square league, and is covered with broken earthen pitchers and pots,
prettily painted in red and white. This edifice must have been a
fortress, as it is defended on one side by a mountain, and on the
other by a wall, now in a very ruinous condition, seven feet thick.
Several kitchen utensils have been found at this place ; such as
earthen pots, jars, dishes, and little looking-glasses made of the
stone itzli. This edifice was, as has been remarked, constructed
of stone and earth, and covered with lime mortar, upwards of six
hundred years ago.
From Case Grandi the Aztecks directed their march''south-easl
STATE OF NEW- YORK. 153
wardly to Huicolhuacan, at present called Guliacan, on the gulf of
California, in twenty-four degrees and thirty minutes of north lati-
tude, where they stopped three years. From Huicolhuacan, jour-
neying many days to the east, they came to Chicomoztoc, where
Hitherto all the tribes had travelled in a body, but here from
some cause they separated and left the Mexicans. The place
where they separated is supposed to have been near the modern
city of Zacatecas, as about twenty miles south of that city there are
the remains of a large edifice, which, according to the tradition o^
the Zapotecas, was the work of the Aztccks, or Mexicans, in their
march through their country. The Mexicans remained here nine
or ten years.
Proceeding from Chicomoztoc, in the country of the Zapotecas,
towards the south, the Mexicans came into the maritime province
of Colina, and from thence to Zacatula, where turning to the east-
ward, they arrived at Malinalco, not far from the valley of Tolula ;
and afterwards, directing their march towards the north, they ar-
rived at the city of Tula in the year 1196.
In their peregrination, after crossing the Colerado, it appears that
the Mexicans travelled upwards of one thousand miles more than
was necessary, in order to reach Anahuac, or Mexico, as it has since
After a residence at Tula of nine years, the Mexicans removed
to other places not far distant, until in the year 1216 they arrived
at Zampanco, a considerable city in the vale of Mexico.
In the year 1325 they founded the city of Mexico, which soon
became the capitol of an extensive empire.
From the sixth to the thirteenth century, population appears to
have rolled from the north towards the south. From the regions
on the other side of the Colerado, came those nations who overran
and conquered Anahuac, or Mexico.
From the foregoing it appears that the Toltecans arrived in Mex-
ico about the year 700; that their kingdom subsisted to 1052 ; that
the Checheraecas arrived about the year 1153; that the first
Nahuatlacas arrived about the year. 1178; that the Acolhuas, or
Acolhuans, arrived towards the end of the twelfth century ; that
Toii. II 20
164 HISTORY OF THE
the Mexicans arrived at Tula in the year 1196, at Zompanco in
1216, and at Chapoltepec in 1245. The Aztecks, or Mexicans,
were thirty-six years in marching from Aztlan to Tula, nine miles
from the city of Mexico.
At the time of the arrival of the Mexicans, the country was di-
vided into many small states, and contained a considerable popula-
tion which was sedentary. The inhabitants of most of these small
states spoke the Mexican or Anteck language. The Mexicans were
at first feeble, and had to submit to vassalage. By degrees they
rose into consequence and power. They founded the city of Mex-
ico, drained the marshes in its neighborhood, made roads, con-
structed aqueducts, he. They contracted alliances with the kings
of Acolhua, &:c. subverted several states, compelled others to pay
tribute, and menaced ihe liberties of all. The Mexican empire at
the time of the Spanish conquest in 1521, including the kingdom
of Acolhua and the little republic of Tlascala, contained about
one hundred and thirty thousand square miles.
M. de Humboldt, who appears to have been unacquainted with
the fact of there being mounds and fortifications in our western states
resembling those of the Mexicans, after speaking of the migrations
to Mexico, between the seventh and thirteenth centuries, of the
cultivation of the ground, the structure of cities, the making of roads,
dykes, canals, pyramids, or mounds, and fortifications, the fabrica-
tion of cloth, the founding of metals, of hieroglyphical writings, &;c.
&;c. by the Toltecans and Mexicans, exclaims, " Where is the
source of that cultivation ? Where is the country from which these
people issued f Tradition and hieroglyphics name Huehuetapallan,
Tallan, and Aztlan, as the residence of these nations. There are
no remains at this day of any ancient civilization of the human spe-
cies to the north of the river Gila, or in the northern regions tra-
velled through by Hearne, Fiedler, and McKensie."
