkland — Peter R. Brady — Fritz Contzen — Estevan Ochoa
— Samuel Hughes — Thomas Hughes — L. C. Hughes — S. R. DeLong — /. B. Allen
— Fred C. Hughes — C. B. Stocking — R. N. Leatherivood — S. H. Drachman — £.
N. Fish — /. S. Mansfeld — W. C. Greene — Col. Kosterlitskv — Pauline Cushman —
Pioneer Society 592

CHAPTER L

NORTH OF THE GILA

R. C. McCormick—Sol. Barth—C. B. Genung—J. H. Lee—Ed. Peck— Jack Swilling
— Darrell Duppa — Abe. Frank — Al. Sieber — Tom Fitch — C. H. Cray — Michael
IVormser — E. F. Kellner — The Pioneers' Home and Its Inmates 608



Arizona — The Youngest State



CHAPTER XXV

FOUNDING A COMMONWEALTH

Establishmeni of a Covernmenl in a Wilderness — The First Officials — Their Westivard
Journey — Stvom in at Navajo Springs — Building a Capital Ci'/p — Earl}; Agriculture
— Ross Browne's Estimate of Arizona and Faith in Her Future.

Just as the land of Arizona is unlike any other land, so was the foundation
of the government of her commonwealth. Ordinarily, governments are organ-
ized on the primary basis of population, the governing center placed in the most
populous section of the new administrative unit. Very different it was here.

The capital was established on the northernmost edge of white settlement.
Geographically it was in the center of the new territory, a point probably con-
sidered by its founders. It was in the midst of a beautifi;l, forested, mountain-
oixs district, but the time was snowy midwinter. The loealit.y was far from the
main continental thoroughfare. Tucson, the only town within the territory,
lay distant more than 250 miles, over a roadless. Apache-infested wilderness.
Bright must have been the hopeful vision of the founders of our state.

Arizona was given a separate territorial government for a number of reasons,
the least of them the very manifest one of the needs of the neglected people.
The Confederacy alread3^ had recognized the existence of a Territory of Ari-
zona, though with very different area, embracing about the southern two-fifths
of the present New Mexico and Arizona. This, at least, was a precedent. As
a war measure it was considered advisable to have a center of federal authority
thrown between the South and the Pacific Coast. But a weighty reason for
organization was that a number of politicians, some of them "lame ducks" still
in Congress (Gurley and Goodwin) wanted office and saw possibilities of fame
and wealth in a far-off section whence had come reports of riches in silver and
gold and which might prove another California. Not that these politicians
were not a decent sort. They were that and more. Thej' were men of sturdy
character, patriotism and energj' and, best of all, had faith in their mission and
hope in its successful outcome.

CREATION OF THE TERRITORY OF ARIZONA

The act organizing the temporary government for the Territory of Arizona
was approved by the President February 24, 1863. It set off the western half
of New Mexico to be
Vol. n— 1

313



314 ARIZONA— THE YOUNGEST STATE

. . . erected into a tempoi-ary government by the name of the Territory of Arizona:
Provided, that nothing contained in the provisions of this act shall be construed to prohibit
the Congress of the United States from dividing said territory or changing its boundaries
in such manner and at such time as it may deem proper : Provided, further, that said govern-
ment shall be maintained and continued until such time as the people residing in said
territory shall, with the consent of Congi-ess, form a state government, republican in form,
as prescribed in the Constitution of the United States, and apply for and obtain admission
into the Union as a state, on an equal footing with the original states.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, that the government hereby authorized shall consist
of an executive, a legislative and a judicial power. The executive power shall be vested in a
governor. The legislative power shall consist of a council of nine members, and a house of
representatives of eighteen. The judicial power shall be vested in a Supreme Court, to consist
of three judges, and such inferior courts as the legislative council may by law prescribe;
there shall alto be a secretary, a marshal, a district attorney, and a surveyor general for said
territory, who, together with the governor and judges of the Supreme Court, shall be appointed
by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and the term of office
for each, the manner of their appointment, and the powers, duties, and the compensation of
the governor, legislative assembly, judges of the Supreme Court, secretary, marshal, district
attorney, and surveyor general aforesaid, with their clerks, draughtsmen, deputies, and
sergeants-at-arms, shall be such as are conferred upon the same officers by the act organizing
the territorial government of New Mexico, which subordinate officers shall be appointed in
the same manner and not exceed in number those created by said act and acts amendatory
thereto, together with all legislative enactments of the Territory of New Mexico not incon-
sistent with the provisions of this act, are hereby extended to and continued in force in the
said Territory of Arizona, until repealed or amended by future legislation: Provided, that
no salary shall be due or paid the officers created by this act until they have entered upon
the duties of their respective offices within the said territory.

