James Johnson.

Pilgrimages to the spas in pursuit of health and recreation; with an inquiry into the comparative merits of different mineral waters: the maladies to which they are applicable, and those in which they are injurious online

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Little College Street, Westminster.

THE observations and reflections contained in the following pages, are
the results of several autumnal excursions in the line of the German
Spas, undertaken partly for health, partly for recreation, and partly
for information on a subject that now interests a large portion of English
invalids. The contents of the volume are like the objects which gave
it origin. They are miscellaneous and probably this character will be ob-
jected to, on the principle, " ne sutor ultra crepidam." I have yet to learn,
however, why a physician should be debarred from indulgence in general
observations or reflections, and confined exclusively to professional topics.
His education, habits of thought, and knowledge of human nature do not
particularly disqualify him for a task which is daily undertaken by people of
all grades of acquirement, and degrees of ability. The truth is, that being
too independent to write for the mere purpose of catching the approbation of
others, I have followed the bent of my own inclinations, and, if taken to task
by censors, have little other reason to offer for my conduct than the old
one " stat pro ratione voluntas."

There is one portion of the book, however, (a very small one, some twenty
pages of letter-press) which may require some apology. The course of the
Rhine leads to most of the German Spas, and is therefore traversed annually
by multitudes of invalids as well as tourists. Every castle and promontory on
its banks has its legend, and these traditions contribute to fix the picture of
the locality in the mind's eye, by association, for ever afterwards. In one of
my excursions, some years ago, it struck me that these legends were designed,
originally, each to convey some moral precept at all events, I became con-
vinced that they were capable of being moralized. Under this impression,
I condensed the principal traditionary tales that have their locale in sight of
the voyager, and deduced what I considered to be the moral or useful precepts
which they concealed under a wild and improbable fiction. If I have failed
in this attempt, the intention, at least, was good. Throughout the whole
volume, my object has been to compress into small space much useful infor-
mation for invalid or tourist, and, on all occasions, to start subjects for
meditation or reflection, well knowing, from long experience, that such occu-
pations of the mind on a journey, are eminently conducive both to pleasure
and health.

In the principal or prof essional portion of the work, I have endeavoured to
collect all the information in my power, and, in the exercise of my judgment,
to sift the grain from the chaff, thus to steer clear of the extremes of
exaggeration and scepticism. There has been too much of the former abroad,
and too much of the latter at home. Holding myself perfectly free from all
obligation to subserve local interests on one side of the channel, or foster

m /-, JJ .- / - -.

1 l*Yc


national prejudices on the other, I have spoken my mind, with equal fearless-
ness and, I hope, impartiality.

The typography of this volume will prove that, although I must plead
guilty to the charge of " making a book," it has not been constructed on the
approved principles of " BOOK MAKING." By certain mechanical processes
well known " in the trade," this slender tome might have been easily expanded
into two or even three goodly, or at least costly octavos, ivithout the expenditure
of a single additional line, word, or thought. But, bearing in mind the old
Greek maxim that " a great book is a great evil," I was determined that,
should my lucubrations come under this head at all, the evil as well as the
book should be on a small scale. Spa-going invalids have evils enough, God
knows, to carry on their shoulders, without the addition of a " MEGA BIBHON"
in their wallets.

There is one defect in this work, however, which common honesty compells
me to point out to the intending purchaser, before he parts with his money. If
the travelling invalid expects to find here a catalogue of the post-houses, the
signs of the inns, the prices of the wines, the fares of the table-d'/iotes,
the pretensions of the cuisine, 8$c. #c. #e., except upon very rare occasions,
he will be woefullg disappointed. All this species of information, and a great
deal more, will be found in that excellent emporium of peripatetic lore
" MURRAY'S HANDBOOK." But even this useful feature in the " red-book,"
is not without its alloy. The character of caravanseras is perpetually
changing, as well as that of their landlords ; and when one of these gets a
good name in a guide book, the afflux of travellers to that point too often causes
the master to become proud, the servants lazy, the fare bad, and the bill
exorbitant. Many a bitter anathema have I heard launched against the
"Handbooks, 8(C."for leading tourists and invalids to be starved and fleeced
at the " RED LION," when they might have fared sumptuously and cheaply at
the " BLACK SWAN."