The Abbe Clavigero assures us that the Mexicans offered human
and other sacrifices on the summits of their temples in the city of
Mexico, in 1520 and 1521. He speaks of the same things being
practised in other parts of the empire. Several Spaniards and
Mexicans in their service were sacrificed in the course of the siege.
He derived his information from Diaz, Torquemaua, and other old
STATE OF NEW-YORK. 1 [>i
Spanish authors. Diaz served in the Spanish army at the siege of
Mexico, and was an eye witness. The Mexicans had their priests,
altars, and temples.
Various conjectures and opinions have been formed concerning
the origin of the Toltecans, Acolhuans, and Mexicans. Some, and
among others, authors of deserved celebrity, have supposed that
they were direct from Asiatic Tartary, because they came from
the north-west. Humbolt is of opinion that the Toltecans were
of Hunnic origin, because the era of their migration corresponds
with the dissolution of the Hunnic empire in Upper 'Asia, and the
subsequent migration of a portion of that nation to the north. But
however the eras may agree, this supposition proves nothing. The
Toltecans were not of Hunnic origin. The Acolhuans and Mexi-
cans were the same people. They had the same language, man-
ners, customs, and laws, and came from the same country, or other
countries contiguous thereto. The difference in the physiognomy
alone would refute the supposition. The Huns belonged to the
Mongolian race, which is different from the Mexican or any other
in America. The circumstance of their approaching the vale of
Mexico from the north-west can have very little weight ; and this is
the strongest evidence given. Nations in their emigrations have
not always had fixed places of destination in view. All their move-
ments have been controlled by causes and circumstances. The
Gothic, the Hunnic, the Vandalic, and Ottoman nations had nopar-Â»
ticular countries or places of destination in view when they cora^
menced their migrations. The Goths, the Huns, and the Otto-
mans were forced from their countries; they took up lines of march
with their wives and their children, their flocks, and their herds, and
retired before their conquerors. The latter pressed them on. The
Goths had to pass the Danube, and pitch their camp in Myssia, a
province of the eastern Roman empire. The Goths inhabited the
Ukraine, a country situated between Poland, Russia, and Turkey.
The Ottomans dwelt in Turkestan, a country east of the Caspian
sea. The Vandals resitied on the shores of the Baltic, and the
banks of the Vistula. The seat of the Huns was in Chinese Tar-
tary. It is not our intention to portray the migrations, marches,
conquests, and catastrophes of these nations. The Goths in forty
156 HISTORY OF THE
years opened a way with the sword from the shores of the Black
sea, on the east, to that part of the Atlantic ocean on the west which
laves Spain and Portugal, a distance of two thousand miles. The
Vandals in a shorter period traversed Germany, France, and Spain,
and crossed the straits of Gibraltar, into Mauritania, and at last set-
tled in Tunis. The Huns, after marching through all Tartary and
European Russia, seated themselves in Hungary. The routes pur-
sued by these nations, and particularly those by the Goths and Van-
dals, were very irregular, and as much so as that of the Toltecans,
Chechemecans, Acolhuans, and Mexicans, would have been had
they decamped from the banks of the Ohio, Mississippi, and Mis-
souri, and proceeded to the Colerado of the west, and from thence
to the river Gila, and the vale of Mexico â€” which is what we con-
tend. The Americans, in their intercourse with the Spaniards at
this time, set out from St. Louis, at the mouth of the Missouri, and
travel to St. Fee, on the Rio del Norte. This seems to be the
most feasible way to Mexico by land. May not the Toltecans,
Chechemecans, Acolhuans, and Mexicans, have pursued the same,
or nearly the same way, as far as the Rio del Norte ? We answer
yes, they may have ; and we are of opinion that they did advance
from the banks of the Mississippi and Missouri, to those of the Ar-
kansaw, Red, and Rio del Norte, and from those of the latter stream
to those of the Colerado and Gila. But it is time to come to a
conclusion : we shall therefore close with some remarks and infer-
i â€¢ From the facts stated, and from the information we have been
able to collect on this highly interesting subject, it appears that these
fortifications and works commence on the north-east, at or near
Black river, at the east end of lake Ontario, and extend south-
westwardly to ihe Arkansaw, and from thence westwardly and
south-westwardly to the confines of the Pacific ocean, and from
thence south-eastwardly to the vale of Mexico and the adjacent
parts. In the United States they are found west of the mountains
as far as the lakes, and the vast steppes of the Mississippi and Mis-
souri. The fortifications are of three kinds, round or circular,
square, and irregular. They are near water, and generally on com-
manding ground. They increase in numbers and dimensions all
STATE OF NEW-YORK. 157
the way to the valley of the Mississippi. There are three kinds of
tumuli or mounds â€” the round, the semi-globular, and square. They
are usually situated without the fortifications. In some instances
they are surrounded with parapets and ditches.