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, that there shall neither be slavery nor involuntary
servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the
parties shall have been duly convicted ; and all acts and parts of acts, either of Congress
or of the Territory of New Mexico, establishing, regulating, or in any way recognizing the
relation of master and slave in said territory are hereby repealed. ,

THE FIRST TEREITOEIAI. OrFICIALS

The tentative list of officials made up for the new territory by a caucus of
the prospective appointees in Washington was accepted by President Lincoln
without change. In March, 1863, appointment was made of the following-
named: Governor, John A. Gurley of Ohio; Secretary, Richard C. McCormick
of New York; Chief Justice, John N. Goodwin of Maine; Associate Justices,
"Wm. T. Howell of Michigan, Jos. P. Allyn of Connecticut; District Attorney,
John Titus of Pennsylvania; Marshal, Milton B. Duffield of California (or New
York) ; Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Chas. D. Poston of Arizona, who was
credited to Kentucky. Before the party of officials started West, there had been
several changes. August 18 Governor Gurley died, after a long illness that had
delayed matters, and on the 21st to the place was appointed Goodwin. In turn,
his position was filled by the appointment of Wm. F. Turner of Iowa. Then
Mr. Titus was made chief justice of Utah and Almon Gage of New York was
placed in the office vacated. May 26 Levi Bashford was appointed surveyor
general.

About August 27 Governor Goodwin left New York for the West, accom-
panied by Secretai-y McCormick and Judge Allyn, a short stay being made at
Cincinnati to pick up any threads of business that might have been left by
Gurley. Government transportation was provided from Fort Leavenworth,



ARIZONA— THE YOUNGEST STATE 315

which was left September 26, the party by that time enlarged by the addition
of Howell, Gage and Bashford. Judge Turner overtook the wagons at Fort
Larned.

Poston, probably with his mining and political interests in mind, preferred
to go around by San Francisco, from which point he was accompanied by the
new marshal and by J. Ross Browne, the noted California writer, who had some
sort of official connection with the Department of the Interior. They sailed
on the old steamer Senator for San Pedro, December 5, 1863, in company with
Ammi "White, Indian agent at the Pima villages, and two of his wards, Antonio
Azul, chief of the Pimas, and Francisco, an interpreter. Antonio apparently
had been taken northward that on his return he might properly impress his
people with the wondei-s of the civilization of the whites. With him had been
Iretaba, chief of the Mojaves, who is recorded as having made a sensation in
New York and Washington. Browne and Poston, a part of the time with a
military escort, toured the southern part of the new territory, the former accumu-
lating material for his interesting book on Arizona, and it was some time before
Poston joined his fellow officials at the seat of government.

Some private chronicles of the time are to the effect that the original destina-
tion of the main official party was Tucson, the largest settlement in the new
territory and the most logical site for the capital. Yet designation of Tucson as
the capital had been stricken out of the enabling act. The town was considered
more or less of a hotbed of secession and therefore entitled to little considera-
tion. From private sources the author has learned that Goodwin and his cabinet
were still in doubt concerning their destination when they arrived, November
14, at Santa Fe. There, it is told, they proved willing listeners when General
Carleton suggested that they strike out into the wilderness of Central Arizona
and there, pi-otected by a military post he was establishing, erect a new capital
city that should be wholly American, without i\Iexican or secession influences,
within a land wherein rich discoveries had been made, and which, favored by
abundant water and timber and by a delightful climate, would seem destined
to soon fill with a high class of American residents.

ENTERING THE PROMISED LAND

The entry of the new land was attended with some degree of pomp and
circumstance. There was a military escort, commanded by Lieut. Col. J. Fran-
cisco Chaves of the First New Mexico Volunteer Cavalry, with a detachment
of ten men of Troop E of his regiment, under Capt. Rafael Chacon, and
a detachment of the Eleventh Missouri Volunteer Cavalry, under Capt. J. H.
Butcher, the last-named, with twenty-five men, ordered from station at Los
Pinos. Colonel Chaves includes in the list of his command two companies of
the First California Infantry, but these probably were those sent on before.
The dignitaries rode in three "ambulances" and the impedimenta, official sup-
plies, provisions and forage were in sixty-six mule-drawn wagons. Old Fort
Wingate was reached December 13.

Thence, according to Colonel Chaves, the route was along the "Camino del
Obispo," so named because of the passage over it of Bishop Zubiria of Durango.
who was going to baptize the Zuiii Indians. A description of the road given by
the colonel is not attractive and he remarked upon the arduous circumstances



316 ARIZONA— THE YOUNGEST STATE

that must have attended the bishop in 1833, with the first carriage that had
ever gone over the trail. In addition to the ordinary difficulties of the almost
unbroken path\\'aj-, there was necessity for continual vigilance against possible
assaults of Apaches and Navajos. Snow banks were encountered and frequently
there were long stretches without wood or water or possible camping places for
the expedition, encumbered as it was with many wagons and animals. On the
27th it was more or less guessed that the parallel of 109 degrees, west longitude,
had been passed. In order to make sure, the party journeyed nearly two days
more, a distance of about forty miles, to Navajo Springs, noted by Chaves as a
couple of miles south of the present railroad station of that name.