Still, the Handbook is equally invaluable and indispensable to the continental
traveller; and, as far as the Spas are concerned, Dr. Granville's work is full
of information on this subject. The profession and the public, indeed, are
deeply indebted to Dr. Granville and Mr. Edwin Lee for opening out wider
and clearer views of the continental mineral waters ; but the subject itself,
so far from being exhausted, is only in its infancy of investigation. Whether
we regard the constituen.t elements of the waters themselves, their physiological
operation, or their remedial efficacy, there is ample room for many future

I have now only to return my sincere thanks to the various German and
other physicians on the continent, from whom I received oral, written, or pub-
lished information, and to say that 1 shall feel myself honoured by any future
communications from t/ie same sources, on the subject of the Spas.

Su/olk Place, Pall Mall, JAMES JOHNSON.

May, 1841.



Hygeian Fountains of Germany 1

The Valetudinarian in pursuit of health, 2

The Steamer 2

The Gathering in the Steamer 3

The Conservative Traveller ..,.,...., 4

The Sea the Maas , . . ... 5

Rotterdam 6

The Hague 8

Haerlem 8

Normal Schools 9

Amsterdam 10

Batavian Characteristics 12 14

Cologne 1517

The Rhine 18

Drachenfels Scenery 19

Legend of Drachenfels 22

Do. of Roland and Hildegund .... 24

Last Nuns of Nonnen worth 25

Truenfels, or the Rock of Fidelity 27

The FlyingBridge ,, 29

Rheineck renovated 29

Hammerstein, Andernach, &c 30

Cohlentz 30

Ehrenbreitstein Gibraltar 31

Coblentz to Mayence omnibussing . . 33

Stolzenfels, and Legend 33

The Brothers Legend 34

Lurley, or the Echo, with Legend 35

Singular Locality of Echo 37

Schomberg Reflections 38

The Seven Sisters, or Fate of Coquettes, 38

Pfalz 39

The Hall of Mirrors 40

Moral of the Mirrors 42

The Devil's Ladder 43

Moral of the Ladder 45

The Bridal of Rheinstein 46

The Mouse Tower, and Moral 48

Change of Scene 49


Topography of 50

Theories of Mineral Waters 51

Composition of the Waters 52

Effects of the Bath 52


Phenomena produced by the Waters .. 53

Disorders benefitted by the Waters . . , . 55

Counter-indications 56

" Bad -stnrm," or Crisis , . . . , 57

Haemorrhoidal Mania , , . . 58

Cautions respecting the Baths 59

Directions for using the Waters 60

Spa-life 61

" Cursaals," or " CURST-HELLS" .... 63

One-sided Morality 64

The Adler, or Eagle Bath 65

Author's Theory of Kochbrunnen 65

The Dandy of Sixty Bath Cream .... 66

Mr. Lee on the Wisbaden Waters .... 67


Drive from Wisbaden to Schlangenbad, 72

The Serpent's Bath 73

The Cauldron of Medea 74

The Phoenix of Schlangenbad 74

Dr. Granville's animadversions 75

Waters of Schlangenbad 76

" ORDER off the BATH 76

Table d'H6te at Schlangenbad 77

German Salaam 77

Stomach and Teeth in Germany 79

Value of Life 80

Fame of the Serpent's Bath. ... ..... 81


The Three Brunnens ,,,,....,.. 82

Composition of the Waters ....,,.... 83

Effects of the Chalybeates ...,..,,.,, 84

Indications for their Use 84

Counter -indications 85

Mode of taking them 85

The Baths 86

German Society and Manners 86


Verbondung, or Germaja Duel 90





Scenery Springs, &c 94

Ursprung 94

Cautions respecting the Baths 95