The fortifications enclosed villages, towns and cities. There may
have been some exceptions. The tumuli were constructed for two
fold purposes, temples and cemeteries. In Europe, the practice of
inhuming bodies in churches has long prevailed. â€” The Greeks and
Romans, before their conversion to Christianity, had a custom of
burying their dead, or depositing their ashes in urns in their temples.
Church is only another name for temple. The Pagans had their
temples. The Hindoos and Chinese liave their pagodas. Tem-
ples were never so numerous as churches. The advancement of
civilization and the progress of the arts, and we might add, the in-
crease and dissemination of knowledge and correct ideas of Deity
and his attributes, have multiplied places of public worship. The
ancients supposed that there were superior and inferior gods, and
that they resided in particular places. This doctrine pervaded the
Pagan world. But Christians have had different ideas and enlarged
views. They have supposed, and justly, that there is only one
deity, and that he is every where present, and therefore they have
multiphed temples or churches. The temple of Belus at Babylon,
was like the Mexican temples of Teotihuacan, and Cholula.
It was a high place on which sacrifices were offered, and the
doctrines of a misterious and bloody superstition practised. The
Mexicans sacrificed animals and even men on their temples. The
great n\ound or tumulus at Kahokia in the state of Illinois, resembles
the Mexican temples of Teotihuacan and Cholula in its shape, struc-
ture and materials, and was reared for the same purpose.
The people who constructed the fortifications or defences and
tumuli, were sedentary, not erratic. They depended on the pro-
ducts of cuhivation for their subsistence, not on hunting and fishing.
They inhabited the regions along and on this side of the Mississippi,
long before the arrival of the Moheakanneevvs, Hurons, and other
nations of Tartar origin. This is in a measure demonstrated from
the fact that none of these nations had any tradition or other me-
mento concerning these works, or the people who erected them,
158 HISTORY OF THE
which they would have had, had the country been inhabited when
ihey came to it. The Zapotecas, a nation of hunters now residing
in Now Mexico or New Spain, between the Gila and the vale of
I\Iexico, have to this day, although upwards of six hundred years
have elapsed, a tradition of the INlexican or Azteck emigration
through their country.
The defences or fortifications, whether in the vicinity of lakes
Ontario and Eric, the Ohio, INlississippi and Missouri rivers, or in
the vale of Mexico, intermediate or otherwise, were constructed on
the same plan and with the same materials. They have the same
appearances, differing only in extent, magnitude, and in a few in-
stances in workmanship, consequences of a denser population, more
wealth and greater acquirements in the arts.
The roin)d, semiglobular and square mounds or tumuli are alike,
differing or.ly in size. The square tumuli with terraces rising one
above another like the temple of Belus, are mostly found in IMexico.
These however, are few in number, and may rather be considered
as improvements in this kind of structure than a diffrcnl order. In
Egypt this species of structure was carried to the liiijhest state of
perfection. The pyramid, which is only a different name for the
same structure, is a square edifice, diminishing from its base to its
apex, by easy gradations. It superceded the tum.ulus or mound of
earth. Similar relics, implements and utensils have been found at
most or all of the works which have been examined. The num-
bers found in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys and the vale of
Mexico, have however been greater tlian elsewhere. The whole
seem to have belonged to, and to have been the works of the same
nation or race of men. There is no discernable difference, but
such as grew out of an improved state of scjciety. The nation or
race of men was in a progressive state. The extent, numbers and
workmanship of the defences, tumuli, &c. demonstrate this assump-
tion. Those in the Ohio and Mississipi countries surpass all. Here
then the nation had attained its achme. This nation first inhabited
in the north and then migrated to the south. The defences or for-
tifications and moimds in the regions between Black river and the
Arkansaw, and between iIk; niDimiains and the steppes of the Mis-
souri and Mississipi)i and the lakes, are in all probability the most
STATE OF NEW-YORK. 159
ancient. Here were the original seats of the nation after it had
abandoned the erratic condition. The population in western Vir-
ginia, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana, and Illinois, and the
adjoining parts was the most concentrated and the most dense. Tl)e
remains in Ohio, and on the Mississippi bottom demonstrate this.