Fully assured that the land of promise had been reached, the expedition
halted, on the afternoon of December 29, 1863, for the formal organization of
the Territory of Arizona.

PROCLAIMING THE GOVERNMENT

The officials were sworn in by the chief justice. In accordance with the
customs of the time, champagne was produced and a health was drunk to the
success of the new political subdivision. The proclamation of the President
was read and Secretary McCormick, to whom was delegated the honor of rais-
ing the flag, made a brief address, as follows :

Gentlemen — As the properly qualified officer, it becomes my duty to inaugurate the pro-
ceedings of the day. After a long and trying journey, we have arrived within the limits of the
Territory of Arizona. These broad plains and hills form a part of the district over which
as the representatives of the United States we are to establish a civil government. Happily,
although claimed by those now in hostility to the federal arms, we take possession of the
territory without resort to military force. The flag which I hoist in token of our authority
is no new and untried banner. For nearly a century it has been the recognized, the honored,
the loved emblem of law and liberty. From Canada to Mexico, from the Atlantic to the
Pacific, millions of strong arms are raised in its defense, and above all efforts of foreign or
domestic foes it is destined to live untarnished and transcendent.

As the flag rose upon the extemporized staff there were three hearty cheers.
Prayer then was offered by H. W. Read.

The governor and others made short addresses and the speeches were trans-
lated into Spanish by Interpreter Hadley, for the benefit of the New Mexican
soldiers.

Governor Goodwin's first act was the issuance of a proclamation of his inten-
tion to organize a territorial government in accordance with the provisions of
the organic act. A preliminary census would be taken, judicial districts would
be formed and an election would be called to provide a legislature and to fill
local offices. In these the assistance of all citizens was asked to sustain his
efforts to establish a government, "whereby the security of life and property
will be maintained throughout the limits of the territory and its various
resources be rapidly and successfully developed." It was stated that the seat
of government for the present would be at or near Fort Whipple.

At Volunteer Spring, near San Francisco Mountain, Secretaiy McCormick
and Judge Allyn, with a squad of the volunteers, left the main party and
arrived at Fort AVhipple, at the Little Chino Valley camp, January 17, 1864.
The main pai-ty arrived at noon, January 22. The second party had some little



ARIZONA— THE YOUNGEST STATE 317

trouble on the way at Rattlesnake oi- Hell Canon, fifteen miles nortlieast of
Whipple. Captain Chacon, riding in advance with his men, came upon a small
party of Indians, "Yalapais" (Hualpais or Tontos), who refused to obey the
captain's order to accompany him to camp and who, charged with having
drawn knives, were fired upon, two of them being killed.

CARLETON HAD SPIED OUT THE LAND

General Carleton had Ix^en making investigation of the new land. The
previous summer he had ordered Capt. N. J. Pishon, Co. D, First California
Cavalry, from Fort Craig, to proceed as an escort for Surveyor-Geueral Clark
to the newly-discovered gold fields near where Prescott now stands. The captain
was directed on arrival to have his men prospect the gulches and to wash gold
and to report the amount of gold each secured, in order that people might not
be deceived or inveigled into a distant country without knowing well what
they might expect to find. The general continued, "If the country is as rich
as reported — and of this I have no doubt — there will on your return be a
revolution in matters here which no man now can ever dream of." The order
recited that on Pishon 's return two companies of California troops would be
sent to establish a post in the lieart of the gold region, so the commanding
officer was directed to have an eye out for the best location for such a post.

Concerning this expedition and a few collateral features, herewith is printed
a letter to the editor from A. F. Banta, one of the few living pioneei-s who have
personal recollections on the subject. Though official records sustaining this
contention have not been found, Banta insists that General Carleton had
ordered a watch kept on the Walker party, suspected of conspiring on behalf of
the Confederacy. Information sustaining this view, Banta tells, was furnished
by A. C. Benedict, a good Union man, who had joined in Colorado. Now, to
quote Banta:

About this time Bob Groom and two companions reneheil Fort Union on tlie trail of the
Walker party. All three were arrested and placed in the guard house. Being a personal
friend of Senator McDougal of California, Groom wrote the senator at Washington, stating
his predicament, and asked the senator's help. The senator called upon Secretary Stanton
and presented the ease, but was told by Stanton that there was "but one way your friend
can obtain his release; he must take the oath of allegiance to the United States; otherwise
he remains under guard till the close of the war. ' ' The senator informed Bob of the secretary 's
decision, and rather than lie in confinement for an indefinite time, Bob took the oath. General
Carleton, being apprised of the above facts, sent word to Bob Groom to call upon him at Santa
Fe. Carleton said to Groom, "I understand you desire to join the Walker party.'' Bob