Lines Written at the Alten-Schloss .... 96

Dissipation 97


Journey from Baden-Baden to Wildbad 98

The Devil's Mill 99

The Schwein- General 1 00

Valley of the Enz 102

The Raft-floaters 103

Topography of Wildbad 104

The Warm Baths 105

The Elysian Fountain 106

Disappointment 107

Bathing in common pros and cons .. 108

Composition of the Waters 109

Effects of the Baths and Waters 110

Medicinal Properties Ill


The Spa-Fever 112

The " AUXILIARY" to Mineral Waters, 112
Disorders cured or relieved by Wildbad, 1 13
Counter-indications.. .. 116



Zurich 119

Lake of Wallenstadt 1 20


Astounding Cavern 125

Source of the Waters 126

Waters of Pfeffers 129


Cure of Diseases by Perspiration and

Cold Water 131

Calido- frigid Sponging 137

Chemin de Mer Chemin de Fer 139

Antiquity of the Omnibus 139

Belgian Rail-roads 140

Antwerp route to the Spas 141

Reminiscences of the Walcheren Ex-
pedition 141

Liege 142


Waters of Chaude Fontaine 1 42


Route from Liege to Spa , ... 143

Former Celebrity of Spa 144

Pouhon Sauveniere Geronsterre

Tonnelet 145

General Composition of the four Springs 145

Medicinal Agency of the Spa Waters . . 146

Regimen proper at Spa 147

Environs of Spa 148

Gambling at Spa 149

Decadence of the celebrity of Spa. ... 150


Antiquity and Site of Aix 151

Fontaine Elise"e 151

Aspect of the Spa-drinkers 152

Vitality of Mineral Waters 153

Caloricity Hypothesis 153

Disorders benefitted by the Waters 154


Waters of the Borcette 154

Antiquities of Aix-La-Chapelle 154


Antiquity and locality of Ems 155

A new Sprudel discovered there 155

Composition of the Ems Waters 156

Physiological Operation of the Waters 156

Disorders to which they are applicable 157

Pulmonary Complaints benefitted by Ems 158

Counter-indications 160

Point of Saturation, or Crisis 161

General rules for taking the waters and

baths 161

Cautions necessary for using the Baths 163

City and Cemetery reflections on.


Situation in the heart of Germany.
Maxbrunnen Ragoczy






Composition of the Waters 167

Panrtur Soolensprudel Theresien-

brunnen 168

Medicinal Agency of the Kissengen

Waters 169

Disorders to which the Waters are ap-
plicable 170

Physical effects and medicinal proper-
ties of the different Springs 172

The Baths of Kissengen 174

Counter, indications 176

Point of saturation 176

Order of the day at Kissengen 177

Physiognomy of the various Spas .... 177

Acidulous Chalybeate of Bocklet .... 178

The purest Chalybeate in Europe .... 180


I. Franzensquelle or Brunn 182

Hufeland's Testimony to the Waters 1 84

II. Salzquelle 185

III. Cold Sprudel IV. Louisenbrunn 186

Gas Baths of Franzensbad 187

Mud Baths of Franzensbad 189

Personal experience of the Mud Baths 190
Disorders to which the Mud-Baths are

applicable 191

Mr. Spitta on the Mud-Baths 192


Muhlbrunn 210

Neubrunn Theresienbrunn 211

Sprudelsteins and Incrustations 211

Serio-comic Anecdote of a Hypochon-
driac 212

German Hypotheses respecting the

Waters 212

Picturesque situation of Carlsbad .... 212
Hufeland's Eulogy of the Carlsbad

Waters 213

Lord A's wonderful cure 213

Melancholy case of Surgeon Fraser .. 213
Dr. De Carro's opinions of the Waters, 214
Crowd of Hypochondriacs at Carlsbad, 21