The Mississippi bottom was, it is probable, the focus or centre of
the greatest population. The mounds at Kahokia, strengthen this
induction. There were, undoubtedly, several states which were
independent of one another. The Mexican annals mention the
countries of Huehuetapallan, Amaquemecan,Teoacolhuacan,Azdan,
&.C. â€” All these countries bordered the one upon the other, and are
represented to have been to the north and northwest of Mexico.
The Toltecans, according to the same annals, were banished ; all
the others seem to have emigrated voluntarily. The Toltecans were
then the pioneers. They opened the way and first settled Mexico.
They, beyond all doubt, maintained a correspondence with thei?
countrymen in the north. Small colonies or bodies of emigrants
must, from time to time, have followed the Toltecans, after they
had established themselves in Anahuac, or Mexico. No written
memorials would have been preserved of these ; only great occur-
rences attract the notice of historians, especially where literature
is confined to a few persons, as was the case with the Toltecans,
Mexicans, fc^^. They had only hieroglyphics, as we have before
observed. The way having been opened, establishments having
been made, and the fame of the country having reached Huehue-
tapallan, Amaqiiemecan, Teoacolhuacan and Aztlan, others must
have emigrated, and ultimately the whole nation. These induc-
tions are fortified by the separate and great emigrations of the Che-
chemecans, Nahnatlacas, Acolhuans and Aztecks. The latter
were divided into seven cantons under different leaders, to wit : the
Sochimilcas, the Chalchese, the Tapenecas, the Colhuans, the Tla-
huicas, the Tlascalans and Mexicans. All these cantons kept to-
gether and marched in a body till they came to Chicomoztoc.
Here they separated. On their arrival each canton formed an
independent state. All these emigrations were subsequent to that of
the Toltecans, and were, it is likely, induced for the purpose of
bettering their condition.
160 ' HISTORY OF THE
The human bodies found in the copperas and saUpetre caves m
the states of Tennessee and Kentucky ; and also the boriy of the
Pecari, or Mexican hog found in a cave in the latter state, seem to
point out to us that these states were parts of Huehuetapallan, Ama-
quemecan, &,c. Tlie human bodies were in tolerable preservation,
and were shrouded in cloths of the same fabrication as those manu-
factured by the Mexicans in 1521, at the time of the Spanish con-
quest. The physiognomy of the bodies was Mexican, not Tartarian.
These facts, and we could hardly have stronger ones were we to
desire them, announce an identity of origin. The circumstance of
the Pecari, is an additional and cogent fact. This animal is an in-
digene of Mexico, and cannot exist on this side of the Mississippi,
unless sheltered and housed during winter. It must therefore have
been brought from Mexico by some of the emigrants or travellers,
either for propagation, or for a spectacle or show. And it must
have been entered in the saltpetre cave, to the end that its body
might be preserved from destruction.
The defensive works, the tumuli, the implements of war, &;c. the
utensils of use and ornament, the cloths, the body of the Pecari,
and above all, the human bodies, prove to an almost absolute cer-
tainty, that the ancient seats of the Toltecans, Acolhuans and Mexi-
cans, were along and on this side of the Mississippi ; and that these
seats were in the states of New-York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia,
Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana, Illinois, and INIissouri ; that the seats
in New-York and Pennsylvania were broken up and forsaken firsts
and those in the other subsequently.
TABULAR VIEWS, &,C.
Catalogues of the tribes and clans of the Mo-hea-kan-neew and
Huron nations ; they are not presented as complete ; the time when
this might have been done has passed. The colonists of Great
Britain, Ireland, and Holland, and their descendants, have not been
particular in collecting facts relative to these nations ; they despised
them, and did not consider them as worthy of their notice beyond
interest. Hence the facts which we have gathered are mostly in-
sulated. Hence little more can be done than compare and me-
thodise them. If we should fall into errors, the fault is not to be
attributed to us, but to those who have gone before us. In construc-
ting the catalogues we shall have to enumerate the tribes and clans
of other states and provinces, since only portions of these nations
resided in the state of New-York. Mo-hea-kan-neew, and Huron,
are used as generic names.