Counter-indications 216

Bad-sturm, or Crisis, of Carlsbad .... 217

Regime at Carlsbad 218

Almanac of Carlsbad 219

Changes of fashion respectingthe Springs 2 1 9
The Sprudel on Calculous Complaints. . 220
Dr. Hlawaczek on the Carlsbad Waters 221


Physiognomy of Diseases at a great Spa 222
Auxiliaries to Recovery at a large Sani-
tarium 222

Medicinal Auxiliaries ........ 224

Moral and Physical Auxiliaries 226


Romantic Situation of this Spa 228

Sources and establishments 228

Qualities of the Waters 229

Disorders to which they are applicable, 230


I. The Kreuzbrunn 195

Composition and Physiological effects 195
Disorders to which the Kreuzbrunn

is applicable 197

II. Ferdinandsbrunn 198

III. Carolinenbrunn and Ambrosius-
brunn 199

The Baths of Marienbad 201

Physical and Physiological Effects of the

Baths 201

Mud-Baths of Marienbad 202

Gas-Baths of Marienbad 203

Physiological and Medicinal Effects. . . . 204
Notice of Dr. Herzig's Work on Marien-
bad 206


Lobkowitz's Ode to the Sprudel 208

Ancient History of Carlsbad 209

Description of the Sprudel 210


Romantic and Picturesque appearance
of the City 231


Picturesque Journey from Prague to

Teplitz 232

Splendid Bathing Establishments here. . 232

Temperature of the Springs 233

Former state of Public Baths modern

custom 233

Dr. Richter's Work on the Teplitz

Waters 234

Mode of Bathing and Remedial Agency 235
Disorders to which the Waters are ap-
plicable 236

Topography of the Contiguous Country 237
Splendid View from the Spitalberg and

Schlossberg 237

Mr. Spitta on the Waters of Pullna,
Saidschitz, and Sedlitz , , ,, 238





An Oasis in the Desert



Battle-field of Culm Historical Remi-
niscences 245

Furious Combat between Vandamme

and the Allies , 247

Bohemian Thermopylae 248

Napoleon's Star fades for ever 248

Tetschen Count Thun's Palace 249

Enter Saxon Switzerland 249

Remains of an Antediluvian World . . 250
Monchenstein, a curious fragment of

Rock 251

Hernskretchen, Preberchthor, Kuhstall 251
Kcenigstein, impregnable Fortress of . . 252

Geological Reflections 253

A German Hotel, comforts of 254


Singularly wild and rude Scene of the

Bastei 255

Geological Reflections Antediluvian

World 256

Huge Natural Colliseum, and fine Echo 256

Elbe to Dresden 257

Pillnitz Regal Felicity Royal Drama-
tist 257


First Impressions favourable 258

Bridge, Palace, Cathedral, Theatre .... 258
Magnificent View from the Cupola of

the Cathedral k 259

Battle-field of August 1814 Tomb of

Moreau Star of Napoleon 259

Character of Napoleon Exhumation of

his Ashes 260

Royal Catholic Church Music The

Requiem 261

Picture Galleries of Dresden 261

Jargon of the Connoiseurs 261

Chef-d'oeuvres of Art 262

The Green Vaults Reflections in 263

The Kustkammer, or Armoury Reflec-
tions 264

Dresden China 265

Tharand an Excursion 265

Revolution in Saxony, after that in Paris

of 1830 266

Privileges of the People 266

Dresden to Leipzig 267


The Cradle and Grave of Literature. . . 267

Cerebro-gestation 268

Retrospection from the Observatory . . 269

The decisive Battle of Leipzig, Oct. 1814 270

Cossack Valour 27 1

Fall of Napoleon's Star 271


Advantages of Fortifications 272

Navigation of the Elbe 273


Conclusion of the Second Pilgrimage. . 275


Difficulty of drawing characteristics . . 276
1 . Physiognomy 2. Language 3.

Ideology -4. Unanimity 277

5. Patience 6. Religion 277

7. Affability 278

Causes of Affability 278

8. Education 279

Normal Schools 280

9. Learning 281

10. The Press 282

Censorship 282

1 1 . Domestic Manners 283

12. Women 283

13. Morality 284

14. Socialism 284

15. Time 284

Time past 285

Time present and to come 286

16. Titles, Decorations 286

17. Aerophobia 286

18. Female Peasantry 287

19. Status quo 287

20. Locomotion 288

21. The Burschen or Collegiate Youths 289

22. German Cookery 290

3. Gallic and German Patriotism .... 291

24. Prisons 292

26. Beds and Bed-rooms 293

26. The German Stove rertus English

Chimney 295

27. Verlobung, or betrothing 296

28. March of Population . . . . 297

29. Poetry 298



MANY tribes of the great JOHN BULL family appear, of late years, to have
abjured " red port" and " brown stout," in favour of several breweries on
the Continent, and especially in Germany. These breweries are deeply
seated in the bowels of the Earth, and the art and mystery of their brew-
ings are far beyond the sight and cognizance of man. Whether cocculus
Indicus, logwood, sloe-juice, or opium enter into their gigantic vats and
boiling cauldrons, it is hard to say ; but, however manufactured, they are
thrown up on the surface of our globe, pro bono publico greatly to the
detriment of doctors, druggists, and apothecaries, in this and in many
other countries.

The subterranean distilleries are conducted on the homosopathic prin-
ciple viz. that of employing the minutest quantities of active materials
probably in order to do the least possible harm. They have many and
great advantages over the homoeopathic laboratories. They diffuse their
ingredients through such immense potions of water, that, to get at a few
grains of the former, we are obliged to ingurgitate some quarts of the
latter. Now the mere mechanical flow of such prodigious doses of fluid
through the various outlets the bowels, kidneys, skin, &c. must sweep
away morbid secretions, and contribute to the breaking down of obstruc-
tions in different organs, independently of the medicinal agents that are
diffused through the mass of liquids in the greatest possible state of divi-
sion and solution circumstances which enable them to permeate and
penetrate through innumerable capillary tubes and complicated glandular
apparatuses, where grosser materials could never reach.

The natural fountains of Hygeia, however, have other advantages and
auxiliaries, of which the laboratory of the chemist, and the pharmacy of


the practitioner are deprived. HOPE itself, though often resting on falla-
cious and exaggerated histories of cures, contributes much to the accom-
plishment of even marvellous recoveries. The severing, or even relaxing
of that chain which binds care round the human heart, and augments the
sufferings and the progress of disease, is no mean ally of the spa. It is
true indeed, that the " splendid misery" of the great, and the corroding
grief of the exile, cannot be thrown off by change of climate

Scandit aeratas vitiosa naves
Cura quid terras, alio calentes
Sole, mutamus patriae quis exul
Se quoque f ugit ?*

But the valetudinarian in pursuit of health, is somewhat differently cir-
cumstanced. The change of scene and air of food and drink of rising
and retiring of exercise and conversation in short, of the whole moral
and physical conditions around him, effect, in many cases, such a mental
and corporeal improvement, as makes easy work for the mineral waters
especially when the extreme dilution of their contents is taken into

Let it not be supposed, however, that this picture is without any reverse.
Many diseases especially organic ones are aggravated by the journey to
a distant spa by the imprudent use of the water by the warm or hot
bathing by the enthusiasm or rather HYDROMANIA, of the spa-doctor,
who, having little acquaintance with the constitution of the patient, extols
his favourite spring, and recommends it in almost every complaint. To
separate probabilities from improbabilities, and impossibilities from both,
will be attempted occasionally in the following pages, as we pass in review
some of the principal resorts of invalids on both sides of the Rhine.