In order to enable the reader to pronounce, we have divided all
the words of difficult pronunciation into syllables. The division, la
some instances, may be arbitrary.
f 01. It 21
HISTORY OF THE
Tar-ra-teens, or Abe-na-quis
Wam-pa-no-gas, or Paw-kun-naw-
kutts - - -
Ni-an-ticks - - -
Nip-netts, or Nip-mucks
Nash-a-ways - - Â»
Po-com-tucks, or Poe-om-tucks
Mo-lio-gans - - _
Mo-hick-an-ders, or River Indians
Won-gungs - -
Pod-unks - - ,
Na-was _ _
STATE OF NEW-YORK. 163
Maine, and New Brunswick.
Upper parts of Kennebeck river, Maine.
On Kennebeck river.
On Penobscot river.
In the east and south parts of New Hampshire.
Vermont, and the western part of New Hampshire.
Essex, and part of Middlesex, in Massachusetts.
In the counties of Suffolk, Norfolk, and Middlesex.
In the territory of Plymouth, Mass. Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard,
In Rhode Island, and the neighboring parts of Mass. & Connecticut.
In the counties of Worcester, Hampshire, &.c. in the state of Mass..
At Hadley, Deerfield, &c. oji Connecticut river.
In the northerly parts of Worcester, &c. Mass.
In Berkshire, Mass. and the adjoining parts of New- York, west-
wardly to the Hudson.
On and near Connecticut river, in Connecticut, Â«fcc.
At Hartford, Windsor, Middlesex, Haddam, &c.
In the same parts.
In East Haddam, Chatham, &,c. in Connecticut.
In East Hartford, &,c.
On Connecticut river, in latitude forty-one deg. forty-eight minutes.
164 HISTORY OF THE
Ne-han-ticks, or Na-ticks
Pequods - _ - _ _ _
Len-ni Le-nape, or Wo-a-pa- This people formed a confedera-
nach-ki - - - cy consisting of five tribes
Tribes, or Cantons.
Ma-hi-can-ni-, or Mohiccons - _ _ _ -
Sa-tau-kets and Patch-o-gues
Man-hat-tans - -
Ca-nar-ses - -
Si-ca-tugs - -
Nis-sa-qua-gues, or Nip-a-qua-ugs
Sa-tauk-etts, or Sea-tol-cotts
Shin-na-cocks, or Shin-e-cocks -
Cor-changs, or Cor-chaugs
Patch-o-gues - -
Man-han-setts - -
Mo-hick-and-ers, or River Indians
San-ki-ka-ni - - -
Min-i-sinks - . -
Pomp-tons - -
â€¢This column is taken from the Hon. Silas Wood's sketch of Long Island.â€”
See page 44. As he had access to jhe town records, it is presumable that his
orthography is nearest the original.
STATE OF NEW- YORK. 166
At Lyme, and around the mouth of Connecticut river.
In the counties of New London, Middlesex, and Windham, in Ct.
lathe states of Connecticut, N. Y. N. J. Penn. and Delaware.
In the western parts of Connecticut, and in the countiess of Dutchess,
Putnam, Westchester, New-York, Kings, Queens, and Suffolk, in
At New Haven, and the adjoining parts in Connecticut.
At Salisbury, &.c. do.
At Fairfield, &c. do.
In Dutchess, Putnam, and Westchester, in N. Y. and the contiguous
parts of Connecticut.
Manhattan Island, and the southerly part of Westchester, Kings
county, &c. on Long Island.
In Jamaica, and Newtown, in Queens county. Long Island, &c.
In Huntingdon, Suffolk county, L. I.
Southerly part of Queens, &c.
In Islip, Suffolk county, L.I.
In Smithfield, Suffolk county, L. I.
In Brookhaven, Suffolk county.
In Southampton, do L. I.
In Easthampton, do do.
On the north side of the island in Suffolk county.
In Suffolk county, at the east end of L. I.
Shelter Island, Suffolk county.
In the counties of Ulster, Orange, and Rockland, in N. Y. and Ber-
gen, Morris, &c. in New Jersey.
In the counties of Rockland, Orange, Ulster, &c. in N. Y. also in
Middletown, Weathersfield, Hartford, Windsor, &.c. in Ct.
In the counties of Bergen, Essex, and Middlesex, in New Jersey.
At Minisink, &c. in the counties of Orange and Sullivan, N. Y.
In the western part of Bergen, &c. N. J.
In the county of Sussex, N. J.
HISTORY OF THE
Ga-che-os, or Gach-pas
Mun-si, Min-si, or Munseys
Wa-na-mi, or U-na-mi