The BATAVIER, all humps and hollows the reverse of what one would
expect in anything Batavian and as ugly a black whale as ever floun-
dered through an Arctic Ocean, received an ample cargo on the 3rd. of
August 183 . I shall not attempt to minutely analyse such a nume-
rous as well as motley group, on the short acquaintance of twenty-six
hours. It was pretty evident, however, that we had on board representa-
tives of various classes of society more especially of the arts, sciences,

* The following is a rough attempt at a free translation of the above celebrated pas-
sage in Horace.

Behind the gilded coach pale Care ascends,

And haunts his victim wheresoe'er he wends,
On foreign shores the exile tries, in vain.
To banish thought^ and fly from mental pain.


and professions. The lawyer had left his clients to live in peace the
doctor had left his patients to die in peace : and the pastor had committed
his flock to some vicarious shepherd. The merchant had handed his
ledger, and the banker his money-shovel to their clerks and it seemed
as though half the shopocracy had left their counters in care of the

All was bustle and confusion among the steamers starting for various
destinations and I verily believe that the inhabitants of Pompeii did not
rush in greater haste or in greater numbers to the sea, when chased by
the ashes and lava of Vesuvius, than did the inhabitants of the metropolis
to the banks of the Thames on this beautiful morning ! There were to be
seen SENATORS, who had patriotically injured their own constitutions while
reforming that of their country TAILORS from Bond Street, going to Vienna
and Athens to measure the " Corinthian pillars of the state," on the phi-
losophical principles of Laputa aldermen from Bucklersbury, to exude a
portion of green fat and callipash in the valleys of Switzerland geologi-
cal chemists, with hammers, bags, and blow-pipes, bound for the mountains
of TAUNUS to ascertain the age of MOTHER EARTH, by means of the fish-
bones, oyster- shells, and pebbles, which she had swallowed at some of her
grand suppers antiquarians journeying to the Roman forum to disinter the
bones of M. Curtius and his horse, which had lain so long in their marble
cerements engineers from a new joint-stock company to survey a line of
rail-road over the Great St. Bernard candidates for the Traveller's Club,
going to qualify by crossing some pons asinorum over the Danube tourists
of all calibres ; some to make a tour simply ; some to write a tour badly ;
but the greater number to talk of a tour afterwards NABOBS from the
East ; some with the complexion of a star pagoda ; some as pallid as a
sicca rupee ; and others as blue as Asiatic cholera CANTABS, with their
tutors, going to study spherics among the Alps of Oberland OXONIANS,
to collate Greek and gibberish among the Ionian Isles MISSIONARIES
from Paternoster-row and Albemarle- street, to convert foolscap into food
for circulating libraries, and the " bitter wass'ers" of Germany into Bur-
gundy and Champaigne for themselves CONSERVATIVES flying from the
" West-end," to preserve the remnants of a shattered constitution
LANDLORDS from Green Erin going to spend their rack-rents in the fash-
ionable saloons of Baden Baden ROUE'S from St. James's, repairing, as a
forlorn hope, to the Cur-saals (anglice, CURSED HELLS) of Nassau and
Bavaria BACCHANALS, DEBAUCHEES, and GOURMANDS, hastening to Kis-
sengen and Carlsbad, in hopes of restoring their jaded appetites and
reducing their tumid livers JUDGES from Westminster, who, in all ac-
tions of " lius versus URBEM," had lately determined in favour of the
plaintiff, without reference to the jury BISHOPS, who had left their black
aprons on the Banks of the Thames, to have a peep at the lady with
scarlet petticoats on the banks of the Tyber-r-aspiring youths of enlarged


views and high pretensions, determined to see the world from the summit
of Mont Blanc PALLID BEAUTIES, from Portman Square, with their
anxious mammas, bound to Ems and Schwalbach, in hopes of transmuting
their lillies into roses, by exchanging the midnight waltz for the " mittag"

Online LibraryJames JohnsonPilgrimages to the spas in pursuit of health and recreation; with an inquiry into the comparative merits of different mineral waters: the maladies to which they are applicable, and those in which they are injurious → online text (page 1 of 37)